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Full text of "Popular music of the olden time : a collection of ancient songs, ballads, and dance tunes, illustrative of the national music of England : with short introductions to the different reigns, and notices of the airs from writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : also a short account of the minstrels"

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'Print Mint illi An^rcaiM roivrntm suavissimi qiiiciem, ac elpintes." 

Thmmirns Tfnrmniiiriix r.At'iiFXfl vi. ni>;rnii, 






Minstrelsy from the Saxon period to the reign of Edward I. .1 

Music of the middle ages, and Music in England to the end of the thirteenth century 11 
English Minstrelsy from 1270 to 1480, and the gradual extinction of the old Minstrels 28 
Introduction to the reigns of Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Queen Mary 48 

Songs and ballads of ditto ..... 5f3 to 97 


Introduction to the reign of Queen Elizabeth .... 98 

Songs and ballads of ditto ..... 110 to 243 

Introduction to the reign of James I, . . . . . 244 

Songs and ballads of the reigns of James I. and Charles I. . . 254 to ,384 


IT is now nearly twenty years since the publication of my collection of 
National English Airs (the first of the kind), and about fourteen since the edition 
was exhausted. In the interval, I found such numerous notices of music and 
ballads in old English books, that nearly every volume supplied some fresh 
illustration of my subject. If " Sternhold and Hopkins" was at hand 
the title-page told that the psalms were penned for the " laying apart of all 
ungodly songs and ballads," and the translation furnished a list of musical 
instruments in use at the time it was made : if Myles Coverdale's Ghostly 
Psalms in the preface he alludes to the ballads of our courtiers, to the 
whistling of our carters and ploughmen, and recommends young women at the 
distaff and spinning-wheel to forsake their " hey, nonny, nonny hey, trolly, lolly, 
and such like fantasies;" thus shewing what were the usual burdens of their 
songs. Even in the twelfth century, Abbot Ailred's, or Ethelred's, reprehension 
of the singers gives so lively a picture of their airs and graces, as to resemble an 
exaggerated description of opera-singing at the present day ; and, if still receding 
in point of date, in the life of St. Aldhelm, or Oldham, we find that, in order to 
ingratiate himself with the lower orders, and induce them to listen to serious 
subjects, he adopted the expedient of dressing himself like a minstrel, and first 
sang to them their popular songs. 

If something was to be gleaned from works of this order, how much more from 
the comedies and other pictures of English life in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ! I resolved, therefore, to defer the re-publication for a few years, arid 
then found the increase of materials so great, that it became easier to re-write than 
to make additions. Hence the change of title to the work. 

Since my former publication, also, I have been favoured with access to the 
ballads collected by Pepys, the well-known diarist ; and the nearly equally cele- 
brated " Roxburghe Collection" (formed by Robert, Earl of Oxford, and increased 
by subsequent possessors) has been added to the library of the British Museum. 
These and other advantages, such as the permission to examine and make extracts 
from the registers of the Stationers' Company (through the liberality of the 
governing body) , have induced me to attempt a chronological arrangement of the 
airs. Such an arrangement is necessarily imperfect, on account of the impossi- 
bility of tracing the exact dates of tunes by unknown authors ; but in every case 
the reader has before him the evidence upon which the classification has been 


It might be supposed that the registers of the Company of Stationers would 
furnish a complete list of ballads and ballad-printers, but, having seen all the 
entries from 1577 to 1799, I should say that not more than one out of every 
hundred ballads was registered. The names of some of the printers are not to 
be found in the registers. 

It appears from an entry referring to the " white book" of the Company 
(which is not now existing), that seven hundred and ninety-six ballads were left 
in the council-chamber of the Company at the end of the year 1560, to be handed 
over to the new Wardens, and at the same time but forty-four books. 

Webbe, in a Discourse of English Poetrie, printed in 1586, speaks of " the 
un-countable rabble of ryming ballet-makers and compylers of senseless sonnets," 
and adds, " there is not anie tune or stroke which may be sung or plaide on 
instruments, which hath not some poetical ditties framed according to the numbers 
thereof : some to Rogero, some to Trenchmore, to Downright Squire, to galliardes, 
to pavines, to jygges, to brawles, to all manner of tunes ; which every fidler knows 
better than myself, and therefore I will let them passe." Here the class of music 
is named with which old English ditties were usually coupled dance and ballad 
tunes. The great musicians of Elizabeth's reign did not often compose airs of 
the short and rhythmical character required for ballads. These were chiefly the 
productions of older musicians, or of those of lower grade, and some of ordinary 
fiddlers and pipers. The Frog Galliard is the only instance I know of a popular 
ballad- tune to be traced to "a celebrated composer of the latter half of the sixteenth 
century. The scholastic music then in vogue was of a wholly different character. 
Point and counterpoint, fugue and the ingenious working of parts, were the great 
objects of study, and rhythmical melody was but lightly esteemed. 

In the reigns of James I. and Charles L, we find a few " new court tunes" 
employed for ballads, but it was not until Charles II. ascended the throne that 
composers of high repute commenced, or re-commenced, the writing of simple 
airs, and then but sparingly. Matthew Locke's " The delights of the bottle" is 
perhaps the first song composed for the stage, that supplied a tune to ballads. 

My former publication contained two hundred and forty-five airs ; the present 
number exceeds four hundred. Of these, two hundred are contained in the first 
volume, which extends no further than the reign of Charles I. This portion of 
the work may be considered as a collection ; but the number of airs extant of later 
date is so much larger than of the earlier period, that the second volume can be 
viewed only in the light of a selection. To have made it upon the same scale as the 
first would have occupied at least three volumes instead of one. My endeavour 
has therefore been, to give as much variety of character as possible, but especially 
to include those airs which were popular as ballad-tunes. Some of those contained 
in the old collection have now given place to others of more general interest, but 
more than two hundred are retained. Every air has been re-harmonized, upon a 
simple and consistent plan, the introductions to the various reigns have been 
added, and nearly every line in the book has been re-written. 

I have been at some trouble to trace to its origin the assertion that the English 


have no national music. It is extraordinary that such a report should have 
obtained credence, for England may safely challenge any nation not only to pro- 
duce as much, but also to give the same satisfactory proofs of antiquity. The 
report seems to have gained ground from the unsatisfactory selection of English 
airs in Dr. Crotch's Specimens of various Styles of Music ; but the national music 
in that work was supplied by Malchair, a Spanish violin-player at Oxford, whose 
authority Crotch therein quotes. It is perhaps not generally known that at the 
time of the publication Dr. Crotch was but nineteen years of age. No collection 
of English airs had at that time been made to guide Malchair, and he followed 
the dictum of Dr. Burney in such passages as the following : 

"It is related by Giovanni Battista Donado that the Turks have a limited 
number of tunes, to which the poets of their country have continued to write for 
ages ; and the vocal music of our own country seems long to have been equally 
circumscribed : for, till the last century, it seems as if the number of our secular 
and popular melodies did not greatly exceed that of the Turks." In a note, he 
adds, that the tunes of the Turks were in all twenty-four, which were to depict 
melancholy, joy, or fury, to be mellifluous or amorous. (History, ii. 553.) 

Again, in Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, when Bottom has been 
turned into an ass, and says " I have a reasonable good ear in music ; let me have 
tongs and bones," the stage direction is " Musick tongs, Rural Music." Burney 
inverts the stage direction, and adds " Poker and tongs, marrowbones and cleavers, 
salt-box, hurdy-gurdy, &c., are the old national instruments of our island." 
(iii. 335.) 

Jean Jacques Rousseau published a letter on French music, which he summed 
up by telling his countrymen that " their harmony was abominable ; their airs 
were not airs ; their recitative was not recitative ; that they had no music, and 
could not have any." (Rousseau, Ecrits sur la Mtisique, Paris, edit. 1823, 
p. 312.) Dr. Burney seems to have improved upon this model, for Rousseau did 
not resort to misquotation to prove his case, but Dr. Burney's History is one 
continuous misrepresentation of English music and musicians, only rendered 
plausible by misquotation of every kind. 

The effect of the misquotation is that he has been believed ; and passages as 
absurd as the following have been copied by writers who have relied upon his 
authority : 

" The low state of our regal music in the time of Henry VIII. , 1530, may be 
gathered from the accounts given in Hall's and Hollinshed's Chronicles, of a masque 
at Cardinal Wolsey's palace, Whitehall, where the King was entertained with 
' a concert of drums and fifes.' But this was soft music compared with that of 
his heroic daughter Elizabeth, who, according to Hentzner, used to be regaled 
during dinner ' with twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums; which, together with 
fifes, cornets, and side-drums, made the hall ring for half an hour together.' '' 
(History, iii. 143.) 

There is nothing of the kind in the books Dr. Burney pretends to quote. The 
account of the chroniclers is of Henry the Eighth's landing at Wolsey's palace, 


where, by a preconcerted arrangement, " divers chambers" (short cannon that 
made a loud report) were let off, and he was conducted into the hall with " such 
a noise of drums and flutes as seldom had been heard the like," for the purpose 
of surprising the Cardinal and the masquers. Not a word of the music of the 

As to Queen Elizabeth, Hentzner describes only the military music to give notice 
in the palace that dinner was being carried in. Music then answered the purpose 
of the dinner-bell. He says " the queen dines and sups alone." 

Burney carries his depreciation of English authors systematically throughout 
his work. It might be supposed that he would have allowed an author of so early 
a date as John Cotton, who flourished soon after Guido, to pass unchallenged, but 
he first misrepresents, and then contradicts him. Burney tells us that Cotton 
ascribes the invention of neumae erroneously to Guido (ii. 144). Now Cotton 
speaks of various modes of writing music by the musical signs called neumae, and 
attributes the last only to Guido. It is certain that Burney read no more of the 
treatise than the heading of a chapter (Quid utilitatis afferant neumce a Guidone 
inventce), for he proves by a note upon neumse, that he only half understood what 
they were. To any reader of Cotton's treatise, such misapprehension would have 
been impossible. (See Gerbert's Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musicd, ii. 257.) 

It is not always easy to prove that a writer reviewed works without reading 
them, but I doubt if any musician can now be found who believes that Burney 
had examined " all the works he could find" of Henry Lawes, with the " care 
and candour" that he professes ; while in the case of Morley's Concert- Lessons, 
it is certain that he passed his facetious judgment upon them after scoring only 
a portion of two parts, the work being in six. This is proved by his own manu- 
script (Addit. MSS. 11,587, Brit. Mus.), and there was no perfect copy of the 
work extant at the time. 

When Burney tells us that the Catch Club sang old compositions " better than 
the authors intended" (iii. 123), that " our secular vocal music, during the first 
years of Elizabeth's reign, seems to have been much inferior to that of the Church," 
and has no better proof of it than a book of songs composed by an amateur mu- 
sician, " Thomas Wythorne, Gent.," in 1571 (iii. 119), when he says that, in 
the same reign, " the violin was hardly known to the English in shape or in 
name !" (iii. 143), and that Playford was the fast who published music in the 
seventeenth century, yet commenced in 1653 ! (iii. 417 and 418), he shews not 
only a desire to underrate, but also a deficiency of knowledge, that must weaken 
all confidence in him as an historian. 

In his review of the music in Elizabeth's reign, he tells us that " the art of 
singing, further than was necessary to keep a performer in tune and time, must 
have been unknown . . . solo songs, anthems, and cantatas, being productions of 
later times" (iii. 114). A more strange misconception could scarcely have been 
penned. No songs to the lute ? No ballads ? If so, Miles Coverdale might have 
spared himself the trouble of telling the courtier " not to rejoice in his ballads," 
and Chaucer should have represented at least three persons as serenading the 


carpenter's wife, and not one. As to the art of singing, Dr. Burney has himself 
quoted the description of John of Salisbury, written four hundred years before 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and that is quite enough to refute the opinion above 
expressed ; but, if more be required, the reader will find it here in the long note 
at p. 404. 

There was a proverb, of French origin, current both in Latin and English in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, respecting the manner of singing by dif- 
ferent nations. The Latin version was " Galli cantant, Angli jubilant, Hispani 
plangunt, Germani ulutant, Itali caprizant:" the English was "The French 
sing," or " The French pipe, the English carol [rejoice, or sing merrily], the 
Spaniards wail, the Germans howl, the Italians caper." (The allusion to the 
Italians is rather as to their unsteady holding of notes than to their facility in 
florid singing; caper signifying "a goat.") Burney, without any authority, 
renders it "the English .shout " (iii. 182). Now, although we have no modern 
English verb that is an exact translation of " jubilare," the Italian " giubilare" 
has precisely the same signification ; and Pasqualigo, the Venetian ambassador 
to Henry VIII., describing the singing of the English choristers in the King's 
chapel, says " their voices are really rather divine than human non cantavano 
ma jubilavano," which can be understood only in a highly complimentary sense. 

It is sufficient for my present purpose to say that Dr. Burney's History is 
written throughout in this strain. What with mistake, and what with misrepre- 
sentation, it can but mislead the reader as to English music or musicians ; and 
from the slight search I have made into his early Italian authorities, I doubt 
whether even that portion is very reliable. The public has now forgotten 
the contention between the rival histories of music of Hawkins and Burney, and 
a few words should be placed upon record. Hawkins's entire work was published 
in 1776, and Burney's first volume in the same year, his second in 1782, and his 
third and fourth in 1789. Burney obtained a great reputation by his first volume, 
which is upon the music of the ancients. In that he was assisted by the researches 
of the Rev. Thomas Twining, the translator of Aristotle's Poetics, who relin- 
quished his own projected, and partly- written history, in Burney's favour. 
Hawkins's work is of great original research, and he is a far more reliable 
authority for fact than Burney : still the history is by no means so well digested. 
It is an analysis of book after book and life after life, fitted rather for supplying 
materials to those who will dig them out, than to be read as a whole. Burney's 
is a very agreeably written book, but he made history pleasant by such lively 
sallies as those I have quoted : he took his authorities at second hand, when the 
originals were accessible ; and copied especially from Hawkins, without acknowledg- 
ment, and disguised the plagiarism by altering the language. Many of his appro- 
priations are to be traced by errors which it is impossible that two men reading 
independently could commit. Burney had but one love, the Italian school, and 
he thought the most minute particulars of the Italian opera of his day worthy 
of being chronicled. The madrigal with him was a " many-headed monster" 
(iii. 385) : French music was " displeasing to all ears but those of France," and 



Rousseau's letter upon it " an excellent piece of musical criticism," combining 
" good sense, taste, and reason" (iv. 615) : he dismisses Sebastian Bach in half 
a dozen lines; and, although he devotes much space to Handel's operas, his 
oratorios are often dismissed with the barest record of their existence by a line in 
a note. Israel in Egypt, Ads and G-alatea, &c., are unnoticed. 

The present collection will sufficiently prove that " the number of our secular 
and popular melodies" was not quite as "circumscribed" as Dr. Burney has 
represented ; but, indeed, he had a book in his library which alone gave a com- 
plete refutation to his limited estimate. I have now before me one of the editions 
of The Dancing Master, a collection of Country Dances, published by Playford, 
which was formerly in Burney's possession. It contains more than two hundred 
tunes, the names of which must convince an ordinary reader that at least a con- 
siderable number among them are song and ballad tunes, while a musician will as 
readily perceive many others to be of the same class, from the construction of 
the melody. If a doubt should remain as to the character of the airs in collections 
of this kind, further evidence is by no means wanting. Sir Thomas Elyot, writing 
in 1531, and describing many ancient modes of dancing, says (in The Grovernour), 
" As for the special names [of the dances], they were taken as they be now, either 
of the names of the first inventour, or of the measure and number they do con- 
teine, or of the first words of the ditties which the song comprehendeth, whereoff 
the daunce was made";" and, to approach nearer to the time of the publication in 
question, Charles Butler, in 1636, speaks of " the infinite multitude of ballads 
set to sundry pleasant and delightful tunes by cunning and witty composers, with 
country dances fitted unto them." See his Principles of Musick. 

The eighteen editions of Tlie Dancing Master are of great assistance in the 
chronological arrangement of our popular tunes from 1650 to 1728 ; a for, although 
some airs run through every edition, we may tell by the omission of others, when 
they fell into desuetude, as well as the airs by which their places were supplied. 

The first edition of this collection is entitled " The 
English Dancing Master : or Plaine and easie rules for 
the dancing of Country Dances, with the tune to each 
dance (104 pages of music). Printed by Thomas Harper, 
and are to be sold by John Playford, at his shop in the 
InnerTemple, neere the Church doore." The date is 1651, 
but it was entered at Stationers' Hall on 7th Nov., 1650. 
This edition is on larger paper than any of the subsequent. 

The next is " The Dancing Master with the tune to 

each dance, to be play'd on the treble Violin : the second 
edition, enlarged and corrected from many grosse errors 
which were in the former edition." This was " Printed 
for John Playford," in 1652 (112 pages of music). The 
two next editions, those of 1657 and 1665, each contain 
132 country dances, and are counted by Playford as one 
edition. To both were added "the tunes of the most 
usual French dances, and also other new and pleasant 
English tunes for the treble Violin." That of lt'65 was 
" Printed by W. G., and sold by J. Playford and Z. Wat- 
kins, at their shop in the Temple." It has 88 tunes for 
the viulin at the end. (The tunes for the violin 
were afterwards printed separately as Apollo's Banquet, 
and are not included in any other edition of The 

Dancing Master.) The date of the fourth edition is 
1670 (155 pages of music). Fifth edition, 1675, and 160 
pages of music. (The contents of the sixth edition are 
ascertained to be almost identical with the fifth, by the 
new tunes added to the seventh being marked with ", but 
I have not seen a copy. From advertisements in Play- 
ford's other publications, it appears to have been printed 
in 1680.) The seventh edition bears date 1686 (208 pages), 
but to this "an additional sheet," containing 32 tunes, 
was first added, then "a new additional sheet" of 12 
pages," and lastly "a new addition" of 6 more. The 
eighth edition was "Printed by E.Jones forH. Playford," 
and great changes made in the airs. It has 220 pages, 
date, 1690. The ninth edition, 196 pages, date, 1695. 
" The second part of the Dancing Master," 24 p:iges, 
date, lflt'6. The tenth edition, 215 pages, date, 1698 ; 
also the second t dition of th second part, ending on p. 48 
(irregularly paged), 1698. The eleventh is the first edition 
in the new tied note, 312 pages, date, 1701. The twelfth 
edition goes back to the old note, 354 pages, date, 1703. 
The later editions are well known, but the above are 


Many of our ballad-tunes were not fitted for dancing, and therefore were not 
included in The Dancing Master ; but a considerable number of these is supplied 
by the ballad-operas which were printed after the extraordinary success of The 
Beggars'' Opera in 1728. 

I might name many other books which have contributed their quota, especially 
Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, with its numerous editions from 1699 
to 1720, but all are indicated in the work. I cannot, however, refrain from 
some notice of the numerous foreign publications in which our national airs are 
included. Sometimes they are in the form of country dances, at others, as 
songs, or as tunes for the lute. I have before me three sets of country dances 
printed in Paris during the last century, and as one of these is the " 5 Sme Recueil 
d'Anglaises telle qu'elles se dansent che la Reine," there must have been at least 
four more of that series. Many of my readers may not know that the " Quad- 
rille de Contredanses" in which they join under the name of " a set of Quad- 
rilles," is but our old " Square Country Dance" come back to us again. The 
new designation commenced no longer ago than 1815, just after the war. 

Horace Walpole tells us in his letters, that our country dances were all the rage 
in Italy at the time he wrote, and, as collections were printed at Manheim, Munich, 
in various towns of the Netherlands, and even as far North as Denmark, it is 
clear that they travelled over the greater part of Europe. The Danish collection 
now before me consists of 296 pages, with a volume of nearly equal thickness to 
describe the figures. 

Some of the works printed in Holland during the seventeenth century, which 
contain English airs, have materially assisted in the chronological arrangement. 
Of these, Vallet's Tablature de Luth, entltule Le Secret des Muses, was published 
at Amsterdam in 1615. Bellerophon, of Lust tot Wysheit, in 1620, and other 
editions at later dates. Valerius's Nederlandtsche Gedenck-Clanck, at Haerlem, 
in 1626. Starter's Friesche Lust-Sof, and his Boertigheden, in 1634, and other 
editions without dates. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Rymen, 1647, 1652, and 
without date. Pers's Gresangh der Zeeden, 1662, and without date. Urania, 
1648, and without date. 

It is only necessary to remark upon the chronological arrangement, that, in 
order to ascertain what airs or ballads were popular in any particular reign, the 
reader will have occasion to refer also to those which precede it. Without endless 
repetition, it could not have been otherwise. 

Facsimiles of a few of the manuscripts will be found in the following pages. 

I have now the pleasing duty of returning thanks to those who have assisted 
me in this collection ; and first to Edward F. Rimbault, LL.D., and Mr. G. A. 
Macfarren. Dr. Rimbault has been the largest contributor to my work, and a 
contributor in every form. To him I am indebted for pointing out many airs 
which would have escaped me, and for adding largely to my collection of notices 
of others ; for the loan of rare books ; and for assisting throughout with his ex- 
tensive musical and bibliographical knowledge. To Mr. G. A. Macfarren for 
having volunteered to re-arrange the airs which were to be taken from my former 


collection, as well as to harmonize the new upon a simple and consistent plan 
throughout. In my former work, some had too much harmony, and others even 
too little, or such as was not in accordance with the spirit of the words. The 
musician will best understand the amount of thought required to find character- 
istic harmonies to melodies of irregular construction, and how much a simple air 
will sometimes gain by being well fitted. 

To the Eight Hon. the Earl of Abergavenny I am indebted for the loan of 
" Lady Novell's Virginal Book," a manuscript collection of music for the vir- 
ginals, transcribed in 1591. To the late Lord Braybrooke I owe the means of 
access to Pepys's collection of ballads, which was indispensable for the due 
prosecution of the work. 

To Mr. J. Payne Collier, F.S.A., I am indebted for the loan of a valuable 
manuscript of poetry, transcribed in the reign of James I., containing much of 
still earlier date ; and for free access to his collection of ballads and of rare books : 
to Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury, for copies of several Elizabethan ballads, 
which are to be found only in his unique collection ; and to Mr. David Laing, 
F.S.A. Scot., for the loan of several rare books. 

To Sir Frederick Madden, K.H., Keeper of the Manuscripts in the British 
Museum, I am indebted for much information about manuscripts, readily given, 
and with such uniform courtesy, that it becomes an especial pleasure to 
acknowledge it. 

W. C. 

3, Harley Place (N. W.), 
or 201, Regent Street. 


Plate 1 (facing the title-page). " tSuMEit is ICUMEX IN," from one of the Harleian 
Manuscripts in the British Mnseum, No. 978. It is literally a " six men's song," 
such as is alluded to in the burlesque romance of The Turnament of Tottenham, 
and, being of the middle of the thirteenth century, is perhaps the greatest musical 
curiosity extant. The directions for singing it are in Latin : " Hanc rotam cantare 
possunt quatuor socii. A paucioribus autem quam a tribus aut saltern duobus non 
debet dici, preter eos qui dicunt pedem. Canitur autem sic. Tacentibus ceteris, unus 
inchoat cum hiis qui tenent pedem. Et cum venerit ad primam notam post crucem, 
inchoat alius, et sic de ceteris. Singuli vero repausent ad pausaciones scriptas, et non 
alibi, spacio unius longse notse." [Four companions can sing this Round. It should 
not, however, be sung by less than three, or at least two, besides those who sing the 
burden. It is to be sung thus : One begins with those who sing the burden, the 
others remaining silent ; but when he arrives at the first note after the cross, another 
begins. The rest follow in the same order. Each singer must pause at the written 
pauses for the time of one long note, but not elsewhere.] The directions for singing 
the " Pes," or Burden, are, to the first voice, " Hoc repetit unus quociens opus eat, 
faciens pausacionem in fine" [One voice repeats this as often as necessary, pausing at 
the end] ; and, to the second, " Hoc dicit alius, pausans in medio, et non in fine, sed 
immediate repetens principium." [Another sings this, pausing in the middle, and 
not at the end, but immediately re commencing.] 

The melody of this Round is printed in modern notation at p. 24, and in the pages 
which precede it (21 to 24) the reader will find some account of*lhe manuscript from 
which it is taken. It only remains to add that the composition is in what was called 
" perfect time," and therefore every long note must be treated as dotted, unless it is 
immediately followed by a short note (here of diamond shape) to fill the time of the 
dot. The music is on six lines, and if the lowest line were taken away, the remaining 
would be the five now employed in part-music where the C clef is used on the third 
line for a counter-tenor voice. 

The composition will be seen in score in Hawkins's and Burney's Histories of 
Music. The Round has been recently sung in public, and gave so much satisfaction, 
even to modern hearers, that a repetition was demanded. It is published in a detached 
form for four voices. 

Plate 2. " AH, THE SYGHES THAT COME FRO' MY HEART," from a manuscript of 
the time of Henry VIII., in the British Museum (MSS. Reg., Append., 58). For 
the melody in modern notation, see p. . r >7. 


In transcribing old music without bars, it is necessary to know that the ends of 
phrases and of lines of poetry are commonly expressed by notes of longer duration 
than their relative value. Much of the music in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua is 
wrongly barred, and the rhythm destroyed by the non-observance of this rule. Aa 
one of many instances, see " Tell me, dearest, what is love," taken from a manuscript 
of James the First's time (Mus. Antiq., \. 55). By carrying half the semibreve at 
the end of the second bar into the third, he begins the second line of poetry (" 'Tis 
a lightning from above") on the half-bar instead of at the commencement, and thus 
falsifies the accent of that line and of all that follows. The antiquarian way would have 
been, either to print the semibreve within the bar, or, which is far better, a minim with 
a pause over it. In modernizing the notation, even the pause is unnecessaiy. Webbe 
also bars incorrectly in the Convito Armonico. For instance, in " We be three poor 
mariners," the tune is right the first time, but at the recurrence (on " Shall we go 
dance the Round, the Round, the Round?") he commences on the half-bar, because 
he has given too much time to the word " ease" in the bar immediately preceding. 

Plate 3. " GREEN SLEEVES," a tune mentioned by Shakespeare, from " William 
Ballet's Lute Book," described in note b at p. 86. This is the version I have printed 
at p. 230, but an exact translation of the copy will be found in my " National English 
Airs," i. 118. It is only necessary to remark that, in lute-music of the sixteenth 
century, bars are placed rather to guide the eye than to divide the tune equally. The 
time marked over the lines is the only sure guide for modern barring. 

Plate 4. " SELLENGER'S ROUND," from a manuscript in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
at Cambridge, commonly known as " Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book." See also 
p. 71. 

Dr. Burney speaks of this manuscript first 'as " going under the name of Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginal Book," and afterwards quotes it as if it had really been so. 
I am surprised that he should not have discovered the error, considering that he had it 
long enough in his possession to extract one of the pieces, and to give a full descrip- 
tion of the contents, (iii. 86, et seq.) It is now so generally known by that name, 
that, for brevity's sake, I have employed it throughout the work. Nevertheless, it 
can never have been the property of Queen Elizabeth. It is written throughout in 
one handwriting, and~in that writing are dates of 1603, 1605, and 1612. 

It is a small-sized folio volume, in red morocco binding of the time of James I., 
elaborately tooled and ornamented with fleurs de lis, &c., gilt edges, and the pages 
are numbered to 419, of which 418 are written. 

The manuscript was purchased at the sale of Dr. Pepusch's collection, in 1762, by 
R. Bremner, the music -publisher, at the price of ten guineas, and by him given to 
Lord Fitzwilliam. 

Ward gives an account of Dr. Bull's pieces included in this virginal book, in his 
Lives of the Gresham Professors, foL, 1740, p. 203, but does not say a word of the 
volume having belonged to Queen Elizabeth. We first hear of it in Dr. Pepusch's 
possession, and, as he purchased many of his manuscripts in Holland (especially those 
including Dr. Bull's compositions), it is by no means improbable that this English 
manuscript may also have been obtained there. I am led to the conjecture by finding 
the only composer's name invariably abbreviated is that of " Tregian." At the com- 
mencement of Verstegan's Restitution of decayed Intelligence, Antwerp, 1605, is a 


" sonnet concerning this work," signed " Fr. Tregian," shewing the connection of 
the family with Holland, and in the virginal book one piece (No. 105, p. 196) has 
only three letters of the author's name, " Fre." No. 60, p. Ill, is " Treg. Ground ;" 
No. 80, p. 152, is " Pavana dolorosa, Treg. ;" but No. 213, p. 315, is " Pavana 
Chromatica, Mrs. Katherin Tregian's Paven, by William Tisdall." In the margin of 
p. 312, is written, in a later hand, " E. Rysd silas." 

English music was so much in request in Holland in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century, that this collection of two hundred and ninety-six pieces of virginal 
music may, not improbably, have been made for, or by, an English resident there, 
and possibly designed as a present. 

Plate 5. " THE HUNT'S UP," from Musick's Delight on the Cithren, 1666, and 
" PARTHENIA," from a flageolet book, printed in 1682. 

These are only given as specimens of musical notation. The curious will find exact 
translations in National English Airs, i. 118. 


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Music and POETRY are, in every country, so closely connected, during the 
infancy of their cultivation, that it is scarcely possible to speak of the one without 
the other. The industry and learning that have been devoted to the subject of 
English Minstrelsy, and more especially in relation to its Poetry, by Percy, 
Warton, and Ritson, have left an almost exhausted field to their successors. 
But, while endeavouring to combine in a compressed form the various curious 
and interesting notices that have been collected by their researches, or which 
the labours of more recent writers have placed within my reach, I hope I may 
not prove altogether unsuccessful in my endeavour to throw a few additional rays 
of light upon the subject, when contemplated, chiefly, in a musical point of view. 

" The Minstrels," says Percy, " were the successors of the ancient Bards, who 
under different names were admired and revered, from the earliest ages, among 
the people of Gaul, Britain, Ireland, and the North ; and indeed by almost all 
the first inhabitants of Europe, whether of Celtic or Gothic race ; but by none 
more than by our own Teutonic ancestors, particularly by all the Danish tribes. 
Among these, they were distinguished by the name of Scalds, a word which 
denotes l smoothers and polishers of language.' The origin of their art was 
attributed to Odin or Wodin, the father of their Gods ; and the professors of it 
were held in the highest estimation. Their skill was considered as something 
divine ; their persons were deemed sacred ; their attendance was solicited by kings ; 

and they were everywhere loaded with honours and rewards As these 

honours were paid to Poetry and Song, from the earliest times, in those countries 
which our Anglo-Saxon ancestors inhabited before their removal into Britain, we 
may reasonably conclude that they would not lay aside all their regard for men 
of this sort, immediately on quitting their German forests. At least, so long as 
they retained their ancient manners and opinions, they .would still hold them in 
high estimation. But as the Saxons, soon after their establishment in this 
island, were converted to Christianity, in proportion as literature prevailed among 
them, this rude admiration would begin to abate, and poetry would no longer be a 


peculiar profession. Thus the poet and the minstrel early with us became two 
persons. Poetry was cultivated by men of letters indiscriminately ; and many of 
the most popular rhymes were composed amidst the leisure and retirement of 
monasteries. But the Minstrels continued a distinct order of men for many ages 
after the Norman conquest; and got their livelihood by singing verses to the 
harp, principally at the houses of the great. There they were still hospitably 
and respectfully received, and retained many of the honours shown to their pre- 
decessors, the bards and scalds. And though, as their art declined, many of 
them only recited the compositions of others, some of them still composed songs 
themselves, and all of them could probably invent a few stanzas on occasion. 
I have no doubt but most of the old heroic ballads .... were composed by this 
order of men." 

The term Minstrel, however, comprehended eventually not merely those who 
sang to the harp or other instrument, romances and ballads, but also such as 
were distinguished by their skill in instrumental music only. Of this abundant 
proof will be -given in the following pages. Warton says, "As literature, the 
certain attendant, as it is the parent, of true religion and civility, gained ground 
among the Saxons, poetry no longer remained a separate science, and the profes- 
sion of bard seems gradually to have declined among them : I mean the bard 
under those appropriated characteristics, and that peculiar appointment, which he 
sustained among the Scandinavian pagans. Yet their natural love of verse and 
music still so strongly predominated, that in the place of their old Scalders, a new 
rank of poets arose, called GLEEMEN, or Harpers. a These probably gave rise to 
the order of English Minstrels, who flourished till the sixteenth century." 

Ritson, in his Dissertation on Romance and Minstrelsy (prefixed to his Col- 
lection of Ancient English Metrical Romances) , denies the resemblance between 
the Scalds and the Minstrels, and attacks Percy with great acrimony for as- 
cribing with too great liberality, the composition of our ancient heroic songs 
and metrical legends, to those by whom they were generally recited. Percy, 
in the earlier editions of his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, said : " The Minstrels 
seem to have been the genuine successors of the ancient Bards, who united the 
arts of poetry and music, and sung verses to the harp, of their own composing" 
which he afterwards modified into " composed by themselves or others" With this 
qualification there appears to be no essential difference between their systems, as 
the following quotation from Ritson will show : " That the different professors of 
minstrelsy were, in ancient times, distinguished by names appropriated to their 
respective pursuits, cannot reasonably be disputed, though it may be difficult to 
prove. The Trouveur, Trouverre, or Rymour, was he who composed romans, 

GLEEMEN, or Harpers. Fabyan, speaking of Blage- strongest internal proof that this profession was extremely 

bride, an ancient British king, famous for his skill in common and popular here before the Norman conquest. 

poetry and music, calls him "aconynge muaicyan, called The Anglo-Saxon harpers and gleemen were the 

of the Britons god of Gleemen." The learned Percy says : immediate successors and imitators of the Scandinavian 

"This word glee is derived from the Anglo-Saxon jli^S Scalds." We have also the authority of Bede for the 

(gligg), musica, music, minstrelsy (Somner). This is, practice of social and domestic singing to the harp, in 

the common radix, whence arises such a variety of terms the Saxon language, upon this island, at the beginning of 

and phrases relating to the minstrel art, as affords the the eighth century. 


conies, fabliaux, chansons and lais ; and those who confined themselves to the 
composition of conies and fabliaux obtained the appellation of contours, conteours, or 
fabliers. The Menetrier, Menestrel, or Minstrel, was he who accompanied his song 
by a musical instrument, both the words and the melody being occasionally fur- 
nished by himself, and occasionally by others." 

Le Grand says : " This profession which misery, libertinism, and the vagabond 
life of this sort of people, have much decried, required, however, a multiplicity of 
attainments, and of talents, which one would, at this day, have some difficulty to 
find reunited, and we have more reason to be astonished at them in those days of 
ignorance ; for besides all the songs, old and new, besides the current anec- 
dotes, the tales and fabliaux, which they piqued themselves on knowing, besides 
the romances of the time which it behoved them to know and to possess in part, they 
could declaim, sing, compose music, play on several instruments, and accompany 
them. Frequently even were they authors, and made themselves the pieces 
they uttered." Ritson's Dissertation, p. clxiii. 

The spirit of chivalry which pervades the early metrical romances could not 
have been imparted to this country by the Romans. As Warton observes, 
" There is no peculiarity which more strongly discriminates the manners of the 
Greeks and Romans from those of modern times, than that small degree of atten- 
tion and respect with which those nations treated the fair sex, and the incon- 
siderable share which they were permitted to take in conversation, and the general 
commerce of life. For the truth of this observation, we need only appeal to the 
classic writings : from which it appears that their women were devoted to a state 
of seclusion and obscurity. One is surprised that barbarians should be greater 
masters of complaisance than the most polished people that ever existed. No 
sooner was the Roman empire overthrown, and the Goths had overpowered 
Europe, than we find the female character assuming an unusual importance and 
authority, and distinguished with new privileges, in all the European govern- 
ments established by the northern conquerors. Even amidst the confusions of 
savage war, and among the almost incredible enormities committed by the Goths 
at their invasion of the empire, they forbore to offer any violence to the women." 

That the people of England have in all ages delighted in secular or social 
music, can be proved by numerous testimonies. The Scalds and Minstrels were 
held in great repute for many ages, and it is but fair to infer that the reverence 
shown to them arose from the love and esteem in which their art was held. The 
Romans, on their first invasion of this island, found three orders of priesthood 
established here from a period long anterior. The first and most influential were 
the Druids ; the second the Bards, whose business it was to celebrate the praises 
of their heroes in verses and songs, which they sang to their harps ; and the third 
were the Eubates, or those who applied themselves to the study of philosophy. 

The Northern annals abound with pompous accounts of the honors conferred 
on music by princes who were themselves proficients in the art ; for music had 
become a regal accomplishment, as we find by all the ancient metrical romances 
and heroic narrations, and to sing to the harp was the necessary accomplishment 


of a perfect prince, or a complete hero. The harp seems to have been, for many 
ages, the favorite instrument of the inhabitants of this island, whether under 
British, Saxon, Danish, or Norman kings. Even so early as the first invasion of 
Britain by the Saxons, we have an incident which records the use of it, and which 
shows that the Minstrel or Bard was well-known among this people ; and that their 
princes themselves could, upon occasion, assume that character. Colgrin, son of that 
Ella who was elected king or leader of the Saxons, in the room of Hengist, was 
shut up in York, and closely besieged by Arthur and his Britons. Baldulph, 
brother of Colgrin, wanted to gain access to him, and to apprize him of a rein- 
forcement which was coming from Germany. He had no other way to accom- 
plish his design, but by assuming the character of a Minstrel. He therefore 
shaved his head and beard, and dressing himself in the habit of that profession, 
took his harp in his hand. In this disguise he walked up and down the trenches 
without suspicion, playing all the while upon his instrument as a harper. By 
little and little he advanced near to the walls of the city, and making himself 
known to the sentinels, was in the night drawn up by a rope. Rapin places the 
incident here related under the year 495. The story of King Alfred entering 
and exploring the Danish camp under the disguise of a Minstrel, is related by 
Ingulph, Henry of Huntingdon, Speed, William of Malmesbury, and almost all 
the best modern historians ; but we are also told that before he was twelve years 
old, he could repeat a variety of Saxon songs, which he had learned from hearing 
them sung by others, who had themselves, perhaps, only acquired them by tradition, 
and that his genius was first roused by this species of erudition. 

Bale asserts that Alfred's knowledge of music was perfect ; and it is evident 
that he was an enthusiast in the art, from his paraphrase of Bede's description of 
the sacred poet Caedmon's embarrassment when the harp was presented to him in 
turn, that he might sing to it, " be hearpan singan ;" Bede's words are simply 
" Surgebat a media csena, et egressus, ad suum domum repedabat :" but Alfred 
adds, that he arose for shame (aras he for sceome) ; implying that it was a dis- 
grace to be found ignorant of the art. 

We may also judge of the Anglo-Saxon love for song, from the course pursued 
by St. Aldhelme, Abbot of Malmesbury, who died in 709. Being desirous of 
instructing his then semi-barbarous countrymen, he was in the daily habit of 
taking his station on the bridges and high roads, as if a Gleeman or Minstrel 
by profession, and of enticing them to listen to him, by intermixing more serious 
subjects with minstrel ballads. Crul. Malms, de Ponttftcalibus. Lib. 5. And 
in the ancient life of St. Dunstan (whose feat of taking the evil one by the nose 
with a pair of red-hot pincers, was so favorite a sign for inns and taverns) he is 
said, not only to have learnt " the vain songs of his nation," but also " to have 
constructed an organ with brass pipes, and filled with air from bellows." 
The Saint was a monk of Glastonbury, and born about 925. 

That the harp was the common musical instrument of the Anglo-Saxons, may 
also be inferred from the word itself, which is not derived from the British, or 
any other Celtic language, but of genuine Gothic original, and current among 


every branch of that people, viz. : Ang. Sax. hearpe and hearpa ; Iceland, harpa 
and haurpa ; Dan. and Belg. harpe ; German, harpffe and harpffa ; Gal. Tiarpe ; 
Span, harpa ; Ital. arpa. The Welsh, or Cambro-Britons, call their harp teylin, 
a word for which no etymon is to be found in their language. In the Erse its 
name is crwth. That it was also the favorite musical instrument of the Britons 
and other Northern nations in the middle ages, is evident from their laws, 
and various passages in their history. By the laws of Wales (Leges Wallicae), a 
harp was one of the three things that were necessary to constitute a gentleman, 
or a freeman ; and none could pretend to that character who had not one of these 
favorite instruments, or could not play upon it. To prevent slaves from pre- 
tending to be gentlemen, it was expressly forbidden to teach, or to permit, them 
to play upon the harp; and none but the king, the king's musicians, and 
gentlemen, were allowed to have harps in their possession. A gentleman's harp 
was not liable to be seized for debt ; because the want of it would have degraded 
him from his rank, and reduced him to that of a slave. 

Alfred entered the Danish camp A.D. 878 ; and about sixty years after, a 
Danish king made use of the same disguise to explore the camp of our king 
Athelstan. With his harp in his hand, and dressed like a minstrel, Aulaff, king 
of the Danes, went among the Saxon tents ; and taking his stand by the king's 
pavilion, began to play, and was immediately admitted. There he entertained 
Athelstan and his lords with his singing and his music, and was at length dis- 
missed with an honorable reward, though his songs might have disclosed the fact 
that he was a Dane. Athelstan was saved from the consequences of this stratagem 
by a soldier, who had observed Aulaff bury the money which had been given him, 
either from some scruple of honor or superstitious feeling. This occasioned 
a discovery. 

Now if the Saxons had not been accustomed to have Minstrels of their own, 
Alfred's assuming so new and unusual a character would have excited suspicions 
among the Danes. On the other hand, if it had not been customary with the 
Saxons to show favor and respect to the Danish Scalds, Aulaff would not have 
ventured himself among them, especially on the eve of a battle. From the 
uniform procedure of both these kings, we may fairly conclude that the same 
mode of entertainment prevailed among both people, and that the Minstrel was 
a privileged character with each. 

May it not be further said, what a devotion to the art of music must have 
existed in those rude times, when the vigilance of war was lulled into sleep and 
false security, and the enmities of two detesting nations were forgotten for 
awhile, in the enjoyment of sweet sounds ! 

That the Gleeman or Minstrel held a stated and continued office in the court 
of our Anglo-Saxon kings, can be proved satisfactorily. We have but to turn to 
the Doomsday Book, and find under the head : Glowecesterscire, fol. 162, col. 1. 
" Berdic, Joculator Regis, habet iii villas," &c. That the word Joculator (at 
this early period) meant Harper or Minstrel, is sufficiently evident from Geoffrey 
of Monmouth, of whom Dr. Percy observes very justly, " that whatever credit is 


due to him as a relator of facts, he is certainly as good authority as any for the 
signification of words." 

The musical instruments principally in use among the Anglo-Saxons, were the 
Harp, the Psaltry, the FrSele, and a sort of Horn called in Saxon " Pip " or 
Pipe. The Harp, however, was the national instrument. In the Anglo-Saxon 
Poem of Beowulf it is repeatedly mentioned. 

" There was the noise of the harp, the clear song of the poet." . . . . " There 
was song and sound altogether, before Healfdene's Chieftains ; the wood of joy 
(harp) was touched, the song was often sung." . . . . " The beast of war (warrior) 
touched the joy of the harp, the wood of pleasure," &c. 

The FftSele (from which our words fiddler and fiddle are derived) was a sort of 
viol, played on by a bow. The Psaltry, or Sawtrie, was strung with wire. a 

The Normans were a colony from Norway and Denmark, where the Scalds 
had arrived at high renown before Rollo's expedition into France. Many 
of those men no doubt accompanied him to the duchy of Normandy, and left 
behind them successors in their art ; so that when his descendant William 
invaded this kingdom, A.D. 1066, he and his followers were sure to favor the 
establishment of the minstrel profession here, rather than suppress it ; indeed, 
we read that at the battle of Hastings, there was in William's army a valiant 
warrior, named Taillefer, distinguished no less for the minstrel arts, than for his 
courage and intrepidity. This man, who performed the office of Herald-minstrel 
(Menestrier huchier) , advanced at the head of the army, and with a loud voice 
animated his countrymen, singing a war-song of Roland, i. e., "Hrolfr or Rollo," 
says our Anglo-Saxon historian, Sharon Turner ; then rushing among the 
thickest of the English, and valiantly fighting, lost his life. 

The success of his ancestor Rollo, was one of the topics of the speech in which 
William addressed his army before the battle, to excite in them the emulation of 
establishing themselves in England as he had done in Normandy. A " Chanson 
de Roland " continued in favor with the French soldiers as late as the battle of 
Poictiers, in the time of their king John, for, upon his reproaching one of them with 
suiging it at a time when there were no Rolands left, he was answered that 
Rolands would still be found if they had a Charlemagne at their head. This was 
in 1356. 

Dr. Burney conjectured that the song, " L'homme armee," which was so popular 
in the fifteenth century, was the Chanson de Roland ; but M. Bottee de Toulmon 
has quoted the first four lines of "L'homme armee" from the Proportionales 
Musices of John Tinctor, and proved it to be only a love-song. He has also 
printed the tune, which he extracted from one of the many Masses in which it 
was used as a subject to make Descant on. b 

Representations of Anglo-Saxon harps and pipes will elegant in shape than those in Sir John Hawkins's His- 

be found in Harl. MSS. 603, which also contains a tory, copied from Kircher's Musurgia. A representation 

psaltry, in shape like the lyre of Apollo, but with more of the Fithele will be found in the Cotton Collection, 

trings, and having a concave back. It agrees with that Tiberius, c. vi., and in Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 

which Augustine describes as carried in the hand of the Both the manuscripts cited are of the tenth century, 

player, which had a shell or concave piece of wood on it, b Annuaire Historique pour 1'annee, 1837. Public par 

that caused the strings to resound, and is much more la Societe de 1'Histoire de France. 


Robert Wace, in the Roman de Rou, says that Taillefer sang with a loud voice 
(chanta a haute voix) the songs of Charlemagne, Roland, &c., and M. de 
Toulmon considers the song of Roland to have been a Chanson de Geste, or 
metrical romance ; and that Taillefer merely declaimed parts of such poems, hold- 
ing up those heroes as models to the assembled soldiers. The Chanson de Roland, 
that was printed in Paris in 1837-8 (edited by M. Michel) from a copy in the 
Bodleian Library, is a metrical romance in praise of the French hero, the Orlando 
Innamorato, and Furioso of Boiardo, Berni, and Ariosto, but apparently of no such 
antiquity,* and it seems improbable that he should have been the subject of the 
Norman minstrel's song. All metrical romances, however, were originally recited 
or chanted with an accompaniment; and Dr. Crotch has printed a tune in the 
third edition of his Specimens of Various Styles of Music, vol. 1. p. 133, as the 
"CHANSON ROLAND sung by the Normans as they advanced to the battle of 
Hastings, 1066," which I give as a curiosity, but without vouching for its 




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Dr. Crotch does not name the source from which ho obtained this air, nor 
have I been successful in tracing it. b The story of Taillefer may, however, be 
altogether apochryphal, as it is not mentioned by any contemporary historian. 

The English, according to Fordun, spent the night preceding the battle in 

It contains, also, about 4,000 verses ; and it seems still 
more improbable that so lengthy a compoiition should 
have been generally and popularly known. It is more 
likely to have originated in the favor with which an earlier 
song was received. 

b The Chanson de Roland that has been printed re- 

cently, edited by Sir Henry Bishop, is a Composition by 
the Marquis de Paulmy, taken from Burney's History of 
Music, vol ii. p. 276, but Dr. Burney does not give it as 
an ancient song or tune. The tune, indeed, is not even 
in imitation of antiquity. 


singing and drinking. " Illam noctem Angli totam in cantibus et potibus 
insomnem duxerunt." c. 13. 

Ingulphus, a contemporary of William the Conqueror, speaks of the popular 
ballads of the English in praise of their heroes ; and William of Malmesbury, 
in the twelfth century, mentions them also. Three parishes in Gloucestershire 
were appropriated by William to the support of his minstrel ; and although his 
Norman followers would incline only to such of their own countrymen as excelled 
in the art, and would listen to no other songs but those composed in their own 
Norman-French, yet as the great mass of the original inhabitants were not ex- 
tirpated, these could only understand their own native Gleemen or Minstrels ; and 
accordingly, they fostered their compatriot Minstrels with a spirit of emulation 
that served to maintain and encourage them and their productions for a consider- 
able period after the invasion. That they continued devoted to their Anglo- 
Saxon tongue, a notwithstanding the opposition of their tyrannical conquerors, is 
sufficiently plain. 

" Of this," says Percy, " we have proof positive in the old metrical romance 
of Horn-Child, which, although from the mention of Sarazens, &c., must have 
been written at least after the first crusade in 1096, yet, from its Anglo-Saxon 
language, or idiom, can scarcely be dated later than within a century after the 
Conquest. This, as appears from its very exordium, was intended to be sung to a 
popular audience, whether it was composed by or for a Gleeman, or Minstrel. 'But 
it carries all the internal marks of being the work of such a composer. It appears 
of genuine English growth ; for, after a careful examination, I cannot discover any 
allusion to French or Norman customs, manners, composition, or phraseology : no 
quotation, ' as the romance sayeth : ' not a name or local reference, which was 
likely to occur to a French rimeur. The proper names are all of northern 
extraction. Child Horn is the son of Allof (i.e., Olaf or Olave), king of Sudenne 
(I suppose Sweden) , by his queen Godylde, or Godylt. Athulf and Fykenyld are 
the names of subjects. Eylmer, or Aylmere, is king of Westnesse (a part of 
Ireland) ; Rymenyld is his daughter ; as Erminyld is of another king, Thurstan ; 
whose sons are Athyld and Beryld. Athelbrus is steward of king Aylmer, &c. &c. 
All these savour only of a northern origin, and the whole piece is exactly such a 
performance as one would expect from a Gleeman or Minstrel of the north of 
England, who had derived his art and his ideas from his Scaldic predecessors 

Although Ritson disputed the English origin of this romance, Sir Frederick 
Madden, in a note to the last edition of Warton's English Poetry, has proved 
Percy to be right, and that the French Romance, Dan Horn (on the same subject 
as Child Horn), is a translation from the English. In the Prologue to another 
Romance, King Atla, it is expressly stated that the stories of Aelof (Allof), 
Tristan, and others, had been translated into French from the English. 

' "The dialect of our Alfred, of the ninth century, in his in a regular and intelligible series, from the dialect now in 

Saxon translation of Boethius and Bede, is more clear use to the ninth century: that is, from pure English to 

and intelligible than the vulgar language, equally ancie.nt, pure Saxon, such as was spoken and written by King 

of any other country in Europe. For I am acquainted Alfred, unmixed with Latin, Welch, or Norman." 

with no other language, which, like our own, can mount Burncy's History of Music, vol. ii. p. 209. 


After the Conquest, the first notice we have relating to the Minstrels is the 
founding of the Priory and Hospital of St. Bartholomew,* in Smithfield, by 
Koyer, or Raherus, the King's Minstrel, in the the third year of King Henry I., 
A.D. 1102. Henry's conduct to a luckless Norman minstrel who fell into his power, 
tells how keenly the minstrel's sarcasms were felt, as well as the ferocity of Henry's 
revenge. " Luke de Barre," said the king, " has never done me homage, but he has 
fought against me. He has composed facetiously indecent songs upon me ; he has 
sung them openly to my prejudice, and often raised the horse-laughs of my malig- 
nant enemies against me." Henry then ordered his eyes to be pulled out. The 
wretched minstrel rushed from his tormentors, and dashed his brains against 
the wall. b 

In the reign of King Henry H., Galfrid or Jeffrey, a harper, received in 1180 
an annuity from the Abbey of Hide, near Winchester ; and as every harper was 
expected to sing, we cannot doubt that this reward was bestowed for his music 
and his songs, which, as Percy says, if they were for the solace of the monks there, 
we may conclude would be in the English language. The more rigid monks, 
however, both here and abroad, were greatly offended at the honours and rewards 
lavished on Minstrels. John of Salisbury, who lived in this reign, thus declaims 
against the extravagant favour shown to them : " For you do not, like the fools of 
this age, pour out rewards to Minstrels (Histriones et Mimos d ) and monsters of 
that sort, for the ransom of your fame, and the enlargement of your name." 
(Epist. 247.) 

" Minstrels and Poets abounded under Henry's patronage : they spread the love 
of poetry and literature among his barons and people, and the influence of the 
royal taste soon became visible in the improved education of the great, in the 
increasing number of the studious, and in the multiplicity of authors, who wrote 
during his reign and the next." Sharon Turner's Hist. Eng. 

In the reign of Richard I. (1189.) minstrelsy flourished with peculiar splendour. 
His romantic temper, and moreover his own proficiency in the art, led him to be 
not only the patron of chivalry, but also of those who celebrated its exploits. 
Some of his poems are still extant. The romantic release of this king from the 
castle of Durrenstein, on the Danube, by the stratagem and fidelity of his Min- 
strel Blondel, is a story so well known, that it is needless to repeat it here. 6 

Another circumstance which proves how easily Minstrels could always gam 
admittance even into enemies' camps and prisons, occurred in this reign. The 
young heiress of D'Evreux, Earl of Salisbury, " was carried abroad, and secreted 

Vide the Monasticon, torn. ii. pp. 166 67, fora curious Lord Howard's agreement with William Wastell, Harper 

history of this priory and its founder. Also Slotve's Sur- of London, to teach a boy named Colet" to harp and to sing." 

vey. In the Pleasaunt History of Thomas of Reading, 4to. d Histrio, Mimus, Joculator, and Ministrallus, are all 

1662, he is likewise mentioned. His monument, in good nearly equivalent terms for Minstrels in Mediaeval Latin, 

preservation, may yet he seen in the parish church of " Incepit more Histrionico, fabulas dicere, et plerumque 

St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, London. cantare." " Super quo Histriones cantabant, sicut modo 

b Quoted from Ordericus Vitalis. Hist. Eccles. in Sharon cantatur de Rolando et Oliverio." " Dat sex Mimis 

Turner's Hist. England. Domini Clynton, cantantibus, citharitantibus, luden- 

c So in Horn-Child, K. Allof orders his steward, tibus," &c. 4 s. Geoffrey of Monmouth uses Joculator as 

Althebrus to "teche him of harpe and song." And equivalent to Citharista, in one place, and to Cantor in 

Chaucer, in his description of the Limitour or Mendicant another. See Notes to Percy's Essay. 

Friar, speaks of harping as inseparable from singing" in e The best authority for this story, which has frequently 

his harping, when that he had sung." Also in 1481, see been doubted, is the Chronique de Rains, written in the 


by her French relations in Normandy. To discover the place of her concealment, 
a knight of the Talbot family spent two years in exploring that province, at first 
under the disguise of a pilgrim ; till having found where she was confined, in 
order to gain admittance he assumed the dress and character of a harper, and 
being a, jocose person, exceedingly skilled in ' the Gests of the Ancients,' so they 
called the romances and stories which were the delight of that age, he was gladly 
received into the family, whence he took an opportunity to carry off the young 
lady, whom he presented to the king ; and he bestowed her on his natural brother, 
William Longespee (son of fair Rosamond) , who became, in her right, Earl of 

In the reign of king John (A.D. 1212) the English Minstrels did good service 
to Ranulph, or Randal, Earl of Chester. He, being beseiged in his Castle of 
Rothelan (or Rhuydland) , sent for help to De Lacy, Constable of Chester, who, 
" making use of the Minstrels of all sorts, then met at Chester fair, by the allure- 
ments of their music, assembled such a vast number of people, who went forth 
under the conduct of a gallant youth, named Dutton (his steward and son-in-law) 
that he intimidated the Welsh, who supposed them to be a regular body of armed 
and disciplined soldiers, so that they instantly raised the siege and retired." 

For this deed of service to Ranulph, both De Lacy and Dutton had, by 
respective charters, patronage and authority over the Minstrels and others, who, 
under the descendants of the latter, enjoyed certain privileges and protection for 
many ages. 

Even so late as the reign of Elizabeth, when this profession had fallen into such 
discredit that it was considered in law a nuisance, the Minstrels under the juris- 
diction of the family of Dutton are expressly excepted out of all acts of Parlia- 
ment made for their suppression ; and have continued to be so excepted ever since.* 

"We have innumerable particulars of the good cheer and great rewards given to 
the Minstrels in many of the convents, which are collected by Warton and others. 
But one instance, quoted from Wood's Hist. Antiq. Ox., vol. i. p. 67, during the reign 
of king Henry HI. (sub. an. 1224), deserves particular mention. Two itinerant 
priests, on the supposition of their being Minstrels, gained admittance. But the 
cellarer, sacrist, and others of the brethren, who had hoped to have been entertained 
by their diverting arts, &c., when they found them to be only two indigent ecclesi- 
astics, and were consequently disappointed of their mirth, beat them, and turned 
them out of the monastery." 

In the same reign (A.D. 1252) we have mention of Master Richard, the king's 
Harper, to whom that monarch gave not only forty shillings and a pipe of wine, 
but also a pipe of wine to Beatrice, his wife. Percy remarks, that the title of 
Magister, or Master, given to this Minstrel, deserves notice, and shows his 
respectable situation. 

"The learned and pious Grosteste, bishop of Lincoln, who died in 1253, is said, 

13th Century. See Wright 'tSiograph.Srit., Anglo Norman newal of the same clauses in the last act on this subject, 

Period, p. 325. passed in the reign of George III. The ceremonies 

" See the statute of Eliz. anno. 39. cap. iv. entitled an attending the exercise of this jurisdiction are described 

Act for punishment of rogues, vagabonds, &c.; also a re- by Dugdale (Bar i.. p. 101), and from him, by Percy. 


in some verses of Robert de Brunne, who flourished about the beginning of the 
next century, to have been very fond of the metre and music of the Minstrels. 
The good prelate had written a poem in the Romanse language, called Manuel 
Peche, the translation of which into English, Robert de Brunne commenced in 
1302, with a design, as he tells us himself, that it should be sung to the harp at 
public entertainments." 

For lewde [unlearned] men I undertoke That talys and rymys wyl blithly here, 
In Englysshe tunge to make thys boke, Yn gamys and festys, and at the ale 
For many ben of swyche manere Love men to listene trotevale. [triviality] 

The following anecdote concerning the love which his author, bishop 
Grosteste, had for music, seems to merit a place here, though related in rude 

I shall yow telle as I have herde " The vertu of the Harpe, thurgh 

Of the bysshope Seynt Eoberde, [through] skylle and rygbt, 

Hys toname [surname] is Grostest " Wyll destrye the fendys [fiends] myght; 

Of Lynkolne, so seyth the gest, " And to the Cros by gode skylle 

He loved moche to here the Harpe, " Is the Harpe ylykened weyl. 

For mannes wytte it makyth sharpe. " Tharefore, gode men, ye shall, [learn] 

Next hys chaumbre, besyde bis study, " Whan ye any Gleman here, 

Hys Harper's chaumbre was fast therby. " To wurschep God at your powere, 

Many tymes, by nightes and dayes, " As Davyd seyth in the Sautere. [Psalter] 

He had solace of notes and layes, " In barpe and tabour and sympban 8 gle 

One askede bym the resun why " Wurschep God : in trumpes and sautre, 

He badde delyte in Mynstralsy ? "In cordes, in organes, and bells ringyng : 

He answerde hym on tbys manere " In all these wurschepe the heveiie 

Why he helde the Harpe so dere : Kyng, &c." 

Before entering on the reign of Edward I., I quit the Minstrels for awhile, to 
endeavour to trace the progress of music up to that period. It will be necessary 
to begin with the old Church Scales, it having been asserted that all national 
music is constructed upon them an assertion that I shall presently endeavour 
to confute ; and by avoiding, as far as possible, all obsolete technical, as well 
as Greek terms, which render the old treatises on Music so troublesome a study, 
I hope to convey such a knowledge of those scales as will answer the purpose of 
such general readers as possess only a slight knowledge of music. 



During the middle ages Music was always ranked, as now, among the seven 
liberal arts, these forming the Trivium and Quadrivium, and studied by all 
those in Europe who aspired at reputation for learning. The Trivium com- 
prised Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic ; the Quadrivium comprehended Music, 

Either part-singing, or the instrument called the symphony. 


Arithmetic, Geometry, and Astronomy. Sharon Turner remarks, that these 
comprised not only all that the Romans knew, cultivated, or taught, but 
embodied " the whole encyclopaedia of ancient knowledge." If we may trust 
the following jargon hexameters, which he quotes as " defining the subjects 
they comprised," Music was treated as an art rather than as a science, and 
a practical knowledge of it was all that was required : 

Gramm. loquitur ; Dia. vera docet ; Rhet. verba colorat 
Mus. canit ; AT. numerat ; Geo. ponderat ; Ast. colit astra. 

But the methods of teaching both the theory and the practice of music were so 
dark, difficult, and tedious, before its notation, measure, and harmonial laws were 
settled, that we cannot wonder when we hear of youth having spent nine or ten 
years in the study of scholastic music, and apparently to very little purpose. 

In the latter part of the fourth century (A.D. 374 to 397), Ambrose, bishop of 
Milan, introduced a model of Church melody, in which he chose four series 
or successions of notes, and called them simply the first, second, third, and fourth 
tones, laying aside, as inapplicable, the Greek names of Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, 
^olic, Ionic, &c. These successions distinguished themselves only by the posi- 
tion of the semitones in the degrees of the scale, and are said to be as follows : 

1st tone, defgabcd 

2nd tone, efgabcde 

3rd tone, fgabcdef 

4th tone, gabcdefg 

These, Pope Gregory the Great (whose pontificate extended from 590 to 604) 
increased to eight. He retained the four above-mentioned of Ambrose, adding to 
them four others, which were produced by transposing those of Ambrose a fourth 
lower ; so that the principal note (or key-note, as it may be called) which for- 
merly appeared as the first in that scale, now appeared in the middle, or strictly 
speaking, as the fourth note of the succession, the four additional scales being 
called the plagal, to distinguish them from the four more ancient, which received 
the name of authentic. 

In this manner their order would of course be disarranged, and, instead of being 
the first, second, third, and fourth tones, they became the first, third, fifth, and 

The following are the eight ecclesiastical tones (or scales) which still exist as such 
in the music of the Romish church, and are called Gregorian, after their founder : 

1st tone Authentic, D e^f g A V^c D 

2d do. Plagal, A b^c D e^f g A 

3d do. Authentic, E^f g a B^c d E 

4th do. Plagal, B~c d E~f g a B 

5th do. Authentic, P g a b~C d e~F 

6th do. Plagal, d e~F g a b~C 

7th do. Authentic, Ga b~c De f G 

8th do. Plagal, -D e~f G a b~c D 

It will be perceived at the first glance, that these Gregorian tones have only 


the intervals of the diatonic scale of C, such as are the white keys of the pianoforte, 
without any sharps or flats. The only allowable accidental note in the Canto 
fermo or plain song of the Romish church is B flat, the date of the introduction 
of which has not been correctly ascertained. a No sharp occurs in genuine chants 
of high antiquity. In some modern books the flat is placed at the clef upon 5, for 
the fifth and sixth modes, but the strict adherents to antiquity do not admit this 
innovation. These tones only differ from one another in the position of the half 
notes or semitones, as from b to c, and from e to/. In the four plagal modes, the 
final or key note remains the same as in the relative authentic ; thus, although in the 
sixth mode we have the notes of the scale of C, we have not in reality the key of 
C, for the fundamental or key note is/; and although the first and eighth tones 
contain exactly the same notes and in the same position, the fundamental note of 
the first is d, and of the eighth g. There is no other difference than that the 
melodies in the four authentic or principal modes are generally (and should 
strictly speaking be) confined within the compass of the eight notes above the key 
note, while the four plagal go down to a fourth below the key note, and only 
extend to a fifth above it. 

No scale or key of the eight ecclesiastical modes is to us complete. The first 
and second of these modes being regarded, according to the modern rules of 
modulation, as in the key of D minor, want a flat upon b ; the third and fourth 
modes having their termination in E, want a sharp upon/; the fifth and sixth 
modes being in F, want a flat upon b; and the seventh and eighth, generally 
beginning and ending in G major, want an / sharp. 

The names of Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, &c., have been applied to 
them with equal impropriety (more particularly since Glareanus, who flourished 
in the sixteenth century) ; they bear no more resemblance to the Greek scales than 
to the modern keys above cited. 

Pope Gregory made an important improvement by discarding the thoroughly 
groundless system of the tetrachord, adopted by the ancient Greeks, b and by 
founding in its place that of the octave, the only one which nature indicates. And 
another improvement no less important, in connexion with his system of the 
octave, was the introduction of a most simple nomenclature of the seven sounds of 
the scale, by means of the first seven letters of the alphabet. Burney says that the 
Roman letters were first used as musical characters between the time of Boethius, c 
who died in 526, and St. Gregory ; but Kiese wetter d attributes this improvement 
in notation entirely to Gregory, in whose time the scale consisted only of two 
octaves, the notes of the lower octave being expressed by capital letters, and the 

It was probably derived from the tetrachords of the reference in the divisions of the monochord, not as 

Greek scale, which admitted both b flat and ft natural, but musical notes or characters, 

which it is not necessary to discuss here. d "History of the Modern Music of Western Europe, 

b In the old Greek notation there were 1620 tone charac- from the first century of the Christian era, to the present 

ters, with which Musicians were compelled to burthen day," &c., by R. G. Kiesewetter, translated by Robert 

their memories, and 990 marks actually diiferent from Muller, 8vo., 1848. It is a very clearly and concisely 

each other. written history, and -contains in an appendix within the 

c It appears from Burney, that Boethius used the first compass of a few pages, as much of the Greek music as 

fifteen letters of the alphabet, but only as marks of any modern can require to know. 



higher by small letters. Eventually a third octave was added to the scale, four 
notes of which are attributed to Guido, and one to his pupils ; the two remaining 
notes still later. The highest octave was then expressed by double letters; as, a, 
bb, &c. These three octaves in modern notes would constitute the following scale : 

A B D E F G 

aa bb cc dd ee ff gg 

First octave. 

Second octave 

Third octave. 

This is the alphabetical system of names for the notes which we, in England, 
still retain for every purpose but that of exercising the voice, for which solfaing 
on vowels is preferred. 

Gregory's alphabetical system of notation was, however, only partially adopted. 
Some wrote on lines varying from seven to fifteen in number, placing dots, like 
modern crotchet-heads, upon them, but making no use of the spaces. Others used 
spaces only, and instead of the dots wrote the words themselves in the spaces, dis- 
jointing each syllable to place it in the position the note should occupy. A third 
system was by points, accents, hooks, and strokes, written over the words, and they 
were intended to represent to the singer, by their position, the height of the note, 
and by their upward or downward tendency, the rising or falling of the voice. It 
was, however, scarcely possible for the writer to put down a mark so correctly, 
that the singer could tell exactly which note to take. It might be one or two 
higher or lower. To remedy this, a red line was drawn over, and parallel to the 
words of the text, and the marks were written above and below it. A further 
improvement was the use of two lines, one red and the other yellow, the red for F, 
the yellow for C, as it only left three notes (G, A, and B) to be inserted between 

Such was the notation before the time of Guido, a monk of Arezzo, in Tuscany, 
who flourished about 1020. He extended the number of lines by drawing one 
line under F, and another between F and C, and thus obtained four lines and 
spaces, a number, which in the Rituals of the Romish Church has never been 

The clefs were originally the letters F and C, used as substitutes for those red 
and yellow lines. The Base clef still marks the position of F, and the Tenor 
clef of C, although the forms have been changed. 

Guido, in his Antiphonarium, gives the hymn Ut queant laxis* (from the 

Specimens of this notation, with red and yellow lines, 
will be found in Martini's Storia delta Musica, vol. 1. 
p. 184; in Barney's History, vol. ii. p. 37 ; in Hawkins's 
History, p. 947 (8vo. edition) ; and in Kiesewetter's 
p. 280. Also of other systems mentioned above. 

b Hymn for St. John the Baptist's day, written by 
Paul the Deacon, about 774. 

UT queant laxis 
REsonare flbris, 
MIra gestorum 

FAmuli tuorum : 
SOLve polluti, 
LAbii reatum, 

Sancte Johannes. 

SI was not the settled name for B until nearly the end 
of the seventeenth century; and, although it was proposed 
in 1547, Butler in his Principles of Musick, 1636, gives 
the names of the notes as Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, pha. In 
1673, Gio. Maria Bononcini, father of Handel's pseudorival, 
used Do in place of Ut, but the French still retain Ut. 


initial lines of which the names of the notes, Ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, were taken), in 
old ecclesiastical notation, and in the Chronicle of Tours, under the year 1033, he 
is mentioned as the first who applied those names to the notes. He did not add 
the Greek gamma (our G) at the bottom of the scale,* as was long supposed, 
for Odo, Abbot of Cluny, in Burgundy, had used it as the lowest note, in his 
Enchiridion, a century before. 

To Franco, of Cologne (who, by the testimony of Sigebert, his cotemporary, 
had acquired great reputation for his learning in 1047, and lived at least till 1083, 
when he filled the office of Preceptor of the Cathedral of Liege), is to be ascribed 
the invention of characters for time. b By this he conferred the most important 
benefit on music, for, till then, written melody was entirely subservient to syllabic 
laws, and music in parts must have consisted of simple counterpoint, such, says 
Burney, as is still practised in our parochial psalmody, consisting of note against 
note, or sounds of equal length. 

The first ecclesiastical harmony was called Descant, and by the Italians, Mental 
Counterpoint (Contrappunto alia mente). It consisted of extemporaneous singing 
in fourths, fifths, and octaves, above and below the plain song of the Church ; and 
although in its original sense, it implied only singing in two parts, it had made 
considerable advances in the ninth century, towards the end of which we find 
specimens, still existing, of harmony in three and four parts. When Descant was 
reduced to writing, it was called Counterpoint, from punctum contra punctum, 
point against point, or written notes placed one against the other. 

Hubald, Hucbald, or Hugbald, as he is variously named, and who died in 930, 
at nearly ninety years of age, has left us a treatise, called Musica Enchiriadis, 
which has been printed by the Abbe Gerbert, in his Scriptores Ecclesiastici. In 
chapters X. to XIV., De Symphoniis, he says: "There are three kinds of 
symphony (harmony), in the fourth, fifth, and octave, and as the combination of 
some letters and syllables is more pleasing to the ear than others, so is it with 
sounds in music. All mixtures are not equally sweet." In the fifteenth chapter 
he uses a transient second and third, both major and minor ; and in the eighteenth 
he employs four thirds in succession. Burney says : " Hubald's idea that one 
voice might wander at pleasure through the scale, while the other remains fixed, 
shows him to have been a man of genius and enlarged views, who, disregarding 
rules, could penetrate beyond the miserable practice of his time, into our Points 
d'Orgue, Pedale, and multifarious harmony upon a holding note, or single base, 
and suggests the principal, at least, of the boldest modern harmony." It is in 
this last sense of amplifying a point, that we still retain the verb to descant in 
common use. Guido describes the Descant existing in his time, as consisting of 

a To distinguish G on the lowest line of the Base from scale, for the monochord, and placed notes upon lines and 

the G in the fifth space, the former was marked with the spaces ; after whom came Magister Franco, who invented 

Greek p> ar "l hence the word gammut, applied to the the figures, or notes, of the Cantus mensurabilis (qui 

whole scale. invenit in cantu mensuram figurarum). Marchetto da 

b John de Muris, who flourished in 1330, in giving a list Padova, who wrote in 1274, calls Franco the inventor of the 

of anterior musicians, who had merited the title of four first musical characters; and Franchinus Gaffuvius 

inventors, names Guido, who construe ted the gammut, or twice quotes him as the author of the time-table. 


fourths, fifths, and octaves under the plain-song or chant, and of octaves (either 
to the plain song or to this base) above it. He suggests what he terms a smoother 
and more pleasing method of under-singing a plain-song, in admitting, besides the 
fourth and the tone, the major and minor thirds; rejecting the semitone and the 
fifth. " No advances or attempts at variety seem to have been made in counterpoint, 
from the time of Hubald, to that of Guido, a period of more than a hundred 
years ; for with all its faults and crudities, the counterpoint of Hubald is at least 
equal to the best combinations of Guido ;" but the monk, Engelbert, who wrote in 
the latter end of the thirteenth century, tells us that all " regular descant " con- 
sists of the union of fourths, fifths, and octaves, so that these uncouth and bar- 
barous harmonies, in that regular succession which has been since prohibited, 
continued in the Church for four centuries. 

Before the use of lines, there were no characters or signs for more than two 
kinds of notes in the Church ; nor since ecclesiastical chants have been written 
upon four lines and four spaces, have any but the square and lozenge characters, 
commonly called Gregorian notes, been used in Canto fermo : and, although the 
invention of the time-table extended the limits of ingenuity and contrivance to 
the utmost verge of imagination, and became all-important to secular music, 
the Church made no use whatever of this discovery. 

That melody received no great improvement from the monks, need excite 
no wonder, as change and addition were alike forbidden; but not to have 
improved harmony more than they did for many centuries after its use was 
allowed, is a matter of just surprise, especially since the- cultivation of music 
was a necessary part of their profession. 

We have occasional glimpses of secular music through their writings ; for 
instance, Guido, who gives a fair definition of harmony in the sense it is now 
understood (Armenia est diversarum vocum apta coadunatio), says that he 
merely writes for the Church, where the pure Diatonic genus was first used, but 
he was aware of the deficiency as regards other music. " Sunt prceterea et alia 
musicorum genera aliis mensuris aptata." Franco (about 1050) just mentions 
Discantum in Cantilenis Rondellis " Descant to Rounds or Roundelays," but 
no more. 

When Franco writes in four parts, he sometimes gives five lines to each part, 
the five lowest for the Tenor or plain song, the next five for the Medius, five for 
the Triplum Discantus, and the highest for the Quadruplum. Each has a clef 
allotted to it. Although many changes in the form of musical notes have been 
made since his time, the lines and spaces have remained without augmentation or 
diminution, four for the plain song of the Romish Church, and five for secular 

He devotes one chapter to characters for measuring silence, and therein gives 
examples of rests for Longs, Breves, Semibreves, and final pauses. He also 
suggests dots, or points of augmentation. Bars are placed in the musical examples, 
as pauses for the singers to take breath at the end of a sentence, verse, or phrase 
of melody. And this is the only use made of bars in Canto fermo. 


Turning to England, Milton tells us, from the Saxon annals, that in 668, 
Pope Vitalian sent singers into Kent, and in 680, according to the Venerable 
Bede, a Pope Agatho sent John, the Prsecentor of St. Peter's at Rome, to 
instruct the monks of Weremouth in the manner of performing the ritual, and he 
opened schools for teaching music in other parts of the kingdom of Northumber- 
land. Bede was also an able musician, and is the reputed author of a short 
musical tract in two parts, de Musica theorica, and de Musica practica, seu men- 
surata ; but Burnej says, although the first may have been written by him, the 
second is manifestly the work of a much more modern author, and he considers it 
to have been produced about the twelfth century, i. e., between the time of Guido 
and the English John de Muris. There must always be a difficulty in identifying 
the works of an author who lived at so remote a period, without the aid of 
contemporary authority, or of allusions to them of an approximate date ; and when 
he has written largely, such difficulties must be proportionably increased. But, 
rejecting both the treatises on music, if he be the author of the Commentary on 
the Psalms, which is included in the collected editions of his works of 1563 
and 1688, sufficient evidence will remain to prove, not only his knowledge of 
music, but of all that constituted the " regular" descant of the church from the 
ninth to the thirteenth century. I select one passage from his Commentary on 
the 52nd Psalm. "As a skilful harper in drawing up the cords of his instrument, 
tunes them to such pitches, that the higher may agree in harmony with the lower, 
some differing by a semitone, a tone, or two tones, others yielding the consonance 
of the fourth, fifth, or octave ; so the omnipotent God, holding all men predestined 
to the harmony of heavenly life in His hand like a well-strung harp, raises some 
to the high pitch of a contemplative life, and lowers others to the gravity of active 
life." And he thus continues : " Giving the consonance of the octave, which 
consists of eight strings ;"...." the consonance of the fifth, consisting of five 
strings ; of the fourth, consisting of four strings, and then of the smaller vocal 
intervals, consisting of two tones, one tone, or a semitone, and of there being 
semitones in the high as well as the low strings." b Our great king, Alfred, 
according to Sir John Spelman, " provided himself of musitians, not common, or 
such as knew but the practick part, but men skilful in the art itself;" and in 866, 
according to the annals of the Church of Winchester, and the testimony of many 

m As a proof of the veneration in which Bede was held, harmoniam praedestinatos in manu sua, quasi citharam 

and the absurd legends relating to him, I quote from quandam, chordis convenientibus ordinatam, habens, 

a song of the fifteenth century: quosdam quidem ad acutum contemplativae vitae sonum 

" When Bede had prechd to the stonys dry intendit, alios ver6 ad activae vitas gravitatem temperando 

The my[gh]t of God made [t]hem to cry remittit." " ut ad alios comparati quasi diapason con- 

Amen . cer tys this no ly[e] ! " sonantiam, quae octo chordis constat, reddant Quos 

autem ad diapente consonantiam, quinque chordis con- 
Songs and Carols. Percy Soc. No. 73, p. 31. 

stantem, eligit, illi possunt intelhgere qui taut a- jam per- 

b " Sicut peritus citharaeda chordas plures tendens in fectionis sunt Diatesseron quatuor chordis constans. 

cithara, temperat eas acumine et gravitate tali, ut .... Per minora vero vocum intervalla quae duos tones 

amerentiam gerentes, aliae vero diatesseron, aliae autem tonium," &c. Bedce Presbyten opera, vol. 8, p. lu/u, 101. 
diapente, vel etiam diapason consonantiam reddentes : ita Basileip, 1563, OR Colonia; Ayrippirxe, vol. 8, p. 908, 
et Deus omnipotens omnes homines ad coelestis vitas fol^-1688. 



ancient writers, he founded a Professorship at Oxford,* for the cultivation of music 
as a science. The first who filled the chair was Friar John, of St. David's, who 
read not only lectures on Music, but also on Logic and Arithmetic. Academical 
honors in the faculty of music have only been traced back to the year 1463, when 
Henry Habington was admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Music, at Cambridge, 
and Thomas Saintwix, Doctor of Music, was made Master of King's College, in 
the same university ; but it is remarkable that music was the only one of the 
seven sciences that conferred degrees upon its students, and England the only 
country in which those degrees were, and are still conferred. 

About 1159, when Thomas a Becket conducted the negociations for the 
marriage of Henry the Second's eldest son with the daughter of Louis VH., and 
went to Paris, as chancellor of the English Monarch, he entered the French towns, 
his retinue being displayed with the most solicitous ostentation, " preceded by two 
hundred and fifty boys on foot, in groups of six, ten, or more together, singing 
English songs, according to the custom of their country." b This singing in groups 
resembled the " turba canentium," of which Giraldus afterwards speaks ; and the 
following passage from John of Salisbury, about 1170, shows at least the delight 
the people had in listening to part-singing, or descant. " The rites of religion 
are now profaned by music ; and it seems as if no other use were made of it than 
to corrupt the mind by wanton modulations, effeminate inflexions, and frittered 
notes and periods, even in the Penetralia, or sanctuary, itself. The senseless 
crowd, delighted with all these vagaries, imagine they hear a concert of sirens, 
in which the performers strive to imitate the notes of nightingales and parrots, 
not those of men, sometimes descending to the bottom of the scale, sometimes 
mounting to the summit ; now softening, and now enforcing the tones, repeating 
passages, mixing in such a manner the grave sounds with the more grave, and 
the acute with the most acute, that the astonished and bewildered ear is unable 
to distinguish one voice from another." 6 It was probably this abuse of descant 
that excited John's opposition to music, and his censures on the minstrels, as 
shown in the passage before quoted. It proves also, that descant in England did 
not then consist merely of singing in two parts, but included the licenses and 
ornaments of florid song. Even singing in canon seems to be comprised in the 
words, " praecinentium et succinentium, canentium et decinentium." 

About 1185, Gerald Barry, or Giraldus Cambrensis, archdeacon, and after- 

The earliest express mention of the University of spectum Domini, in ipsis penetralibus sanctuarii, las- 
Oxford, after the foundation of the schools there by civientis vocis luxu, quaclam ostentatione sui, mulie- 
Alfred, is from the historian Ingulphus, whose youth bribusmodisnotularumarticulorumque caesuris, stupentes 
coincided with the early part of the reign of Edward the animulas emollire nituntur. Cum praecinentium, et suc- 
Confessor. He tells us that, having been born in the City cinentium, canentium, et decinentium, intercinentium, 
of London, he was first sent to school at Westminster, et occinentium, praemolles modulationes audieris, Siren- 
and that from Westminster he proceeded to Oxford, arum concentus credas esse, non hominum et de vocum 
where he studied the Aristotelian Philosophy, and the facilitate miraberis, quibus philomela vel psittacus, aut 
rhetoritical writings of Cicero. si quid sonorius est, modos suos nequeunt coasquare. Ea 

i"'In ingressu Gallicanarum villanim et castrorum, siquidem est, ascendendi descendendique facilitas; ea 

primi veniebant garciones pedites quasi ducenti quin- sectio vel geminatio notularum, eareplicatio articulorum, 

quaginta, gregatim euntes sex vel deni, vel plures simul, singulorumque consolidatio ; sic acuta vel acutissima, 

aliquid lingua sua pro more patriae suas cantantes." gravibus et subgravibus temperantur, ut auribus sui 

Slephanidet, Vita S. Thoma; Cantuar, pp. 20, 21. indicii fere subtrahetur autoritas. Policraticus, sive de 

Musica cultum religionis incestat, quod ante con- Niigis Curialinm, lib. i., c. 6. 


wards bishop, of St. David's, gave the following description of the peculiar man- 
ner of singing of the Welsh, and the inhabitants of the North of England : " The 
Britons do not sing their tunes in unison, like the inhabitants of other countries, 
but in different parts. So that when a company of singers meets to sing, as is 
usual in this country, as many different parts are heard as there are singers, who 
all finally unite in consonance and organic melody, under the softness of B flat. a 
In the Northern parts of Britain, beyond the Humber, and on the borders of 
Yorkshire, the inhabitants make use of a similar kind of symphonious harmony 
in singing, but with only two differences or varieties of tone and voice, the one 
murmuring the under part, the other singing the upper in a manner equally soft 
and pleasing. This they do, not so much by art, as by a habit peculiar to them- 
selves, which long practice has rendered almost natural, and this method of singing 
has taken such deep root among this people, that hardly any melody is accustomed 
to be uttered simply, or otherwise than in many parts by the former, and in two 
parts by the latter. And what is more astonishing, their children, as soon as they 
begin to sing, adopt the same manner. But as not all the English, but only those 
of the North sing in this manner, I believe they had this art at first, like their 
language, from the Danes and Norwegians, who were more frequently accustomed 
to occupy, as well as longer to retain, possession of those parts of the island." b 
Now, allowing a little for the hyperbolic style so common with writers of that age, 
this may fairly be taken as evidence that part-singing was common in Wales, or 
that at least they made descant to their tunes, in the same way that singers did 
to the plain-song or Canto fermo of the Church at the same period ; also that 
singing in two parts was common in the North of England, and that children tried 
to imitate it. Burney and Hawkins think that what Giraldus says of the singing 
of the people of Northumberland, in two parts, is reconcileable to probability, 
because of the schools established there in the time of Bede, but Burney doubts 
his account of the Welsh singing in many parts, and makes this " turba 
canentium" to be of the common people, adding, "we can have no exalted idea 
of the harmony of an untaught crowd." These, however, are his own inferences ; 
Giraldus does not say that the singers were untaught, or that they were of 
the common people. As he is describing what was the custom in his own time, 

by the use 01 D nai in LUC suait: ui r j ami nut m icc*. *&* me* OIL/* ^vio nun*. OJ>^\,I.UIAI.E*\,J.U ^n...^....... . ... 

the modes that were peculiar to the church. B flat was ftui adeb apud utramque invaluit et altas jam radices 

only used in the fifth mode and its plagal. posuit, ut nihil hie simpliciter, ubi multipliciter ut apud 

b In musico modulamine non uniformiter ut alibi, priores, vel saltern dupliciter ut apud sequentes, mellite 

sed multipliciter multisque modis et modulis cantilenas proferri consuaverit. Pueris etiam (qu6d magis admi- 

emittunt, ade6 ut in turba canentium, sicut huic genti randum) et fere infantibus, (cum primum a fletibus in 


not what had taken place a century before, there seems no sufficient ground 
for disbelieving his statement,* and least of all, should they who are of the opinion 
that all musical knowledge was derived from the monasteries, call it in question, 
since, as already shown, part music had then existed in the Church, in the form 
of descant, for three centuries. 

" If, however," says Burney, " incredulity could be vanquished with respect to 
the account which Giraldus Cambrensis gives of the state of music in Wales 
during the twelfth century, it would be a Welsh MS. in the possession of Richard 
Morris, Esq., of the Tower, which contains pieces for the harp, that are in full 
harmony or counterpoint ; they are written in a peculiar notation, and supposed 
to be as old as the year 1100 ; at least, such is the known antiquity of many of 
the songs mentioned in the collection," &c. It is not necessary here to enter 
into the defence of Welsh music, but the specimens Dr. Burney has printed from 
that manuscript, which he describes as in full harmony and counterpoint, are 
really nothing more than the few simple chords which must fall naturally under 
the hand of any one holding the instrument, and such as would form a child's 
first lessons. First the chord, G C E, and then that of B D F, form the entire 
bass of the only two lessons he has translated; and though from B to F is 
a "false fifth," it must be shown that the harper derived his knowledge of* 
the instrument from the Church, before the assertion that it is more modern 
harmony than then in use can have any weight. In England, at least, not 
only the evidence of Giraldus, but all other that I can find, is against such a 
supposition. I have before alluded to the Romance of Horn-Child, (note c, to 
page 9), and here give the passage, to prove that such knowledge was not 
derived from the Church, as well as to show what formed a necessary part of 
education for a knight or warrior. It is from that part of the story where 
Prince Horn appears at the court of the King of Westnesse. 


" The kyng com in to halle, The king came into [the] hall 

Among his knyhtes alle, Among his knights all, 

Forth he clepeth Athelbrus, Forth he calletli Athelbrus, 

His stiward, and him seide thus : His steward, and [to] him said thus 

' Stiward, tac thou here " Steward, take thou here 

My fundling, for to lere My foundling, for to teach 

Of thine mestere Of thy mystery 

Of wode and of ryuere, Of wood and of river, 

Ant toggen o the liarpe And to play on the harp 

With is nayles sharpe. With his nails sharp. 

Ant tech him alle the listes And teach him all thou listest, 

That thou euer wystest, That thou ever knewest, 

Byfore me to keruen, Before me to carve 

And of my coupe to seruen : And my cup to serve : 

Dr. Percy says, "The credit of Giraldus, which hath work, 'Antiquities of Ireland,' by Edward Ledwich, 
been attacked by some partial and bigoted antiquaries, LL.D. Dublin, 1790, 4to., p. 207. et seq." 
the reader will find defended in that learned and curious 


Ant his feren deuyse And devise for his fellows 

With ous other seruise ; With us other service ; 

Horn-Child, thou vnderstond Horn-Child, thou understand 

Tech Mm ofharpe and of song' " Teach him of harp and of song." 

In another part of the poem he is introduced playing on his harp. 

Horn sette him abenche, Horn seated himself on a hench, 

Is harpe he gan clenche His harp he began to clench ; 

He made Rymenild a lay He made Rymenild a lay 

Ant hue seide weylaway, &c. B And he said wellaway ! &c. 

In searching into the early history of the music of any country, the first 
subject of inquiry should be the nature and character, as well as the peculiarities 
of scale, of the musical instruments they possessed. If the musical instruments 
in general use had an imperfect scale, the national music would generally, if not 
universally, have retained the peculiarities of that scale. Hence the characteristics 
of Scottish music, and of some of the tunes of the North of England, which re- 
semble it. In the following collection many can be pointed out as bagpipe tunes, 
such as " Who liveth so merry in all this land, as doth the poor widow that selleth 
the sand," and " By the border's side as I did pass," both of which seem to 
require the accompaniment of the drone, while others, like "-Mall (or Moll) 
Sims," strictly retain the character of harp music. Where, however, the harp 
was in general use, the scale would be more perfect than if some other instru- 
ments were employed, and hence the melodies would exhibit fewer peculiarities, 
unless, indeed, the harp was tuned to some -particular scale, which, judging by 
the passage above quoted from Bede, does not seem to have been the case in 

About 1250 we have the song, Sumer is icumen in, the earliest secular com- 
position, in parts, known to exist in any country. Sir John Hawkins supposed that 
it could not be earlier than the fifteenth century, because John of Dunstable, to 
whom the invention of figurative music has been attributed, died in 1455. But 
Dr. Burney remarks that Dunstable could not have been the inventor of that art, 
concerning which several treatises were written before John was born, and shows 
that mistake to have originated in a passage from Proportionales Musices, by John 
Tinctor, a native of Flanders, and the " most ancient composer and theorist of 
that country, whose name is upon record." It is as follows : " Of which new art, 
as I may call it (counterpoint) , the fountain and source is said to have been among 
the English, of whom Dunstable was the chief '." b " Caput," literally meaning 
" head," had been understood in its secondary sense of " originator or beginner." 

Dr. Burney's opinion with respect to the age of this canon seems to have been 
very unsettled (if indeed he can be said to have formed one at all). He first 
presents it as a specimen of the harmony in our country, " about the fourteenth 

" Warton's History of English Poetry, vol. i., p. 38, fuisse perhibetur." From Proportionate Musices, dedi- 

8vo., 1840. cated to Ferdinand, king of Sicily, Jerusalem, and 

b "Cujus, ut itadicam, novae artis (Contrapunctis), fons Hungary (who reigned from 1458 to 1494), by John 

et origo apud Anglos, quorum caput Dunstaple extitit, Tinctor, Chaplain and Maestro di Capella to that Prince. 


and fifteenth century." On the same page he tells us that the notes of the 
MS. resemble those of Walter Odington's Treatise a (1230), and seem to be of the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century, and he can hardly imagine the canon much 
more modern. Then he is " sometimes inclined to imagine" it to have been 
the production of the Northumbrians, (who, according to Giraldus Cambrensis, 
used a kind of natural symphonious harmony,) but with additional parts, and a 
second drone-base of later times. By " additional parts" I suppose Burney 
to mean adding to the length of the tune, and so continuing the canon. Next 
in reviewing " the most ancient musical tract that has been preserved in our 
vernacular tongue" (by Lyonel Power), he says, this rule (a prohibition of 
taking fifths and octaves in succession) seems to have been so much unknown 
or disregarded by the composer of the canon, " Sumer is icumen in," as to 
excite a suspicion that it is " much more ancient than has been imagined." 
And finally, " It has been already shown that counterpoint, in the Church, 
began by adding parts to plain chant ; and in secular music, by harmonizing 
old tunes, as florid melody did by variations on these tunes. It was long 
before men had the courage to invent new melodies. It is a matter of sur- 
prise that so little plain counterpoint is to be found, and of this little, none 
correct, previous to attempts at imitation, fugue, and canon ; contrivances to which 
there was a very early tendency, in all probability, during times of extemporary 
descant, before there was any such thing as written harmony : for we find in the 
most ancient music in parts that has come down to us, that fugue and canon had 
made considerable progress at the time it was composed. The song, or round, 
' Sumer is icumen in,' is a very early proof of the cultivation of this art." He 
then proceeds to show how, according to Martini, from the constant habit of 
descanting in successive intervals, new melodies would be formed in harmony with 
the original, and whence imitations would naturally arise. 

Ritson, who knew more of the age of manuscripts than of musical history, is 
of opinion that Burney and Hawkins were restrained by fear from giving their 
opinion of its date, and says it may be referred to as early a period (at least) as 
the year 1250. Sir Frederick Madden, b in a note to the last edition of Warton's 
English Poetry, says : " Ritson justly exclaims against the ignorance of those who 
refer the song to the fifteenth century, when the MS. itself is certainly of the 
middle of the thirteenth." Mr. T. Wright, who has devoted his attention 
almost exclusively to editing Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon, and early English 
manuscripts, says : " The latter part of this manuscript, containing, among others, 
the long political song printed in my Pol. Songs, p. 72, was certainly written 
during the interval between the battle of Lewes, in May, 1264, and that of 
Evesham, in the year following, and most probably immediately after the first- 
mentioned event. The earlier part of the MS., which contains the music, was 
evidently written at an earlier period perhaps by twenty or thirty years and 

" The best summary of the state of music in England, complete of all the early treatises, whether written here 

about 1230, is contained in Walter Odington's Treatise, or abroad. 

which is fully described in Burney's History of Music, h Keeper of the Manuscripts in the British Museum, 
vol. ii., p. 155, et seq. Burney considers it the most 



the song with its music must therefore be given to the first half of the thir- 
teenth century, at latest." I have thus entered into detail concerning this song 
(though all the judges of manuscripts, whom I have been enabled to consult, are 
of the same opinion as to its antiquity), because it is not only one of the first 
English songs with or without music, but the first example of counterpoint in six 
parts, as well as of fugue, catch, and canon ; and at least a century, if not two 
hundred years, earlier than any composition of the kind produced out of 

The antiquity of the words has not been denied, the progress of our language 
having been much more studied than our music, but the manuscript deserves much 
more attention from musicians than it has yet received. b It is not in Gregorian 
notation, which might have been a bar to all improvement, but very much resem- 
bles that of Walter Odington, in 1230. All the notes are black. It has neither 
marks for time, the red note, nor the white open note, all of which were in use in 
the following century. 

The chief merit of this song is the airy and pastoral correspondence between 
the words and music, and I believe its superiority to be owing to its having been 
a national song and tune, selected, according to the custom of the time, as a basis 
for harmony, and that it is not entirely a scholastic composition. The fact of its 
having a natural drone bass would tend rather to confirm this view than otherwise. 
The bagpipe, the true parent of the organ, was then in use as a rustic instrument 
throughout Europe. The rote, too, which was in somewhat better estimation, had 
a drone, like the modern hurdy-gurdy, from the turning of its wheel. When the 
canon is sung, the key note may be sustained throughout,, and it will be in accord- 
ance with the rules of modern harmony. But the foot, or burden, as it stands 
in the ancient copy, will produce a very indifferent effect on a modern ear, c from its 
constantly making fifths and octaves with the voices, although such progressions 
were not forbidden by the laws of music in that age. No subject would be more 
natural for a pastoral song than the approach of Summer; and, curiously enough, 
the late Mr. Bunting noted down an Irish song from tradition, the title of 
which he translated " Summer is coming," and the tune begins in the same way. 
That is the air to which Moore adapted the words, " Rich and rare were the gems 
she wore." Having given a fac-simile of " Sumer is icumen in," taken from the 

a The earliest specimen of secular part-music that has 
yet been discovered on the Continent, is an old French 
song, for three voices, the supposed production of a singer 
and poet, by name Adam de la Hale, called Le Boiteux 
d' Arras, who.was in the service of the Comte de Provence. 
The discovery has been recently made and communicated 
by M. Fetis, in his Revue Musicale. " It may be placed 
about the year 1280, if a. dilettante of the discantus of the 
following age has not experimentalised on the melody left 
by De la Hale, as on a tenor or Canto fermo ; since the 
other songs, in similar notation, are not in counterpoint ; 
and the manuscript may be assigned to the fourteenth 
century." It is given in Kiesewetter's History of Music. 

>>The Musical Notation in this MS. ( Harl. 978) is 
throughout the same. Only two forms of note are used 
with occasional ligatures. " Sumeris icumen in" is on the 

back of page 9, and just after it is an Antiphon in praise 
of Thomas a Becket. At page 12 we have the musical 
scale in letters, exactly corresponding with the scale of 
Guido, with the ut, re, mi, fa, &c., but only extending to 
two octaves and four notes, without even the " e e," said 
to have been added by his pupils. At the back of that 
page is an explanation of the intervals set to music, to 
impress them on the memory by singing, and examples of 
the ligatures used in the notation of the manuscript. At 
page 8 is a hymn, " Ave gloriosa mater Salvatoris," with 
Latin and Norman French words, in score in three parts, 
on fifteen red lines undivided, and with three clefs for the 
voices. The remainder of the musical portion of the 
manuscript consists of hymns, &c., in one or two parts, 

c We ought, perhaps, to except the lover of Scotch 



manuscript, and as it may be seen in score in Burney and Hawkins' Histories, 
the tune is here printed, harmonized by Mr. Macfarren, as the first of National 
English Airs. A few obsolete words have been changed, but the original are 
given below. 

SUMER IS ICUMEN IN. About 1250. 

Rather slow, and smoothly. 

i. J f J A J 


Summer is a coming in, Loud-ly sing Cuc-koo ; Groweth seed, and 


Drone Bass. 

HA'^'iiV", 1 .' 



^r II ' " f I P T $- 

bloweth mead and springeth wood a - new. Sing Cue - koo ! Ewe bleat-eth af-ter lamb, Lovv'th 



rj J" J 

'J ^ 


f* J 







-1 * 







* P 

r : 

-I 1 

f f 

TV? tr 


-- r 



af - ter calf 

the cow ; Bullock 

start^eth, Buck to fern go'th, Mer-ry 

sing Cue 


n J 

J >J h , 



J V ' 

J * 


1 J m 






r* -* 

-koo ! Cuckoo ! Cue - koo ! Well singst thou, Cue - koo ! Nor cease thou e - ver now. 

J.4. i-i 1 





r r * 

i ^ 


i t 


Sumer is icumen 3 in, 
Lhude" sing Cuccu, 
Groweth sed, and bloweth med 
And springth the wde nu 
Sing Cuccu ! 

Summer is come in, 

Loud sing Cuckoo ! 
Groweth seed, and bloweth mead 
And spring'th the wood now 
Sing Cuckoo. 

" icumen" come (from the Saxon verb, cumun, to t-Lhude, wde, awe., and calve, are all to be pronounced as 

come); so in Robert of Gloucester, z'paied for paid. of two syllables. 



Awe bleteth after lomb 
Lhouth after calve cu ; 

Bulluc sterteth, bucke verteth 
Murie sing Cuccu, 
Cuccu, Cuccu. 

Wei singes thu Cuccu 

Ne swik thu naver nu. 

Ewe bleateth after lamb, 

Loweth after calf [the] cow. 

Bullock starteth, 3 buck verteth b 
Merry sing, Cuckoo ; 
Cuckoo, Cuckoo ! 

"Well sing'st thou Cuckoo 

Nor cease thou never now. 

In the original, the " Foot," or Burden, is sung, as an under part by two 
voices, to the words, " Sing Cuccu, nu, sing Cuccu," making a rude base to it. 

Two other songs of the thirteenth century on the approach of Summer are 
printed in Reliquiae Antiquse (8vo. Lond. 1841), but without music. The first 
is taken from MSS. Egerton, No. 613, Brit. Mus., and begins thus : 

" Somer is comen, and winter is gon, this day beginniz to longe [lengthen], 
And this foules everichon [birds every one] joy [t]hem wit[h] songe." 

The other from MSS. Digby, No. 86, Oxford, of the Thrush and the Nightingale : 

" Somer is comen with love to toune 

With blostme [blossom], and with brides roune [birds' songs] 
The note [nut] of hasel springeth," &c. 

In the Douce Collection (Bod. Lib., Ox., MS. No. 139), there is an English 
song with music, beginning 

" Foweles in the frith, the fisses in the flod." 

and the MS., which contains it, is of the thirteenth century, but it is only in 
two parts; and in Harl. MSS. No. 1717, is a French or Anglo-Norman song, 
" Parti de Mai," which seems to have been cut from an older manuscript to form 
the cover of a Chronicle of the Dukes of Normandy, written by order of Henry II. 
It is only for one voice, and a sort of hymn, but a tolerable melody. Both these 
may be seen in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua, Vol. 1-. 

Another very early English song, with music, is contained in a manuscript, 
" Liber de Antiquis Legibus," now in the Record Room, Town Clerk's Office, 
Guildhall. It contains a Chronicle of Mayors and Sheriffs of London, and of the 
events that occurred in their times, from the year 1188 to the month of August, 
1274, at which time the manuscript seems to have been completed. It is the 
Song of a Prisoner. The first four lines are more Saxon than modern English: 


Ar ne kuthe ich sorghe non 
Nu ich mot manen min mon 
Karful wel sore ich syche 
Geltles ihc sholye muchele schame 
Help, God, for thin swete name 
Kyng of Hevene riche. 


Ere [this] knew I sorrow none 
Now I must utter my moan 
Full of care well sore I sigh 
Guiltless I suffer much shame 
Help, God, for thy sweet name, 
King of Heaven-Kingdom. 

1 Jumps. 

b Frequents the green fern. 


In the Arundel Collection (No. 292), there is a song in " a handwriting of 
the time of Edward II.," beginning 

" Uncomly in cloystre I coure [cower] ful of care," 

which is on the comparative difficulties of learning secular and church music, 
but, except in the line, " Thou bitest asunder bequarre for bemol " (B natural 
for B flat) , there is no reference to the practice of music. 

Secular music must have made considerable progress before the end of the 
thirteenth century, for even Franco had spoken of a sort of composition called 
" Conductus," in which, instead of merely adding parts to a plain song, the stu- 
dent was first to compose as pretty a tune as he could, and then to make descant 
upon it; a and he further says, that in every other case, some melody already made 
is chosen, which is called the tenor, and governs the descant originating from it : 
but it is different in the Conductus, where the cantus (or melody) and the descant 
(or harmony) are both to be produced. This was evidently applied to secular 
composition, since, about 1250, Odo, Archbishop of Rheims, speaks of Conduct! et 
Motuli as " jocose and scurrilous songs." 

Accidental sharps, discords and their resolutions, and even chromatic counter- 
point, are treated on by Marchetto of Padua (in his Pomerium Artis Musicae 
Mensurabilis) in 1274, and the Dominican Monk, Peter Herp, mentions in 
Chronicle of Frankfort, under the year 1300, that new singers, composers, and 
harmonists had arisen, who used other scales or modes than those of the Church. b 
Pope John XXII. (in his decree given at Avignon in 1322) reproves those who, 
" attending to the new notes and new measures of the disciples of the new school, 
would rather have their ears tickled with semibreves and minims, and such frivolous 
inventions, than hear the ancient ecclesiastical chant." White minims, with tails, 
to distinguish them from semibreves, seem first to have been used by John de 
Muris, about 1330, retaining the lozenge- shaped head to the note. He also used 
signs to distinguish triple from common time. These points should be borne in 
mind in judging of the age of manuscripts. 

It will be observed that " Sumer is icumen in" is not within the compass of 
any Church scale. It extends over the octave of F, and ends by descending to the 
seventh below the key note for the close, which, indeed, is one of the most common 
and characteristic terminations of English airs. The dance tune which follows 
next in order has the same termination, and extends over a still greater compass 
of notes. I shall therefore quit the subject of Church scales, relying on the 
practical refutation which a further examination of the tunes will afford. Burney 
has remarked that at any given period secular music has always been at least a 
century in advance of Church music. And notwithstanding the improvements 
in musical notation made by monks, the Church still adhered to her imperfect 
system, as well as to bad harmony, for centuries after better had become general. 

" In Conductis aliter est operandum, quia qui vult qui inceperunt alios modos assuere." When music de- 

facere Conductum, primum cantum invenire debet pul- viated from the Church scales, it was called by the old 

chriorem quam potest, deinde uti debet illo, ut de tenore, writers generally, Mtisica falsa, and by Franchinus, 

faciendo discantum." Musica ficta, seu colorala, from the chromatic semitones 

b " Novi cantores surrexere, et componistcE, et figuristae. used in it. 



Even in the sixteenth century, modulation being still confined to the ecclesiastical 
modes, precluded the use of the most agreeable keys in music. Zarlino, who 
approved of the four modes added by Glareanus, speaks of himself, and a few 
others, having composed in the eleventh mode, or key of C natural (which was not 
one of the original eight), to which they were led by the vulgar musicians of the 
streets and villages, who generally accompanied rustic dances Avith tunes in this 
key, and which was then called, II modo lascivo The wanton key. I suppose it 
acquired this name, because, like the " sweet Lydian measure" of old, the in- 
terval from the seventh to the octave is only a semitone. 


About 1300. 

The above dance tune is taken from the Musica Antiqua by John Stafford 
Smith. lie transcribed it from a manuscript then in the possession of Francis 
Douce, Esq. (who bequeathed the whole of his manuscripts to the Bodleian 
Library), and calls' it, " a dance tune of the reign of Edward II. , or earlier." 
The notation of the MS. is the same as in that which contains Sumer is icumcn in, 


and I do not think it can be dated later than 1300. Dr. Crotch remarks : 
" The abundance of appoggiaturas in so ancient a melody, and the number of bars 
in the phrases, four in one and five in another nine in each part, are its most 
striking peculiarities. It is formed on an excellent design, similar to that of 
several fine airs of different nations. It consists of three parts, resembling each 
other excepting in the commencement of their phrases, in which they tower above 
each other with increasing energy, and is altogether a curious and very favorable 
specimen of the state of music at this very early period." 

The omission of the eighth bar in each phrase would make it strictly in modern 




Edward the First, according to the Chronicle of Walter Hemmingford, about the 
year 1271, a short time before he ascended the throne, took his harper with him 
to the Holy Land, who must have been a close and constant attendant on his 
master, for when Edward was wounded at Ptolemais, the harper (Citharaeda 
suus), hearing the struggle, rushed into the royal apartment, and, striking the 
assassin on the head with a tripod or trestle, beat out his brains. 

" That Edward ordered a massacre of the Welsh bards," says Sharon Turner, 
" seems rather a vindictive tradition of an irritated nation than an historical fact. 
The destruction of the independent sovereignties of Wales abolished the patronage 
of the bards, and in the cessation of internal warfare, and of external ravages, 
they lost their favorite subjects, and most familiar imagery. They declined 
because they were no longer encouraged." The Hon. Dames Barrington could 
find no instances of severity against the Welsh in the laws, &c. of this monarch,* 
and that they were not extirpated is proved by the severe law which we find in 
the Statute Book, 4 Henry IV. (1402), c. 27, passed against them during the 
resentment occasioned by the outrages committed under Owen Glendour. In that 
act they are described as Rymours and Ministralx, proving that our ancestors 
could not distinguish between them and our own minstrels. 

In May, 1290, was celebrated the marriage of Queen Eleanor's daughter Joan, 
sumamed of Acre, to the Earl of Gloucester, and in the following July, that of 
Margaret, her fifth daughter, to John, son of the Duke of Brabant. Both cere- 
monies were conducted with much splendour, and a multitude of minstrels flocked 
from all parts to Westminster : to the first came King Grey of England, King 
Caupenny from Scotland, and Poveret, the minstrel of the Mareschal of Champagne. 
The nuptials of Margaret, however, seem to have eclipsed those of her sister. 
Walter de Storton, the king's harper, distributed a hundred pounds, the gift of 

See his observations on the Statutes, 4to. 4th Ed. 


the bridegroom, among 426 minstrels, as well English as others.* In 1291, in the 
accounts of the executors of Queen Eleanor, there is an entry of a payment of 
395., for a cup purchased to be given to one of the king's minstrels. 

The highly valuable roll, preserved among the records in the custody of the 
Queen's Remembrancer, which has been printed for the Roxburghe Club, marks 
the gradations of rank among the minstrels, and the corresponding rewards 
bestowed upon them. It contains the names of those who attended the emir 
plenidre held by King Edward at the Feast of Whitsuntide, 1306, at West- 
minster, and also at the New Temple, London ; because " the royal palace, 
although large, was nevertheless small for the crowd of comers." Edward then 
conferred the honor of knighthood upon his son, Prince Edward, and a great 
number of the young nobility and military tenants of the crown, who were sum- 
moned to receive it, preparatory to the King's expedition to Scotland to avenge 
the murder of John Comyn, and the revolt of the Scotch. 

On this occasion there were six kings of the minstrels, five of whom, viz., 
Le Roy de Champaigne, Le Roy Capenny, Le Roy Boisescue, Le Roy Marchis, 
and Le Roy Robert, received each five marks, or 31. 6s. 8d., the mark being 
13s. M. It is calculated that a shilling in those days was equivalent to fifteen 
shillings of the present time ; according to which computation, they received 5QL 
each. The sixth, Le Roy Druet, received only 2,1. The list of money given to 
minstrels is principally in Latin ; but that of payments made to them being in 
Norman French, it is difficult to distinguish English minstrels from others. Le 
Roy de Champaigne was probably " Poveret, the minstrel of the Mareschal of 
Champagne," of 1290, Le Roy Capenny, " King Caupenny from Scotland," and 
Le Roy Robert, whom we know to have been the English king of the minstrels 
by other payments made to him by the crown (see Anstis' Register of the Order 
of the Garter, vol. ii. p. 303), was probably the " King Grey of England" of 
the former date. Among the names we find, Northfolke, Carletone, Ricard de 
Haleford, Adam de Werintone (Warrington ?) , Adam de Grimmeshawe, Merlin, 
Lambyn Clay, Fairfax, Hanecocke de Blithe, Richard Wheatacre, &c. The 
harpers are generally mentioned only by their Christian names, as Laurence, 
Mathew, Richard, John, Robert, and Geoffrey, but there are also Richard de 
Quitacre, Richard de Leylonde, William de Grimesar, William de Duffelde, John 
de Trenham, &c., as well as Adekyn, harper to the Prince, who was probably 
a Welsh bard. In these lists only the principal minstrels are named, the remain- 
ing sum being divided, by the kings and few others, among the menestraus de la 
commune. Harpers are in the majority where the particular branch of minstrelsy 
is specified. Some minstrels are locally described, as Robert " de Colecestria," 
John " de Salopia," and Robert " de Scardeburghe ;" others are distinguished 
as the harpers of the Bishop of Durham, Abbot of Abyngdon, Earls of Warrenne, 
Gloucester, &c. ; one is Guillaume sans maniere ; another, Reginald le menteur ; 
a third is called Makejoye ; and a fourth, Perle in the eghe. 

" Pages Ixix. and Ixx. Introduction to Manners and Printed for the Roxburghe Club, 1841, and quoted from 
Household Expenses of England in the 13th and 15th Wardrobe Book, 18 Edward I. Rot. Misccll. in Turr. 
centuries, illustrated by original records. 4to. London. Loud. No. 5(3. 



The total sum expended was about 200/., which according to the preceding 
estimate would be equal to about 3,000/. of our money. 

The minstrels seem to have been in many respects upon the same footing as the 
heralds ; and the King of the Heralds, like the King at Arms, was, both here and 
on the Continent, an usual officer in the courts of princes. Heralds seem even to 
have been included with minstrels in the preceding account, for Carletone, who 
occupies a fair position among them, receiving I/, as a payment, and 6s. as a 
gratuity, is in the latter case described as Carleton " Haralde." 

In the reign of Edward H., besides other grants to " King Robert," before 
mentioned, there is one in the sixteenth year of his reign to William de Morlee, 
" The king's minstrel, styled Roy de North" of houses that had belonged to 
John le Boteler, called Roy Brunhaud. So, among heralds, Norroy was usually 
styled Roy d'Armes de North (Anstis. ii. 300) , and the Kings at Arms in general 
were originally called Reges Heraldorum, as these were Reges Minstrallorum. a 
Percy's Essay. 

The proverbially lengthy pedigrees of the Welsh were registered by their bards, 
who were also heralds. b 

In the reign of Edward H., A.D. 1309, at the feast of the installation of Ralph, 
Abbot of St. Augustin's, at Canterbury, seventy shillings was expended on 
minstrels, who accompanied their songs with the harp. Warton, vol. i., p. 89. 

In this reign such extensive privileges were claimed by these men, and by dis- 
solute persons assuming their character, that it became a matter of public griev- 
ance, and a royal decree was issued in 1315 to put an end to it, of which the 
following is an extract : 

" Edward by the grace of God, &c. to sheriffes, &c. greetyng, Forasmuch as... many 
idle persons, under colour of Mynstrelsie, and going in messages, and other faigned 
business, have ben and yet be receaved in other mens houses to meate and drynke, and 
be not therwith contented yf they be not largely consydered with gyftes of the lordes 
of the houses : &c....We wyllyng to restrayne suche outrageous enterprises and idle- 
ness, &c. have ordeyned that to the houses of prelates, earles, and barons, none 

resort to meate and drynke, unlesse he be a Mynstrel, and of these Minstrels that there 
come none except it be three or four MINSTRELS OF HONOUR at the most in one day, 
unlesse he be desired of the lorde of the house. And to the houses of meaner men 

Heralds and minstrels seem to have been on nearly 
the same footing abroad. For instance, Froissart tells us 
" The same day th' Erie of Foix gave to Heraudes and 
Minttrelles the somme of fyve hundred frankes : and 
gave to the Duke of Tourayn's Minstrelles gowns of 
Cloth of Gold, furred with Ermyns, valued at two hun- 
dred franks." Chronicle Ed. 1525, book 3, ch. 31. 

h " The Welshman's pedigree was his title-deed, by 
which he claimed his birthright in the country. Every 
one was obliged to shew his descent through nine gene- 
rations, in order to be acknowledged a free native, and by 
which right he claimed his portion of land in the com- 
munity. Among a people, where surnames were not in 
use, and where the right of property depended on descent, 
an attention to pedigree was indispensable. Hence arose 
the second order of Bards, who were the Arwyddvierdd, or 
Bard-Heralds, whose duty it was to register arms and 
pedigrees, as well as undertake the embassies of state. 

The Arwyddvardd, in early Cambrian history, was an 
officer of national appointment, who, at a later period, 
was succeeded by the Prydydd, or Poet. One of these was 
to attend at the birth, marriage, and death of any man of 
high descent, and to enter the facts in his genealogy. 
The Marwnad, or Elegy, composed at the decease of such 
a person, was required to contain truly and at length his 
genealogy and descent ; and to commemorate the survivor, 
wife or husband, with his or her descent and progeny. 
The particulars were registered in the books of the 
Arwyddvardd, and a true copy therefrom delivered to the 
heir, to be placed among the authentic documents of the 
family. The bard's fee, or recompense, was a stipend 
out of every plough land in the district ; and he made a 
triennial Bardic circuit to correct and arrange genealogical 
entries." Extracted from Meyrick's Introduction to his 
edition of Lewit Dunn's Heraldic Visitations of Wales 
2 volt. 4lo. Llandovery. 1846. 


that none come unlesse he be desired, and that such as shall come so, holde themselves 
contented with meate and drynke, and with such curtesie as the maister of the house 
wyl shewe unto them of his owne good wyll, without their askyng of any thyng. 
And yf- any one do agaynst this Ordinaunce, at the firste tyme he to lose his Min- 
strelsie, and at the second tyme to forsweare his craft, and never to be receaved for 
a Minstrel in any house Geven at Langley the vi. day of August, in the ix yere of 
our reigne." Hearne's Append, ad Leland Collect., vol. vi., p. 36. 

Stow, in his Survey of London, in an estimate of the annual expenses of 
the Earl of Lancaster about this time, mentions a large disbursement for the 
liveries of the minstrels. That they received vast quantities of money and costly 
habiliments from the nobles, we learn from many authorities ; and in a poem on 
the times of Edward II., knights are recommended to adhere to their proper 
costume lest they be mistaken for minstrels. 

" Kny[gh]tes schuld weare clothes That no man may knowe 

I-schape in dewe manere, A mynstrel from a knyg[h]t 

As his order wo[u]ld aske, Well ny : 

As wel as schuld a frere [friar] : So is mekenes[s] fait adown 

Now thei beth [are] disgysed, And pride aryse an hye." 

So diverselych i-digt [bedight], Percy Soc., No. 82, p. 23. 

That minstrels were usually known by their dress, is shown by the following 
anecdote, which is related by Stowe : " When Edward IE. this year (1316) 
solemnized the feast of Pentecost, and sat at table in the great hall of West- 
minster, attended by the peers of the realm, a certain woman, dressed in the habit 
of a Minstrel, riding on a great horse, trapped in the Minstrel fashion, entered the 
hall, and going round the several tables, acting the part of a Minstrel, at length 
mounted the steps to the royal table, on which she deposited a letter. Having 
done this, she turned her horse, and, saluting all the company, she departed." 
The subject of this letter was a remonstrance to the king on the favors heaped 
by him on his minions to the neglect of his faithful servants. The door-keepers 
being called, and threatened for admitting such a woman, readily replied, " that 
it never was the custom of the king's palace to deny admission to Minstrels, 
especially on such high solemnities and feast days." 

On the capital of a column in Beverley Minster, is the inscription, " Thys 
pillor made the meynstyrls." Five men are thereon represented, four in short 
coats, reaching to the knee, and one with an overcoat, all having chains round 
their necks and tolerably large purses. The building is assigned to the reign of 
Henry VI., 1422 to 1460, when minstrelsy had greatly declined, and it cannot 
therefore be considered as representing minstrels in the height of their prosperity. 
They are probably only instrumental performers (with the exception, perhaps, of 
the lute player) ; but as one holds a pipe and tabor, used only for rustic dances, 
another a crowd or treble viol, a third what appears to be a bass flute, and a 
fourth either a treble flute or perhaps that kind of hautboy called a wayght, or 
wait, and there is no harper among them I do not suppose any to have been of 
that class called minstrels of honour, who rode on horseback, with their servants 


to attend them, and who could enter freely into a king's palace. Such distinctions 
amono- minstrels are frequently drawn in the old romances. For instance, in the 
romance of Launfel we are told, " They had menstralles of moche honours," and 
also that they had " Fydelers, sytolyrs (citolers), and trompoteres." It is not, 
however, surprising that they should be rich enough to build a column of a 
Minster, considering the excessive devotion to, and encouragement of, music which 
characterised the English in that and the two following centuries. 

No poets of any country make such frequent and enthusiastic mention of min- 
strelsy as the English. There is scarcely an old poem but abounds with the 
praises of music. Adam Davy, or Davie, of Stratford-le-Bow, near London, 
flourished about 1312. In his Life of Alexander, we have several passages like 
this : " Mer[r]y it is in halle to he[a]re the harpe, 

The mynstrall synge, the jogelour carpe" (recite). 
And again, " Mery is the twynlcelyng of the harpour." 

The fondness of even the most illiterate, to hear tales and rhymes, is much 
dwelt on by Robert de Brunne, or Robert Mannyng, " the first of our vernacular 
poets who is at all readable now." All rhymes were then sung with accompani- 
ment, and generally to the harp. So in 1338, when Adam de Orleton, bishop of 
Winchester, visited his Cathedral Priory of St. Swithin, in that city, a minstrel 
named Herbert was introduced, who sang the Song of Colbrond, a Danish Giant, 
and the tale of Queen Emma delivered from the plough-shares, or trial by fire, in 
the hall of the Prior. A similar festival was held in this Priory in 1374, when 
similar gestes or tales were sung. Chaucer's Troilus and Cresseide, though almost 
as long as the ^Eneid, was to be " redde, or else songe," and Warton has printed 
a portion of the Life of St. Swithin from a manuscript, with points and accents 
inserted, both over the words and dividing the line, evidently for the purposes of 
singing or recitation (llistory of English Poetry, vol. i., p. 15. 1840). We have 
probably by far more tunes that are fitted for the recitation of such lengthy stories 
than exist in any other country. 

In the year 1362, an Act of Parliament passed, that " all pleas in the court 
of the king, or of any other lord, shall be pleaded and adjudged in the English 
tongue" (stat. 36 Edw. III., cap. 15) ; and the reason, which is recited in the 
preamble, was, that the French tongue was so unknown in England that the 
parties to the law-suits had no knowledge or understanding of what was said for 
or against them, because the counsel spoke French. This was the era of Chaucer, 
and of the author of Pierce Plowman two poets whose language is as different as 
if they had been born a century apart. Longland, instead of availing himself of the 
rising and rapid improvements of the English language, prefers and adopts the style 
of the Anglo-Saxon poets, even prefering their perpetual alliteration to rhyme. 
His subject a satire on the vices of the age, but particularly on the corruptions 
of the clergy and the absurdities of superstition does not lead him to say much 
of music, but he speaks of ignorance of the art as a just subject of reproach. 
" They kennen [know] no more mynstralcy, ne mtisik, men to gladde, 
Than Mundy the mnller [miller], of multa fecit Dcus /" 


He says, however, of himself, in allusion to the minstrels : 
" Ich can nat tabre, ne trompe, ne telle faire gestes, 
Ne fithelyn, at fe[a]stes, ne liarpen : 
Japen ne jagelyn, ne gentilliche pipe ; 

Nother sailen [leap or dance], ne sautrien, ne singe with the giterne." 
He also describes his Friar as much better acquainted with the " Rimes of 
Robinhode and of Randal, erle of Chester" than with his Paternoster. 

Chaucer, throughout his works, never loses an opportunity of describing or 
alluding to the general use of music, and of bestowing it as an accomplishment 
upon the pilgrims, heroes, and heroines of his several tales or poems, whenever 
propriety admits. We may learn as much from Chaucer of the music of his day, 
and of the estimation in which the art was then held in England, as if a treatise 
had been written on the subject. 

Firstly, from the Canterbury Tales, in his description of the Squire (line 91 
to 96) , he says : 

" Syngynge he mas, mjlowtynge [fluting] al the day ; 
He was as fresh as is the nioneth of May : 
Short was his goune, with sleeves long and wyde ; 
Well cowde he sitte on hors, and faire ryde. 
He cowde songes rvel make and endite, 

Juste (fence) and eke daunce, and wel p[o]urtray and write." 
Of the Nun, a Prioress (line 122 to 126), he says : 
" Ful wel sche sang the servise devyne, 
Entuned in hire nose ful seemyly ; 
And Frensch sche spak ful faire and fetysly [neatly], 
Aftur the schole of Stratford atte Bowe, 
For Frensch of Parys was to hire unknowe" [unknown]. 

The Monk, a jolly fellow, and great sportsman, seems to have had a passion for 
no music but that of hounds, and the bells on his horse's bridle (line 169 to 171) : 
" And whan he rood [rode], men might his bridel heere 
Gyngle in a whistlyng wynd so cleere, 
And eke as lowde as doth the chapel belle." 

Of his Mendicant Friar, whose study was only to please (lines 235 270), 
he says : " And certayn he hadde a mery note ; 

Wel couthe he synge andplaye on a rote [hurdy-gurdy]. . . . 
Somewhat he lipsede [lisped] for wantounesse, 
To make his Englissch swete upon his tunge ; 
And in his harpyng, whan that he had sunge, 
His eyghen [eyes] twynkeled in his he[a]d aright, 
As don the sterres [do the stars] in the frosty night." 
Of the Miller (line 564 to 568), he says : 

" Wel cowde he ste[a]le corn, and tollen thries [take toll thrice] ; 
And yet he had a thombe of gold, 8 parde, 
A whight cote and blewe hood we [a] red he ; 

Tyrwhitt says there is an old proverb-" Every honest nevertheless he was as honest as his brethren. There are 
miller has a thumb of gold." Perhaps it means that many early songs on thievish millers and bakers. 



A laqgepipe corvde he Howe and sorvne [sound], 
And therewithal he brought us out of towne." * 

Of the Pardoner (line 674 to 676) : 

" Ful lorvde he sang, ' Come hider, love, to me.' 
This Sompnour bar[e] to him a stif burdoun, b 
Was never trernpe [trumpet] of half so gfe[a]t a soun" (sound). 
Of the poor scholar, Nicholas (line 3213 to 3219) : 
" And al above ther lay a gay sawtrye [psaltry], 
On which he made, a-nightes, melodye 
So swetely, that al the chambur rang : 
And Angelus ad Virginem he sang. 
And after that he sang The Kynge's note ; 
Ful often blessed was his mery throte." 
Of the Carpenter's Wife (lines 3257 and 8) : 

" But of her song, it was as lowde and yerne [brisk] 
As eny swalwe [swallow] chiteryng on a berne" [barn]. 

Of the Parish Clerk, Absolon (lines 3328 to 3335) : 
" In twenty manners he coude skip and daunce, 
After the schole of Oxenforde tho, 
And with his leggea casten to and fro ; 
Andpleyen songes on a small Rubible c [Rebec], 
Ther-to he sang som tyme a lorvde quynylle ; d 
And as wel coude he pleye on a giterne : 
In al the toun nas [nor was] brewhous ne taverne 
That he ne visited with his solas" [solace]. 

He serenades the Carpenter's Wife, and we have part of his song (lines 3352 64) : 
" The moone at night ful cleer and brighte schoon, 
And Absolon his giterne hath i-take, 
For paramours he seyde he wold awake. 
He syngeth in hys voys gentil and smal 
' Now, deere lady, if thi wille be, 

I pray you that ye wol rewe [have compassion] on me.' 
Full wel acordyng to his gyternyng, 
This carpenter awook, and herde him syng." 

Of the Apprentice in the Cook's Tale, who plays both on the ribible and gitterne : 
" At every brideale wold he synge and hoppe ; 
He loved bet [better] the taverne than the schoppe." 

A curious reason for the use of the Bagpipe in Pil- singing the burden, or bass, to his song in a deep loud 
grimages will be found in State Trials Trial of William voice. Bourdon is the French for Drone; and Foot, 
Thorpe. Henry IV., an. 8, shortly after Chaucer's death. Under-iong, and Burden mean the same thing, although 
" I say to thee that it is right well done, that Pilgremys Burden was afterwards used in the sense of Ditty, or 
have with them both Syngers, and also Pipers, that whan any line often recurring in a song, as will be seen here- 
one of them, that goeth bar[e]fo[o]te, striketh his too upon after. 

a stone, and hurteth hym sore, and maketh hym to blede; c Ribible (the diminutive of Ribibe or Rebec) is a small 

it is well done that he or his fel[l]ow begyn than a Songe, fiddle with three strings. 

or else take out of his bosome a Baggepype for to drive d To sing a " quinible" means to descant by singing 

away with soche myrthe the hurte of his felow." fifths on a plain-song, and to sing a " quatrible" to des- 

b This Sompnour (Sumner or Summoner to the Eccle- cant by fourths. The latter term is used by Cornish in 

siastical Courts, now called Apparitor) supported him by his Treatise between Trowthe and Enformacion. 1528. 


The Wife of Bath says (lines 5481 and 2, and 6039 and 40), that wives were 

chosen " some, for they can synge and daunce, 

And some for gentilesse or daliavmce 

How couthe I daunce to an harpe smale, 
And synge y-wys as eny nightyngale." 

I shall conclude Chaucer's inimitable descriptions of character with that of his 
Oxford Clerk, who was so fond of books and study, that he loved Aristotle better 

" Than robes riche, or fidel or sautrie 

Souning in moral virtue was his speech, 
And gladly would he lerne and gladly teche." 

We learn from the preceding quotations, that country squires in the fourteenth 
century could pass the day in singing, or playing the flute, and that some could 
" Songes well make and indite : " that the most attractive accomplishment in 
a young lady was to be able to sing well, and that it afforded the best chance of 
her obtaining an eligible husband ; also that the cultivation of music extended 
to every class. The Miller, of whose education Pierce Plowman speaks so slight- 
ingly, could play upon the bagpipe ; and the apprentice both on the ribible and 
gittern. The musical instruments that have been named are the harp, psaltry, 
fiddle, bagpipe, flute, trumpet, rote, rebec, and gittern. There remain the lute, 
organ, shalm (or shawm), and citole, the hautboy (or wayte), the horn, and 
shepherd's pipe, and the catalogue will be nearly complete, for the cittern or 
cithren differed chiefly from the gittern, in being strung with wire instead of gut, 
or other material. The sackbut was a bass trumpet with a slide, a like the modern 
trombone ; and the dulcimer differed chiefly from the psaltry in the wires being 
struck, instead of being twitted by a plectrum, or quill, and therefore requiring 
both hands to perform on it. 

In the commencement of the Pardoner's Tale he mentions lutes, harps, and 
gitterns for dancing, as well as singers with harps ; in the Knight's Tale he repre- 
sents Venus with a citole in her right hand, and the organ is alluded to both in 
the History of St. Cecilia, and in the tale of the Cock and the Fox. 
In the House of Fame (Urry's Edit., line 127 to 136), he says : 
" That madin loude Minstralsies 
In Cornmuse [bagpipe] and eke in Shalmies,* 

" As he that plaies upon a Sagbut, by pulling it up the shrillness to have arisen from over-blowing, or else 

and down alters his tones and tunes." Burton's Anatomy the following quotation will appear contradictory : 

of Melancholy, 8vo. Edit, of 1800, p. 379. " A Sliawme maketh a swete sounde, for he tunyihe the 

b A very early drawing of the Shalm, or Shawm, is in btuie, 

one of the illustrations to a copy of Froissart, in the Brit. It mountithe not to hye, but kepithe rule and space. 

Mus. Royal MSS. 18, E. Another in Commenius' Yet yfil be blowne withe to vehement awynde, 

Visible World, translated by Hoole, 1650, (he translates It makithe it to mysgoverne out of his kynde." 

the Latin word gingras, shawm,) from which it is copied This is one of the " proverbis" that were written about 

into Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, edited by Singer, vol. i. the time of Henry VII., on the walls of the Manor House 

p. 114., Ed. 1825. The modern clarionet is an improve- at Leckingfield, near Beverley, Yorkshire, anciently be- 

ment upon the shawm, which was played with a reed, longing to the Percys, Earls of Northumberland, but now 

like the wayte, or hautboy, but being a bass instrument, destroyed. There were many others relating to music, 

with about the compass of an octave, had probably more and musical instruments (harp, lute, recorder,- claricorde, 

the tone of a bassoon. It was used on occasions of state. clarysymballis, virgynalls, clarion, organ, singing, and 

"What stately music have you? You have shawms? musical notation,) and the inscribing them on the walls 

Ralph plays a stately part, and he must needs have adds another to the numberless proofs of the estimation 

shawms." Knight of the Burning Pestle. Drayton speaks in which the art was held. A manuscript copy of them 

of it as shrill-toned : " E'en from the shrillest shawm, unto is preserved in Bib. Reg. 18. D. 11. Brit. Mus. 
the cornamute." Polyolbion, vol. iv., p. 376. I conceive 


And in many an otliir pipe, 
That craftely began to pipe 
Bothe in Douced and eke in Hede* 
That bin at feastes with the brede [bread] : 
And many a Floite and litlyng Home 
And Pipes made of grene come. 
As have these little Herdegroomes 
That kepin Beastes [keep oxen] in the broomes." 

As to the songs of his time, see the Frankeleyne's Tale (line 11,254 to 60) : 
" He was dispeired, nothing dorst he seye 
Sauf [save] in his songes somewhat wolde he wreye [betray] 
His woo, as in a general compleyning ; 
He said he loved, and was beloved nothing. 
Of suche matier made he many Layes, 
Songes, Compleyntes, Roundelets, Virelayes: 
How that he dorste not his sorwe [sorrow] telle, 
But languisheth as doth a fuyr in helle." 
and he speaks elsewhere of Dilees, JRondils, Balades, &c. 

The following passages relate to minstrelsy, and to the manner of playing the 
harp, pointing and performing with the nails, as the Spaniards do now with the 
guitar. The first is from the House of Fame (Urry, line 105 to 112) : 
. . . . " Stoden .... the castell all aboutin 
Of all manir of Minstralis 
And gestours that tellen tales 
Both of wepyng and of game, 
And all that 'longeth unto fame ; 
There herde I playin on an Harpe 
That ysounid bothe well and sharpe" 
and. from Troylus, lib. 2, 1030 : 

" For though that the best harper upon live 

Would on the beste sounid jolly harpe 
That evir was, with all his fingers five 

Touch aie o (one) string, or aie o warble harpe, 
Were his nailes poincted nevir so sharpe 
It shoulde makin every wight to[o] dull 
To heare [h]is Glee, and of his strokes ful." 

Even the musical gamut is mentioned by Chaucer. In the supplementary tale 
he makes the host give " an hid[e]ouse cry in ge-sol-re-ut the haut," and there is 
scarcely a subject connected with the art as practised in his day, that may not be 
illustrated by quotation from his works ; 

" For, gif he have nought sayd hem, leeve [dear] brother, 
In o bo[o]k, he hath seyd hem in another." 

Tyrwh.itt thinks Dovcete an Instrument, and quotes a reed), I infer by " douced" that flutes are intended; the 

Lydgate tone of which, especially the large flute, is extremely soft. 

" Ther were trumpes and trumpetes, I had a collection of English flutes, of which one was 

Lowde shall [m]ys and doucetes." yearly a yard and a half long. All had mouth-pieces like 

but it seems to me only to mean soft pipes in opposition the flageolet, and were blown in the same manner; the 

to loud shalms. By the distinction Chaucer draws, " both tone very pleasing, but less powerful and brilliant than 

in douced and in teed" (the shalm being played on by the modern or "German" flute. 


I shall conclude these numerous extracts with one of the song of nature, from 
the Knighte's Tale, ( line 1493 to 98) : 

tl The busy larke, messager of daye, 
Salueth in hire song the morwe [morning] gray ; 
And fyry Phebus ryseth up so bright, 
That al the orient laugheth of the light, 
And with his stremes dryeth in the greves [groves] 
The silver drops, hongyng on the leeves." 

Having quoted so largely from Chaucer, whose portraiture of character and 
persons has never been excelled, it will be unnecessary to refer to his contem- 
porary, Gower, further than to say that in his Confessio Amantis, Venus greets 
Chaucer as her disciple and poet, who had filled the land in his youth with 
dittees and " songes glade," which he had made for her sake ; and Gower says of 
himself: " And also I have ofte assaide 

Roundel, Balades, and Virelaie 
For her on whom myn hert laie." 

But about the same time, in the Burlesque Romance, The T[o]urnament of 
Tottenham (written in ridicule of chivalry), we find a notice of songs in six parts 
which demands attention. In the last verse : 

" Mekyl mirth was them among ; 
In every corner of the hous 
Was melody delycyons 
For to he[a]re precyus 

Of six menys song." 

It has been supposed that this is an allusion to Sumer is icumen in, which 
requires six performers, but in all probability there were many such songs, 
although but one of so early a date has descended to us. We find in the Statutes 
of New College, Oxford (which was founded about 1380), that William of 
Wykeham ordered his scholars to recreate themselves on festival days with songs 
in the hall, both after dinner and supper ; and as part-music was then in common 
use, it is reasonable to suppose that the founder intended the students thereby to 
combine improvement and recreation, instead of each singing a different song. 

In the fourth year of king Richard II. (1381), John of Gaunt erected at 
Tutbury, in Staffordshire, a Court of Minstrels similar to that annually kept at 
Chester ; and which, like a court-leet, or court-baron, had a legal jurisdiction, 
with full power to receive suit and service from the men of this profession within 
five neighbouring counties, to determine their controversies and enact laws ; also 
to apprehend and arrest such of them as should refuse to appear at the said court, 
annually held on the 16th of August. For this they had a charter, by which 
they were empowered to appoint a King of the Minstrels, with four officers to 
preside over them. They were every year elected with great ceremony ; the 
whole form of which, as observed in 1680, is described by Dr. Plot in his History 
of Staffordshire. That the barbarous diversion of bull-running was no part of the 
original institution, is fully proved by the Rev. Dr. Pegge, in Archaeologia, vol. ii., 
No. xiii., p. 86. The bull-running tune, however, is still popular in Staffordshire. 


Du Fresne in his Glossary (art. Ministrelli) , speaking of the King of the 
Minstrels, says, "His office and power are defined in a French charter of 
Henry IV., king of England, in the Monasticon Anglicanum, vol. i., p. 355;" 
but though I have searched through Dugdale's Monasticon, I find no such 

In 1402, we find the before-mentioned statute against the Welsh bards, 
(4 Henry IV., c. 27). a As they had excited their countrymen to rebellion 
against the English government, it is not to be wondered (says Percy) that the 
Act is conceived in terms of the utmost indignation and contempt against this 
class of men, who .are described as Rymours, Ministralx, which are apparently 
here used as only synonymous terms to express the Welsh bards, with the usual 
exuberance of our Acts of Parliament; for if their Ministralx had been mere 
musicians, they would not have required the vigilance of the English legislature 
to suppress them. It was their songs, exciting their countrymen to insurrection, 
which produced " les diseases et mischiefs en la terre de Gales." 

At the coronation of Henry V., which took place in Westminster Hall (1413), 
we are told by Thomas de Elmham, that "the number of harpers was exceedingly 
great ; and that the sweet strings of their harps soothed the souls of the guests 
by their soft melody." He also speaks of the dulcet sounds of the united 
music of other instruments, in which no discord interrupted the harmony, 
as "inviting the royal banqueters to the full enjoyment of the festival." 
(Vit. et. Gest. Henr. V., c. 12, p. 23.) Minstrelsy seems still to have 
flourished in England, although it had declined so greatly abroad ; the Prove^als 
had ceased writing during the preceding century. When Henry was preparing 
for his great voyage to France in 1415, an express order was given for his 
minstrels to attend him. (Rymer, ix., 255.) Monstrelet speaks of the English 
camp resounding with the national music (170) the day preceding the battle of 
Agincourt, but this must have been before the king " gave the order for silence, 
which was afterwards strictly observed." 

When he entered the City of London in triumph after the battle, the gates and 
streets were hung with tapestry representing the histories of ancient heroes ; and 
boys with pleasing voices were placed in artificial turrets, singing verses in his 
praise. But Henry ordered this part of the pageantry to cease, and commanded 
that for the future no "ditties should be made and sung by Minstrels b or others," 
in praise of the recent victory ; "for that he would whollie have the praise 
and thankes altogether given to God," 

Nevertheless, among many others, a minstrel-piece soon appeared on the 
Seyge of Harflett (Harfleur), and the Battayle of Agyrikaurte, " evidently," says 
Warton, " adapted to the harp," and of which he has printed some portions. 

It runs in these terms : " Item, pour eschuir plusieurs " Hollinshed, quoting from Thomas de Elmham, whose 

diseases et mischiefs qont advenuz devaunt ces heures en words are, " Quod cantus de suo triumpho fieri, seu per 
la terre de Gales par plusieurs Westours Rymours, Citharistas vel alios quoscunque cantari penitus pro- 
Minstralx et autres Vacabondes, ordeignez est, et hibebat." It will be observed that Hollinshed translates 
establiz, que nul Westour, Rymour Minstral, ne Vaca- Citharistas (literally harpers) miristrcls. 
bond soil aucunemeut sustenuz en la terre de Gales pur 
faire kymorthas ou coillage sur la commune poeple 



(Hist. Eng. Poet., vol. ii. p. 257.) Also the following song, which Percy has 
printed in his Reliques of Ancient Poetry, from a M.S. in the Pepysian Library, 
and Stafford Smith, in his Collection of English Songs, 1779 fol., in fac-simile of 
the old notation, as well as in modern score, and with a chorus in three parts to 
the words, " Deo gratias, Anglia, redde pro victoria." The tune is here given 
with the first verse of the words, a for although the original is a regular composi- 
tion in three parts, it serves to shew the state of melody at an early period, and 
the subject is certainly a national one. 




S-\ < 







i^l fr 









C(r 8 i 


r kinj 



jwent fo 



rth to Nor 




idy, Wi 

1* S^'M 1 

th grace and might of 


-- fl i-_g: 

;hi-val-ry, The Go 


- < 





Q wrough 











-J N-H 




i P 









1 P 


: * *-; 

- -i 





^"1 ^ 


- - 

: - 






marv'lously, Where-fore England may call and CI y " De - 

- o gra - ti - 

There are also two well-known ballads on the Battle of Agincourt ; the one 
commencing " A council grave our king did hold ;" the other " As our king lay 
musing in his bed," which will be noticed under later dates ; and a three-men's 
song, which was sung by the tanner and his fellows, to amuse the guests, in 
Hey wood's play, King ^Edward IV., beginning 

" Agincourt ! Agincourt ! know ye not Agincourt ? 
Where the English slew or hurt 
All the French foemen ?" &c. 

Although Henry had forbidden the minstrels to celebrate his victory, the order 
evidently did not proceed from any disregard for the professors of music or of 
song, for at the Feast of Pentecost, which he celebrated in 1416, having the 
Emperor and the Duke of Holland as his guests, he ordered rich gowns for sixteen 
of his minstrels. And having before his death orally granted an annuity of an 

a I do not intend to reprint songs or ballads that are 
contained in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, without 
some particular motive, for that delightful book can be 
purchased in many shapes and at a small cost. As a 
general rule, the versions given by Percy are best suited 

to music, because more metrical than others, although 
they may be less exactly and minutely in accordance 
with old copies, which are often very carelessly printed 
or transcribed. 


hundred shillings to each of his minstrels, the grant was confirmed in the first 
year of his son, Henry VI. (A.D. 1423), and payment ordered out of the ex- 
chequer. Both the biographers of Henry declare his love for music. a Lydgate 
and Occleve, the poets whom he patronized, attest also his love of literature, and 
the encouragement he gave to it. 

John Lydgate, Monk of Bury St. Edmunds, describes the minstrelsy of his 
time less completely, but in nearly the same terms as Chaucer. 

Lydgate was a very voluminous writer. Bitson enumerates 251 of his pieces, 
and the list is far from being complete. Among his minor pieces are many songs 
and ballads, chiefly satirical, such as "On the forked head-dresses of the ladies," 
on " Thievish Millers and Bakers," &c. A selection from these has been recently 
printed by the Percy Society. 

Among the devices at the coronation banquet of Henry VI. (1429), were, in 
the first course, a "sotiltie" (subtlety) of St. Edward and St. Lewis, in coat 
armour, holding between them a figure like King Henry, similarly armed, and 
standing with a ballad under his feet" In the second, a device of the Emperor 
Sigismund and King Henry V., arrayed in mantles of garter, and a figure like 
Henry VI. kneeling before them with a ballad against the Lollards ; b and in the 
third, one of our Lady, sitting with her child in her lap, and holding a crown in 
her hand, St. George and St. Denis kneeling on either side, presenting to her 
King Henry with a ballad in his hand. These subtleties were probably devised 
by the clergy, who strove to smother the odium which, as a body, their vices had 
excited, by turning public attention to the further persecution of the Lollards. d 
In a discourse which was prepared to be delivered at the Convocation of the 
Clergy, ten days after the death of Edward IV., and which still exists in MS. 
(MS. Cotton Cleopatra, E. 3), exhorting the clergy to amendment, the writer 
complains that " The people laugh at us, and make us their songs all the day 
long." Vicious persons of every description had been induced to enter the church 
on account of the protection it afforded against the secular power, and the facilities 
it provided for continued indulgence in their vices. 

In that age, as in more enlightened times, the people loved better to be pleased 
than instructed, and the minstrels were often more amply paid than the clergy. 
During many of the years of Henry VI., particularly in the year 1430, at the 
annual feast of the fraternity of the HOLIE CROSSE, at Abingdon, a town in 
Berkshire, twelve priests each received four pence for singing a dirge : and the 
same number of minstrels were rewarded each with two shillings and four pence, 
besides diet and horse-meat. Some of these minstrels came only from Mayden- 
hithe, or Maidenhead, a town at no great distance, in the same county. ( Liber 
Niger, p. 598.) In the year 1441, eight priests were hired from Coventry, 
to assist in celebrating a yearly obit in the church of the neighbouring priory of 

"Musicis delectabatur." Tit. Liv., p. 5. "Instru- Quoted by Sharon Turner, from Fab. 419. 

mentis organicis plurimum deditus." Elmham. a Sir John Oldcastle, Lord Cobham, had been put to 

b Ritson has printed one of these ballads against the death in the preceding reign. 
Lollards, in his Ancient Songs, p. 63, 1790, taken from 
MS. Cotton, Vespasian, S. 16. Brit. Mu*. 


Maxtoke ; as were six minstrels (MiMi) belonging to the family of Lord Clinton, 
who lived in the adjoining Castle of Maxtoke, to sing, harp, and play in the hall 
of the monastery, during the extraordinary refection allowed to the monks on that 
anniversary. Two shillings were given to the priests, and four to the minstrels : 
and the latter are said to have supped in camera picta, or the painted chamber of 
the convent, with the sub-prior, on which occasion the chamberlain furnished 
eight massive tapers of wax. ( Warton, vol. ii., p. 309.) However, on this occa- 
sion, the priests seem to have been better paid than usual, for in the same year 
(1441) the prior gave no more than sixpence to a preaching friar. 

As late as in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth, we find an entry in the 
books of the Stationers' Company (1560) of a similar character : Item, payd to 
the preacher, 6s. 2d. Item, payd to the minstrell, 12s. ; so that even in the 
decline of minstrelsy, the scale of remuneration was relatively the same. 

A curious collection of the songs and Christmas carols of this reign (Henry 
VI.) have been printed recently by the Percy Society. (Songs and Carols, No. 73.) 

The manuscript book from which they are taken, had, in all probability, belonged 
to a country minstrel who sang at festivals and merry makings, and it has been, 
most judiciously, printed entire, as giving a general view of the classes of poetry 
then popular. A proportion of its contents consists of carols and religious songs, 
such as were sung at Christmas, and perhaps at other festivals of the Church. 
Another class, in which the MS. is, for its date, peculiarly rich, consists of 
drinking songs. It also contains a number of those satirical songs against the 
fair sex, and especially against shrews, which were so common in the middle ages, 
and have a certain degree of importance as showing the condition of private 
society among our forefathers. The larger number of the songs, including some 
of the most interesting and curious, appear to be unique, and the others 
are in general much better and more complete copies than those previously 
known (viz. in MS. Sloane, No. 2593, Brit. Mus). The editor of the MS. 
(Mr. T. Wright) observes that "The great variations in the different copies of 
the same song, show that they were taken down from oral recitation, and had 
often been preserved by memory among minstrels, who were not unskilful at 
composing, and who were not only in the habit of, voluntarily or involuntarily, 
modifying the songs as they passed through their hands, and adding or omitting 
stanzas, but of making up new songs by stringing together phrases and lines, and 
even whole stanzas from the different compositions which were imprinted on their 
memories." But what renders the manuscript peculiarly interesting, is, that it 
contains the melodies of some of the songs as well as the words. From this it 
appears that the same tune was used for different words. At page 62 is a note, 
which in modern spelling is as follows : " This is the tune for the song following ; 
if so be that ye will have another tune, it may be at your pleasure, for I have set 
all the song." The words of the carol, " Nowell, Nowell," (Noel) are written 
under the notes, but the wassail song that follows, and for which the tune was also 
intended, is of a very opposite character, "Bryng us in good ale." I have 
printed the first verse of each under the tune, but it requires to be sung more 
quickly for the wassail song than for the carol. 



The Burden or Chorus. 

Now - ell, nowell, now - ell, nowell, 
Bring us in good ale, good ale, 

[Now-ell, now-ell, now - ell.] 
And bring us in good ale : 




8 8 


is the sa - lu - ta - tion of the an-gel Ga - bri - el. 
For ourbless-ed La-dy'ssake, bring us in good ale. 

Bring us 

true there 
in no 

JJ i J'h J. I^F^ 

be come new, sent from the Trin - i - ty, By Ga - bri - el to Na - za - reth, 

brown bread, for that is made of bran, Nor bring us in no white bread, For 

S m 



ci - ty of Ga - \i - lee: 
there - in is no gain. 

t -t-Jfrh 

A clean maiden and pure virgin, Through her hu-mi-li 
But bring us in good ale, good ale, And bring us in good 

J .N : J. 


Hath con-cei-ved the per - son second in De - i ._, . 

For our blessed La-dy'ssake, Bring us in good ale. 




j.u - j 

The two bars marked off by a line are added, because 
there would not otherwise be music enough for the Was- 
tail Song. They are a mere repetition of the preced- 
ing, and can be omitted at pleasure. The only way in 

which the latter could have been sung to the music as 
written in the manuscript, would be by omitting the line 
" And bring us in good ale ; " but, as it is merely a repe- 
tition, it could be omitted. 


The notation of the original is in semibreves, minims, and crotchets, which 
are diminished to crotchets, quavers, and semiquavers, as became necessary in 
modernizing the notation ; for the quickest note then in use was the crotchet.* 
The Christmas carol partakes so much of the character of sacred music, that it is 
not surprising it should be in an old scale. If there were not the flat at the sig- 
nature, which takes off a little of the barbarity, it would be exactly in the eighth 
Gregorian tone. 

There are seven verses to the carol, but as they are not particularly interesting, 
perhaps the words of the wassail song will be preferred, although we should not 
now sing of " our blessed lady," as was common in those days. 
Bring us in no brown bread, for that is made of bran, 
Nor bring us in no white bread, for therein is no gain, 

But bring us in good ale, and bring us in good ale ; 
For our blessed Lady's sake, bring us in good ale. 
Bring \ia in no beef, for there is many bones, 

But bring us in good ale, for that go'th down at once. And bring, &c. 
Bring us in no bacon, for that is passing fat, 
But bring us in good ale, and give us enough of that. And bring, &c. 

Bring us in no mutton, for that is passing lean, 

Nor bring us in no tripes, for they be seldom clean. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no eggs, for there are many shells, 

But bring us in good ale, and give us nothing else. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no butter, for therein are many hairs, 

Nor bring us in no pig's flesh, for that will make us bears. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no puddings, for therein is all God's good, 

Nor bring us in no venison, that is not for our blood. But bring, &c. 

Bring us in no capon's flesh, for that is often dear, 
Nor bring us in no duck's flesh, for they slobber in the mere, [mire] 
But bring us in good ale, and bring us in good ale, 
For our blessed lady's sake, bring us in good ale. 

An inferior copy of this song, without music, is in Harl. M.S., No. 541, from 
which it has been printed in Ritson's Ancient Songs, p. xxxiv. and xxxv. 

With the reign of Edward IV. we may conclude the history of the old wandering 
minstrel. In 1469, on a complaint that persons had collected money in different 
parts of the kingdom by assuming the title and livery of the king's minstrels, he 
granted to Walter Halliday, Marshal, and to seven others whom he names, 
a charter of incorporation. They were to be governed by a marshal appointed for 
life, and two wardens to be chosen annually, who were authorized to admit mem- 
bers ; also to examine the pretensions of all who exercised the minstrel profession, 
and to regulate, govern, and punish them throughout the realm (those of Chester 

1 After the Percy Society had printed the Songs, I was MS. was entrusted, disappeared, and with him the manu- 
to have had the opportunity of transcribing all the Music; script, whicli is, perhaps, already in some library in the 
but, in the mean time, the bookbinder to whom this rare United States. 


excepted). "This," says Percy, "seems to have some resemblance to the Earl 
Marshal's court among the heralds, and is another proof of the great affinity and 
resemblance which the minstrels bore to the College of Arms." Walter Halliday, 
above mentioned, had been retained in the service of the two preceding monarchs, 
and Edward had granted him an annuity of ten marks for life, in 1464. 

In this reign we find also mention of a Serjeant of the minstrels, who upon 
one occasion did his royal master a singular service, and by which his ready access 
to the king at all hours is very apparent : for " as he [K. Edward IV.] was in 
the north contray, in the Monneth of Septembre, as he lay in his bedde, one 
named Alexander Carlile, that was Sarjaunt of the Mynstrellis, cam to him 
in grete hast, and badde hym aryse, for he hadde enemyes cumming for to take 
him, the which were within six or seven miles," &c. 

Edward seems to have been very liberal to his minstrels. He gave to several 
annuities of ten marks a year (6 Parl. Rolls, p. 89), and, besides their 
regular pay, with clothing and lodging for themselves and their horses, they had 
two servants to carry their instruments, four gallons of ale per night, wax candles, 
and other indulgences. The charter is printed in Rymer, xi. 642, by Sir 
J. Hawkins, vol. iv., p. 366, and Burney, vol. ii., p. 429. All the minstrels 
have English names. 

When Elizabeth, his queen, went to Westminster Abbey to be churched (1466) , 
she was preceded by troops of choristers, chanting hymns, and to these succeeded 
long lines of the noblest and fairest women of London and its vicinity, attended by 
bands of musicians and trumpeters, and forty-two royal singers. After the banquet 
and state ball, a state concert commenced, at which the Bohemian ambassadors 
were present, and in their opinion as well as that of Tetzel, the German who accom- 
panied them, and who has also recounted their visit to England, no better 
singers could be found in the whole world, a than those of the English king. 
These ambassadors travelled through France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, 
and parts of Germany, as well as England, affording them, therefore, the widest 
field for comparison with the singers of other countries. 

At this time every great family had its establishment of musicians, and among 
them the harper held a prominent position. Some who were less wealthy retained 
a harper only, as did many bishops and abbots. In Sir John Howard's expenses 
(1464) there is an entry of a payment as a new year's gift to Lady Howard's 
grandmother's harper, " that dwellyth in Chestre." When he became Lord 
Howard he retained in his service, Nicholas Stapylton, William Lyndsey, and 
" little Richard," as singers, besides " Thomas, the harperd," (whom he provided 
with a "lyard," or grey "gown"), and children of the chapel, who were succes- 
sively four, five, and six in number at different dates. Mr. Payne Collier, who 
edited his Household Book from 1481 to 1485 for the Roxburghe Club, remarks 

a Tetzel says, " Nach dem Tantz do muosten des Korgesang, das alls gesatzt was, das lieblich zu hb'ren 

Kunigs Cantores kumen und muosten singen . . . . ich was." Ib. p. 158. 

mein das, in der Welt, nit besser Cantores sein." "Dei Leo Von Rozmital, brother of the Queen of Bohemia 

bdhmitchen Herrn Leo's von Rozmital Hitter, H of und says, "Musicos nullo uspiam in loco jucundiores et 

PilgerReise, 1465-1467," $c.,8i>o., Stuttgart, 1844, p. 157. suaviores audivimus, quam ibi : eorum chorus sexaginta, 

Again Tetzel says, " Do hb'rten wlr das aller kostlichst circiter cantoribus constat." Ib. p. 42. 


on " the great variety of entries in connection with music and musical performers," 
as forming " a prominent feature" of the book. " Not only were the musicians 
attached to noblemen, or to private individuals, liberally rewarded, but also those 
who were attached to particular towns, and who seem to have been generally 
required to perform before Lord Howard on his various journies. On the 14th of 
October, 1841, he entered into an agreement with William Wastell, harper of 
London, that he should teach the son of John Colet, of Colchester, harper, for 
a year, in order, probably, to render him competent afterwards to fill the post of 
one of the family musicians." 

Here also a part of the stipulation was that, at the end of the year, Lord 
Howard should give Wastell a gown, which seems to have been the distinguishing 
feature of a harper's dress. In Laneham's letter from Kenilworth (1575), 
describing the " device of an ancient minstrel and his song," which was to have 
been proffered for the amusement of queen Elizabeth, this " Squire minstrel, of 
Middlesex, who travelled the country this summer season, unto worshipful men's 
houses," is represented as a harper with a long gown of Kendal green, gathered 
at the neck with a narrow gorget, and fastened before with a white clasp ; his 
gown having long sleeves down to mid -leg, but slit from the shoulders to the 
hand, and lined with white. His harp was to be " in good grace dependent before 
him," and his " wrest," or tuning-key, " tied to a green lace, and hanging by." 
He wore a red Cadiz girdle, and the corner of his handkerchief, edged with blue 
lace hung from his bosom. Under the gorget of his gown hung a chain, " re- 
splendent upon his breast, of the ancient arms of Islington." The acts of king 
Arthur were the subject of his song. 

The Romances which still remained popular [1480] are mentioned by William 
of Nassyngton [in a MS. which Warton saw in the library of Lincoln Cathedral], 
who gives his readers fair notice that he does not intend to amuse them. 

" I warne you first at the begynnynge And of many other Gestes, 

That I will make no vayne carpynge, As namely, when they come to festes ; 

Of dedes of armes, ne of amours, Ne of the lyf of BEVYS OF HAMPTOUNE, 

As does Mynstrellis and Gestours, That was a Knyght of grete renowne ; 

That maketh carpynge in many a place Ne of SYR GYE OF WARWYKE, &c. 

Of OCTAVIANE and ISENBRACE, Warton, vol. iv., p. 368. 

The invention of printing, coupled with the increased cultivation of poetry and 
music by men of genius and learning, accelerated the downfall of the Minstrels. 
They could not long withstand the superior standard of excellence in the sister 
arts, on the one hand, and the competition of the ballad-singer (who sang without 
asking remuneration, and sold his songs for a penny) on the other. In little more 
than fifty years from this time they seem to have fallen into utter contempt. We 
have a melancholy picture of their condition, in the person of Richard Sheale, 
which it is impossible to read without sympathy, if we consider that to him we 
are indebted for the preservation of the celebrated heroic ballad of Chevy Chace, 
at which Sir Philip Sidney's heart was wont to beat, " as at the sound of a 


trumpet;"* and of which Ben Jonson declared he would rather have been the 
author than of all he had ever written. This luckless Minstrel had been robbed 
on Dunsmore Heath, and, shame to tell, he was unable to persuade the public 
that a son of the Muses had ever been possessed of sixty pounds, which he 
averred he had lost on the occasion. The account he gives of the effect upon his 
spirits is melancholy, and yet ridiculous enough. [As the preservation of the 
old spelling is no longer essential to the rhyme or metre, I venture to give it in 
modern orthography.] 

" After my robbery my memory was so decay'd 
That I could neither sing, nor talk, my wits were so dismay'd. 
My audacity was gone, and all my merry talk, 
There are some here have seen me as merry as a hawk ; 
But now I am so troubled with fancies in my mind, 
I cannot play the merry knave, according to my kind. 
Yet to take thought, I perceive, is not the next way 
To bring me out of debt, my creditors to pay. 
I may well say that I had but evil hap 
For to lose about threescore pounds at a clap. 
The loss of my money did not grieve me so sore, 
But the talk of the people did grieve me much more. 
Some said I was not robb'd, I was but a lying knave, 
It was not possible for a Minstrel so much money to have. 
Indeed, to say the truth, it is right well known 
That I never had so much money of my own, 
But I had friends in London, whose names I can declare, 
That at all times would lend me two hundred pounds of ware, 
And with some again such friendship I found, 
That they would lend me in money nine or ten pound. 
The occasion why I came in debt I shall make relation 
My wife, indeed, is a silk- woman, by her occupation ; 
In linen cloths, most chiefly, was her greatest trade, 
And at fairs and markets she sold sale-ware that she made, 
As shirts, smocks, and partlets, head-clothes, and other things, 
As silk thread and edgings, skirts, bands, and strings. 
At Lichfield market, and Atherston, good customers she found, 
Also at Tamworth, where I dwell, she took many a pound. 
When I had got my money together, my debts to have paid, 
This sad mischance on me did fall, that cannot be denay'd ; [denied] 
I thought to have paid all my debts and to have set me clear, 
And then what evil did ensue, ye shall hereafter hear : 
Because my carriage should be light I put my money into gold, 
And without company I rode alone thus was I foolish bold ; 
I thought by reason of my harp no man would me suspect, 
For Minstrels oft with money, they be not much infect." 

From the " Chant of Richard Sheale," British Bibliographer, vol. iv., p. 100. 

m " I never heard the old song of Percy and Douglas, that in the dust and cobweb of that uncivil age, what would it 

I found not my heart moved more than with a trumpet : and work, trimmed in the gorgeous eloquence of Pindare ! " 

yet it is sung but by some blind crowder, with no rougher Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poetry. 
voice than rude style; which being so evil aparelled 


Sheale was a Minstrel in the service of Edward, Earl of Derby, who died in 
1574, celebrated for his bounty and hospitality, of whom Sheale speaks most 
gratefully, as well as of his eldest son, Lord Strange. The same MS. contains an 
" Epilogue " on the Countess of Derby, who died in January, 1558, and his 
version of Chevy Chace must have been written at least ten years before the 
latter date, if it be the one mentioned in the Complaynte of Scotland, which was 
written in 1548. 

In the thirty-ninth year of Elizabeth, an act was passed by which " Minstrels, 
wandering abroad" were held to be "rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars," 
and were to be punished as such. This act seems to have extinguished the pro- 
fession of the Minstrels, who so long had basked in the sunshine of prosperity. 
The name, however, remained, and was applied to itinerant harpers, fiddlers, 
and other strolling musicians, who are thus described by Puttenham, in his Arte 
of English JPoesie, printed in 1589. Speaking of ballad music, he says, " The 
over busy and too speedy return of one manner of tune, doth too much annoy, 
and, as it were, glut the ear, unless it be in small and popular musicks sung by 
these Cantabanqui upon benches and barrels' heads, where they have none other 
audience than boys or country fellows that pass by them in the street ; or else by 
blind harpers, or such like tavern minstrels, that give a fit of mirth for a groat ; 
and their matter being for the most part stories of old time, as the Tale of Sir 
Topas, Bevis of Southampton, Guy of Warwick, Adam Bell and Clym of the 
Clough, and such other old romances or historical rhimes, made purposely for the 
recreation of the common people at Christmas dinners and bride-ales, and in 
taverns and alehouses, and such other places of base resort. Also they" [these 
short tunes] " be used in Carols and Rounds, and such like light and lascivious 
poems, which are commonly more commodiously uttered by these buffons, or vices 
in plays than by another person." 

Ritson, whose animosity to Percy and Warton seems to have extended itself 
to the whole minstrel race, quotes, with great glee, the following lines on their 
downfall, which were written by Dr. Bull, a rival musician : 

" When Jesus went to Jairus' house, 

(Whose daughter was about to die) 

He turned the Minstrels out of doors, 

Among the rascal company : 

Beggars they are with one consent, 
' And rogues, by act of Parliament" 




Little occurs about music and ballads during the short reigns of Edward V. and 
Richard El. 

Richard was very liberal to his musicians, giving annuities to some, and 
gratuities to others. (See Harl. MS., No. 433.) But his chief anxiety seems to 
have been to increase the already splendid choral establishment of the Chapel 
Royal. For that purpose he empowered John Melynek, one of the gentlemen of 
the chapel, " to take and seize for the king" not only children, but also " all 
such singing men expert in the science of music, as he could find and think able 
to do the king's service, within all places of the realm, as well cathedral churches, 
colleges, chapels, houses of religion, and all other franchised or exempt places, or 
elsewhere." (Harl. MS., 433, p. 189.) But it is not my object to pursue the 
subject of royal establishments further. 

In the privy purse expenses of Henry VH., from the seventh to the twentieth 
year of his reign, there are many payments relating to music and to popular 
sports, from which the following are selected : 

1492. Feb. 4th, To the childe that playeth on the records 

[recorder] - - - - 100 

April 6th, To Gwyllim for flotes [flutes] with a case - 3 10 
May 8th, For making a case for the kinges suerde, and a 

case for James Hide's harp - - 108 

July 8th. To the maydens of Lambeth for a May - 10 

August 1st, At Canterbury, To the children, for singing in 

the gardyn ... 034 

1493. Jan ^st, To the Queresters [choristers], at Paule's and 

St. Steven - - 13 4 

Jan. 6th, To Newark [William Newark, the composer] for 

making a song - - - 1 

Nov. 12th, To one Corny sshe for a prophecy, in rewarde 13 4 

Probably William Cornish, jun., composer, who belonged to the king's chapel, 
and was the author of a poem, called " A Treatise between Trouth and Informa- 
cion." He was paid 13s. 4c?. on Christmas day, 1502, for setting a carol. 


Nov. 30th, Delivered to a merchaunt, for a pair 8 of Organnes 30 
Dec. 1st, To Basset, riding for th' organ pleyer of Liche- 

felde 13 4 

1494. Jan. 2, For playing of the Mourice [Morris] Daunce - 2 
Nov. 29th, To Burton, for making a Masse - - 100 

To my Lorde Prince's Luter, in rewarde - 1 

1495. Aug 2nd, To the women that songe before the king and 

the qnene, in rewarde - - 068 

Nov. 2nd, To a woman that singeth with a fidell - - 2 
Nov. 27th, To Hampton of Wourcestre, for making of 

Balades, in rewarde - 100 

1496. April 25th, To Hugh Denes, for a lute - - - 13 4 
June 25th, To Frensheman, player of the organes - 068 
Aug. 5th, To a Preste that wrestelled at Ceceter - - 6 8 
Aug. 17th, To the quene's fideler, in rewarde 168 

1499. June 6th, To the May -game at Greenwich - 4 

1501. May 21st, For a lute for my lady Margaret [the king's 

eldest daughter, then about twelve years old, 

afterwards Queen of Scots] 13 4 

Sept. 30th, To theym that daunced the mer' [morris] daunce 168 

Dec. 4th, To the Princesse stryng mynstrels at Westminster 2' 

1502. Jan. 7th, To one that sett the king's cleyvecordes - 10 4 
Feb. 4th, To one Lewes, for a morris daunce 1 13 4 

1504. March 6th, For a pair of Clavycordes - 13 

To John Sudborough, for a songe 100 

1505. July 25th, To the gentylmen of the kinges chapell, for to 

drinke with a bucke - 200 

Aug. 1st, For a lute for my Lady Mary - 013 4 

There is also a great variety of payments to the musicians of different towns, 
as the " Waytes" of Dover, Canterbury, Dartford, Coventry, and Northampton ; 
the minstrels of Sandwich, the shawms of Maidstone ; to bagpipers, the king's 
piper (repeatedly), the piper at Huntingdon, &c. ; to harpers, some of whom were 
"Welsh. And there are also several entries " To a Walsheman for a ryme ;" 
liberal presents to the poets, of his mother (the Countess of Richmond) , of the 
prince, and of the king; to " the rymer of Scotland," who was in all probability the 
Scotch poet, William Dunbar, who celebrated the nuptials of James IV. and the 
princess Margaret, in his " Thistle and the Rose," and to an Italian poet. All 
these may be seen in Excerpta Historica (8vo., 1833), and, as the editor 
remarks : " To judge from the long catalogue of musicians and musical instru- 
ments, flutes, recorders, trumpets, sackbuts, harps, shalmes, bagpipes, organs, and 
round organs, clavicords, lutes, horns, pipers, fiddlers, singers, and dancers, Henry's 
love of music must have been great, which is further established by the fact, that 
in every town he entered, as well as on board the ship which conveyed him to 
Calais, he was attended by minstrels and waits." 

a A pair of organs, means a set of organs, i.e., an organ. we still say, " apair of steps" " up two pair of stairs." 
A pack of cards was formerly called a pair of cards, and 


A manuscript, containing a large number of songs and carols, has been recently 
found in the library of Balliol Coll., Oxford, where it had been accidently con- 
cealed, behind a book-case, during a great number of years. It is in the hand- 
writing of Richard Hill, merchant of London, and contains entries from the year 
1483 to 1535. Six or eight of the songs and carols are the same as in the book 
printed by the Percy Society, to which I have referred at page 41, and especially 
the carol, " Nowell Nowell," but the volume does not contain music. The song 
of the contention between Holly and Ivy, beginning " Holly beareth berries, berries 
red enough," which is printed in Ritson's Ancient Songs, from a manuscript 
of Henry the Sixth's time, is there also, proving that some of the songs are 
of a much earlier date than the manuscript, and that they were still in favor. At 
fol. 210, v. is a copy of the " Nut-browne Mayde," and at the end of it " Explicit 
quod, Rich. Hill," which was the usual mode of claiming authorship of a work. 

In the Pepysian Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, there is a manuscript 
book of vocal music (No. 87) , containing the compositions of the most eminent 
masters, English and foreign, of the time of Henry YH., written for the then 
Prince of Wales. It was the Prince's book, is beautifully written on vellum, and 
illuminated with his figure in miniature. 

Henry VIII. was not only a great patron of music, but also a composer; and, 
according to Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who wrote his life, he composed two 
complete services, which were often sung in his chapel. Hollinshed, in speaking 
of the removal of the court to Windsor, when Henry was beginning his progress, 
tells us that he " exercised himselfe dailie in shooting, singing, dansing, wressling, 
casting o the barre, plaieing at the recorders, flute, virginals, in setting of songs, 
and making of ballades." All accounts agree in describing him as an amiable and 
accomplished prince in the early part of his reign; and the character given of him 
to the Doge of Venice, by his three ambassadors at the English court, could 
scarcely be expressed in more favorable terms. In their joint despatch of 
May 3rd, 1515, they say : " He is so gifted and adorned with mental accomplish- 
ments of every sort, that we believe him to have few equals in the world. He 
speaks English, French, and Latin ; understands Italian well ; plays almost 
on every instrument, and composes fairly (delegnamente) ; is prudent and sage, 
and free from every vice."* 

In the letter of Sagudino (Secretary to the Embassy), writen to Alvise Foscari, 
at this same date, he says : " He is courageous, an excellent musician, plays the 
virginals well, is learned for his age and station, and has many other endowments 
and good parts." On the 1st of May, 1515, after the celebration of May-day at 
Greenwich, the ambassadors dined at the palace, and after dinner were taken into 
certain chambers containing a number of organs, virginals (clavicimbani) , flutes, 
and other instruments ; and having heard from the ambassadors that Sagudino 
was a proficient on some of them, he was asked by the nobles to play, which 

Despatch written by Pasqualigo, Badoer, and Gius- of Venice, from January, 1515, to July 26, 1519. Trans- 
tinian conjointly. See four years at the Court of Henry lated by Rawdon Brown. 8vo., 1854, vol. i., p. 76. 
VIII., Selection of Despatches addressed to the Signory 



he did for a long while, both on the virginals and organ, and says that he bore 
himself bravely, and was listened to with great attention. The prelates told him 
that the king would certainly wish to hear him, for he practised on these instru- 
ments day and night. 

Pasqualigo, the ambassador- extraordinary, gives a similar account at the same 
time. Of Henry he says : " He speaks French, English, and Latin, and a little 
Italian, plays well on the lute and virginals, sings from book at sight, draws the 
bow with greater strength than any man in England, and jousts marvellously. 
Believe me he is in every respect a most accomplished prince ; and I, who have 
now seen all the sovereigns in Christendom, and last of all these two of France 
and England, might well rest content," &c. Of the chapel service, Pasqualigo 
says : " We attended High Mass, which was chaunted by the bishop of Durham, 
with a superb and noble descant choir"* (Capella di Discanto) ; and Sagudino 
says : " High Mass was chaunted, and it was sung by his majesty's choristers, 
whose voices are really rather divine than human ; they did not chaunt, but sung 
like angels (non cantavano, ma jubilavano) ; and as for the deep bass voices, 
I don't think they have their equals in the world." b (Vol. i., p. 77.) 

Upon these despatches the editor remarks: "As Pasqualigo had been ambassador 
at the courts of Spain, Portugal, Hungary, France, and of the Emperor, he was 
enabled to form comparisons between the state of the science in those kingdoms 
and our own ; and, indeed, it is the universal experience of the Venetian ambas- 
sadors, and their peculiar freedom from prejudice or partiality (no jealousy or 
rivalry existing between them and England), that makes their comments on our 
country so valuable." (Vol. 1, p. 89.) 

Erasmus, speaking of the English, said that they challenge the prerogative of 
having the most handsome women, of keeping the best tables, and of being most 
accomplished in the skill of music of any people; c and it is certain that the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century produced in England a race of musicians equal to 
the best in foreign countries, and in point of secular music decidedly in advance 
of them. When Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex, went from Antwerp 
to Rome, in 1510, to obtain from Pope Julius H. the renewal of the " greater and 
lesser pardon" d for the town of Boston, for the maintenance of their decayed port, 

" Descant choir is not a proper term, because the Music 
of the King's Chapel was not extempore descant, but in 
written counterpoint of four parts. Several of the manu- 
scripts in use about this period, are preserved in the 
King's Library, British Museum, and some were Henry's 
own books. They are beautifully written manuscripts 
on parchment, bearing the King's arms. In one a Canon 
in eight parts is inserted on the words " Honi soit qui 
mal y pense." The references to these manuscripts 
will be found in Mr. Oliphant's Catalogue of Musical 
MSS., British Museum, towards the commencement. 
See Nos. 12, 13, 21, &c. 

b The florid character of the counterpoint in use in 
churches in those days is slyly reproved in a dialogue be- 
tween Humanity and Ignorance, in the Interlude of The 
Four Elements, printed about 1510. (Prick-song meant 
harmony written or pricked down, in opposition to plain- 
song, where the descant rested with the will of the singer.) 

Hu. " Peace, man, prick-song may not be despised, 

For therewith God is well pleased, 

Honoured, praised, and served 

In the Church oft-times among." 
Ig. " IS God well pleased, trow'st thou, thereby ? 

Nay, nay ! for there is no reason why : 

For is it not as good to say plainly 

' Give me a spade,' 

As ' give me a spa-ve-va, ve-va-ve-vade?' 

But if thou wilt have a song that is good, 

I have one of Robin Hood," &c. 

c " Britanni, praeter alia, formam, musicam, et lautas 
mensas proprie sibi vindicent." Erasmus Enconium 

d These pardons, says Foxe, gave them the power to 
receive full remission, "apaena et culpa;" also pardon 
for souls in purgatory, on payment of 6s. 8d. for the first 
year, and 12rf. for every year after, to the Church of St. 
Botolph's, Boston. 


" being loth," says Foxe, " to spend much time, and more loth to spend his money, 
among the greedy cormorants of the Pope's court," he devised to meet him on his 
return from hunting; and "having knowledge how the Pope's holy tooth greatly 
delighted in new-fangled strange delicates and dainty dishes, it came into his 
mind to prepare certain fine dishes of jelly, made after our country manner here 
in England ; which to them of Rome was not known nor seen before. This done, 
Cromwell observing his time accordingly, as the Pope was newly come from 
hunting into his pavilion, he, with his companions, approached with his English 
presents, brought in with a three-man's song (as we call it) in the English tongue, 
and all after the English fashion. The Pope suddenly marvelling at the strange- 
ness of the song, and understanding that they were Englishmen, and that they 
came not empty-handed, willed them to be called in; and seeing the strangeness of 
the dishes, commanded by and by his Cardinal to make the assay ; who in tasting 
thereof, liked it so well, and so likewise the Pope after him, that knowing of them 
what their suits were, and requiring them to make known the making of that meat, 
he, incontinent, without any more ado, stamped both their pardons, as well the 
greater as the lesser." (Acts and Monuments.) The introduction of these songs 
into Italy is also mentioned by Michael Drayton in his Legend of Thomas 
Cromwell, Earl of Essex, which was first printed in quarto in 1609. 

" Not long it was ere Home of me did ring, 
Hardly shall Rome such full days see again ; 
Of Freemen's Catches to the Pope I sing, 
Which won much licence for my countrymen. 
Thither the which I was the first did bring, 
That were unknown in Italy till then," &c. 

In the Life of Sir Peter Carew, by John Vowell, alias Hoker, of Exeter 
(Archaeologia, vol. 28), Freemen's Songs are again mentioned. "From this time 
he (Sir Peter) continued for the most part in the court, spending his time in 
all courtly exercises, to his great praise and commendation, and especially to the 
good liking of the king (Henry VUI.), who had a great pleasure in him, as 
well for his sundry noble qualities, as also for his singing. For the king himself 
being much delighted to sing, and 'Sir Peter Carew having a pleasant voice, the 
king would often use him to sing with him certain songs they call Freemen Songs, 
as namely, ' By the bancke as I lay,' and ' As I walked the wode so wylde,' " &c. 

To sing at sight was so usual an accomplishment of gentlemen in those days, 
that to be deficient in that respect was considered a serious drawback to success in 
life. Skelton, in his Bowge at Court, introduces Harvy Hafter as one who cannot 
sing " on the booke," but he thus expresses his desire to learn : 

" Wolde to God it wolde please you some day, 
A balade boke before me for to laye, 
And lerne me for to synge re, mi, fa, sol, 
And when I fayle, bobbe me on the noil." 

Skelton's Works, Ed. Dyce, vol. i., p. 40. 


Barklay, in his fourth Eclogue, (about 1514) says 

" When your fat dishes smoke hot upon your table, 

Then laude ye songs, and ballades magnifie ; 

If they be merry, or written craftely, 

Ye clap your handes and to the making barke, 

And one say to another, Lo, here a proper warke ! " 

The interlude of " The Four Elements" was printed by Rastall about 1510 ; 
and, in that, Sensual Appetite, one of the characters, recommends Humanity " to 
comfort his lyf naturall" with "daunsing, laughyng, or plesaunt songe," and 
says " Make room, sirs, and let us be merry, 

With huff a galand, syng Tyrll on the berry, 

And let the wide world wynde. 
Sing Frisk a jolly, with Hey trolly lolly, 
For I see it is but folly for to have a sad mind." 

Percy Soc., No. 74. 

" Hey, ho, frisca jolly, under the greenwood tree," is the burden of one of the 
songs in the musical volume of the reign of Henry VHI. (MS. Reg. Append. 58.) 
from which I have extracted several specimens. It contains, also, some instru- 
mental pieces, such as " My Lady Carey's Dompe," and " My Lady Wynkfield's 
Rownde," which when well played on the virginals, as recently, by an able lecturer, 
are very effective and musical. 

Some of Henry the Eighth's own compositions are still extant. In a collection 
of anthems, motets, and other church offices, in the handwriting of John Baldwin, 
of Windsor, (who also transcribe^, that beautiful manuscript, Lady Neville's 
Virginal Book, in 1591), is a composition for three voices, " Quam pulchra es, et 
quam decora." It bears the name Henricus Octavus at the beginning, and "quod 
Henricus Octavus" at the end of the cantus part. The anthem " Lord, the 
maker of all things," which is attributed to him in Boyce's Cathedral Music, is 
the composition of William Mundy ; the words only are taken from Henry the 
Eighth's primer. Some music for a mask, which Stafford Smith attributes to 
him, will be found in the Arundel Collection of MS. (Brit. Mus.) or in Musica 
Antiqua, vol. i. ; and one of his ballads, " Pastime with good company," is given 
as a specimen in the following pages. 

In 1533 a proclamation was issued to suppress " fond [foolish] books, ballads, 
rhimes, and other lewd treatises in the English tongue ;" and in 1537 a man of 
the name of John Hogon was arrested for singing a political ballad to the tune of 
" The hunt is up." It was not only among the upper classes that songs and 
ballads were then so general, although the allusions to the music of the lower 
classes are less frequently to be met with at this period than a little later, when 
plays, which give the best insight to the manners and customs of private life, had 
become general. One passage, however, from Miles Coverdale's " Address unto 
the Christian reader" prefixed to his " Goastly Psalmes and Spirituall Songes," 
[1538] will suffice to prove it. Wolde God that our Mynstrels had none other 
thynge to play upon, neither our carters and plowmen other thynge to whistle 


upon, save psalmes, hymns, and such like godly songes. . . And if women at 
the rockes, a and spinnynge at the wheles, had none other songes to pass their tyme 
withall, than such as Moses' sister, . . songe before them, they should be better 
occupied than with Hey, nonny, nonny Set/, trolly, lolly, and such like fantasies." 
Despite the excellent intent with which this advice was given, it did not evidently 
make much impression, either then or after. The traditional tunes of every 
country seem as natural to the common people as warbling is to birds in a 
state of nature ; the carters and ploughmen continued to be celebrated for their 
whistling, to the end of the eighteenth century, and the women thought rather with 
Ophelia : " You must sing down, a-down, an you call him a-down-a, Oh, how the 
wheel becomes it ! " 

Anthony a Wood says that Sternhold, who was Groom of the Chamber to 
Henry V1IL, versified fifty-one of the Psalms, and " caused musical notes to be 
set to them, thinking thereby that the courtiers would sing them instead of their 
sonnets, but did not, only some few excepted." They were not, however, printed 
till 1549. On the title page it is expressed that they were to be sung "in private 
houses, for godly solace and comfort, and for the laying apart all ungodly songes 
and ballads." 

Although Henry YlLL. had given all possible encouragement to ballads and 
songs in the early part of his reign, both in public and private, and in proof 
of their having been used on public occasions, I may mention the coronation of 
Anne Boleyn, when a choir of men and boys stood on the leads of St. Martin's 
Church, and sang new ballads in praise of her majesty, yet, when they were re- 
sorted to as a weapon against the Reformation, or in opposition to any of his own 
opinions and varying commands, he adopted the summary process of suppressing 
them altogether. It is in some measure owing to that act, but principally to their 
perishable nature, that we have no printed ballads .now remaining of an earlier 
date than that on the downfall of his former favorite, Thomas, Lord Cromwell, 
which is in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, at Somerset House. The 
act, which was passed in 1543, is entitled " An act for the advancement of true 
religion, and for the abolishment of the contrary" (Anno 34-35, c. i.), and recites 
that " froward and malicious minds, intending to subvert the true exposition of 
scripture, have taken upon them, by printed ballads, rhymes, etc., subtilly and 
craftily to instruct his highness' people, and specially the youth of this his realm, 
untruly. For reformation whereof, his majesty considereth it most requisite to 
purge his realm of all such books, ballads, rhymes, and songs, as be pestiferous 
and noisome. Therefore, if any printer shall print, give, or deliver, any such, he 
shall suffer for the first time imprisonment for three months, and forfeit for every 
copy 10?., and for the second time, forfeit all his goods and his body be committed 
to perpetual prison." Although the act only expresses " all such books, ballads, 
rhymes, and songs as be pestiferous and noisome," there is a list of exceptions 
to it, and no ballads of any description are excepted. " Provided, also, that 

Rock, a distaff: that is, the staff on which flax was the corresponding part of the spinning wheel. Hares' 
held, when spinning was performed without a wheel ; or Glossary. 



all books printed before the year 1540, entituled Statutes, Chronicles, Canterbury 
Tales, Chaucer's books, Gower's books, and stories of men's lives, shall not be 
comprehended in the prohibition of this act." It was not, however, the first time 
that ballads had been employed for controversy on religious subjects. The ballads 
against the Lollards, and those against the old clergy, have been mentioned at 
page 40 ; and there is a large number extant against monks and friars, many of 
which were, and some still are, popular. 

The first collection of songs in parts that was printed in England, was in 1530 ; 
but of that only a base part now remains.* There are, however, many such collec- 
tions in manuscript in public and private libraries. Stafford Smith's printed 
collection of songs in score, composed about the year 1500, is almost entirely 
taken from one manuscript. 

Henry "VTH. left a large number of musical instruments at his death, the in- 
ventory of which may be seen in Harl. MSS. No. 1419, fol. 200 ; and, as might 
be expected, all his children were well taught in music. 

"Ballads," says Mr. Collier, "seem to have multiplied after Edward VI. came 
to the throne ; no new proclamation was issued, nor statute passed on the subject, 
while Edward continued to reign ; but in less than a month after Mary became 
queen, she published an edict against ' books, ballads, rhymes, and treatises,' 
which she complained had been ' set out by printers and stationers, of an evil 
zeal for lucre, and covetous of vile gain.' There is little doubt, from the few 
pieces remaining, that it was, in a considerable degree, effectual for the end 
in view." 

THE following tunes are occasionally classed rather under the dates to which 
I consider them to belong, than by those of the copies from which they are derived ; 
but as the authorities are given in every case, the reader has the means before him 
of forming his own opinion. Some, however, are classed rather for convenience of 
subject, as songs of Robin Hood, songs or tunes mentioned by Shakespeare, &c. 

After a few from manuscripts of the time of Henry VIII., there are specimens 
of " King Henry's Mirth, or Freemen's Songs," from a collection printed in 1609, 
which contains many " fine vocal compositions of very great antiquity ." b But 
of those, I have only selected such as were also used as song or ballad tunes, 
sung by a single voice. 

* It contained compositions by Cornish, Pygot, Ash- 
well, Taverner, Gwynneth, Jones, Dr. Cowper, and Dr. 
Fairfax. See the Index in Ritson's Ancient Songs, 
p. xxiii., last edition. Stafford Smith's are principally by 
Fairfax, Newark, Heath, Turges, Sheringham, and Sir 
Thomas Philipps ; but this list of composers might be 
increased greatly by including those in other manuscripts. 

b In 1609, Thomas Ravenscroft, Mus. Bac., collected 
and printed 100 old Catches, Rounds, and Canons, under 
the title of " Pammelia : Musick's Miscellanie, or mixed 
varietie of pleasant Roundelayes and delightful Catches." . 

It met with so much success, that in the same year he 
published a second, called "Deuteromelia: or the second 
part of Musick's Melodie, or melodious musicke of plea- 
sant Roundelayes, K. H. [King Henry's] Mirth, or Free- 
men's Songs," &c. ; and in 1611, a third collection, called 
" Melismata : Musical Phansies, fitting the court, city, 
and countrey humours." Some of the Songs and Catches 
in these collections are undoubtedly of the reign of Henry 
VII., and it is to be presumed that the authors of all 
were unknown to Ravenscroft, as, contrary to custom, 
he does not mention them in any instance. 



The words and music of this song are preserved in a manuscript of the time of 
Henry VIII., formerly in Ritson's possession, and now in the British Museum 
(Add. MSS., 5665) ; in which it is entitled THE KING'S BALLAD. Ritson 
mentions it in a note to his Historical Essay on Scotish Song, and Stafford Smith 
printed it in his Musica Antiqua in score for three men's voices. It is the first of 
those mentioned in Wedderburn's Complaint of Scotland, which was published in 
1549 : " Now I will rehearse some of the sweet songs that I heard among them 
(the shepherds) as after follows : in the first Pastance with good Company" &c. 
The tune is also to be found arranged for the lute (without words) in the volume 
among the king's MSS. before cited (Append. 58), of which " Dominus Johannes 
Bray " was at one time the possessor. This may be considered as another proof 
of its former popularity. 

In moderate time. 


Pas-time with good com - pa-ny I love, and shall un - til I die 

Grudge who will, but none de - ny, So God be pleas'd this life will I : For my pastance, Hunt, 

T^ 3 !' 

sing and dance ; My heart is set. All good-ly sport To my comfort, Who shall me let ? 

r J J r 1 1 r ^ Ji r ""Hi 

Youth will needs have dalliance, 
Of good or ill some pastance ; 
Company me thinketh the best 
All thoughts and fantasies to digest, 

For idleness 

Is chief mistress 

Of vices all : 
Then who can say 
But pass the day 

Is best of all ? 

Company with honesty 

Is virtue, and vice to flee : 

Company is good or ill, 

But ev'ry man hath his free will. 

The best I sue, 

The worst eschew : 

My mind shall be 
Virtue to use : 
Vice to refuse 

I shall use me. 




This little love-song is the first in MSS. Reg. Append. 58., of the time of 
Henry VIII., and the air is both elegant and expressive. The cadence, or flourish 
at the end, is characteristic of the period, and there is a pretty attempt at 
musical expression on the words, " fro' my love depart." 

Smoothly and with expression. 

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Ah ! the syghes that come fro' my heart, They grieve me passing sore : . 

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Ah ! the sighs that come from my heart, 
They grieve me passing sore, 

Sith I must fro' my love depart, 
Farewell, my joye, for evermore. 

Oft to me, with her goodly face, 
She was wont to cast an eye : 

And now absence to me in place? 
Alas ! for woe I die, I die ! 

I was wont her to behold, 

And take in armes twain ; 
And now, with sighes manifold, 

Farewell my joy ! and welcome pain ! 

Ah ! me think that should I yet, 
As would to God that I might ! 

There would no joys compare with it 
Unto my heart, to make it light. 


This is also taken from MSS. Reg. Append. 58, time of Henry VIII. As the 
tune appears to be in the ancient Dorian mode, it has been harmonized in that 
mode, to preserve its peculiarity of character. 

The writer of a quarto volume on ancient Scotish melodies has asserted that 
all the ancient English music in Ritson's, or other collections, is of a heavy 
drawling character. An assertion so at variance with fact must either have 
proceeded from narrow-minded prejudice, or from his not having understood 
ancient musical notation. That he could not discriminate between Scotch and 
English music is evinced by the fact of his having appropriated some of the best 
known English compositions as ancient Scotish melodies. a 

This writer also cites the authority of Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, who says nothing of Ilia kind; and in the same 

sentence, appropriates what Giraldus says in favour of 
Irish music to Scotch. 



The following song is one of those adduced by him in proof of the drawling of 
English music ; but I have restored the words to their proper places, and it is by 
no means a drawling song. It should be borne in mind that these specimens of 
English music are long anterior to any Scotish music that has been produced. 

Moderate time. 

Westron wynde when wyll thou blow? The smalle rain downe 'doth' rayne; 'Oh!' 

if my love were in my armys, ' Or' I in my bed a - gayne. 


This is also copied from MSS. Reg. Append. 58, time of Henry VIII. It is a 
spirited tune, and should be sung more quickly in proportion than the others, 
because in modernizing the notation, I have only made a crotchet into a quaver, 
instead of into a semiquaver, as would have been more correct, considering the 
date of the manuscript. 

Boldly and well marked. 




^ : 




Blow thy home, hun-ter, Cum, blow thy home on hye ! In yonder wode there lyetli a doo, In 




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fayth she woll not dye. Cum, blow thy home, hui 

i-ter, Cum, blow thy home, joly hi 

in - ter ! 



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This song is one of those included under the head of " Country Pastimes " in 
Melismata, 1611. Ritson in his Ancient Songs, remarks : " It will be obvious 
that this ballad is much older, not only than the date of that book, but than most 
of the other pieces contained in it." It is nevertheless still so popular in some 
parts of the country, that I have been favored with a variety of copies of it, 
written down from memory ; and all differing in some respects, both as to words 
and tune, but with sufficient resemblance to prove a similar origin. 

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three ra-vens sat on a tree, Down a down, hey down, hey down, The] 

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were as black 


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they might be, With a down. . . . The one of them said 

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to his mate,Where shall we ' now* our breakfast take ? With a down, deny, deny, deny down, down. 
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Down in yonder green field, Down a down, hey down, hey down, 

There lies a knight slain, under his shield. With a down. 

His hounds they lie down at his feet, 

So well 'do' they their master keep. With a down, derry, &c. 

His hawks they fly so eagerly, Down a down, &c. 

There's no fowl ' that ' dare him come nigh. With a down. 

Down there comes a fallow doe, 

As great with young as she might go. With a down, derry, &c. 

She lifted up his bloody head, Down a down, &c. 
And kiss'd his wounds that were so red ; With a down. 
She got him up upon her back, 
And carried him to earthen lake. With a down, &c. 

She buried him before the prime : With a down, &c. 

She was dead herself ere even-song time. With a down. 

God send every gentleman 

Such hawks, such hounds, and such a leman [lov'd one]. With a down, &c. 



" THE HUNT is UP." 

Among the favorites of Henry the Eighth, Puttenham notices " one Gray, 
what good estimation did he grow unto with the same King Henry, and afterwards 
with the Duke of Somerset, Protectour, for making certaine merry ballades, 
whereof one chiefly was, The Tiunte is up, the hunte is up" Perhaps it was the 
same William Gray who wrote a ballad on the downfall of Thomas Lord Cromwell 
in 1540, to which there are several rejoinders in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries. The tune The Hunt is up was known as early as 1537, when 
information was sent to the Council against one John Hogon, who had offended 
against the proclamation of 1533, which was issued to suppress " fond books, 
ballads, rhimes, and other lewd treatises in the English tongue," by singing, 
" with a crowd or a fyddyll," a political song to that tune. Some of the words 
are inserted in the information, but they were taken down from recitation, and are 
not given as verse (see Collier's Shakespeare, i., p. cclxxxviii.) In the Complaint 
of Scotland, 1549, The Runt is up is mentioned as a tune for dancing, for which, 
from its lively character, it seems peculiarly suited ; and Mr. Collier has a MS. 
which contains a song called " The Kinges Hunt is upp," which may be the very 
one written by Gray, since " Harry our King" is twice mentioned in it, and a 
religious parody as old as the reign of Henry VIII. is in precisely the same 
measure. The following is the song : 



The east is bright with morning light, 

And darkness it is fled, 
And the merie home wakes up the morne 

To leave his idle bed. 

Beholde the skyes with golden dyes 

Are glowing all around, 
The grasse is greene, and so are the treene, 

All laughing at the sound. 

Awake, all men, I say agen, 
Be mery as you maye, 

For Harry our Kinge is gone hunting, 
To bring his deere to baye. 

The horses snort to be at the sport, 
The dogges are running free, 

The woddes rejoyce at the mery noise 
Of hey tantara tee ree ! 

The sunne is glad to see us clad 

All in our lustie greene, 
And smiles in the skye as he riseth hye, 

To see and to be scene. 



The tune is taken from Musick's delight on the Cithren, edition of 1666, which 
contains many very old and popular tunes, such as " Trip, and go," and " Light 
o' Love" (both mentioned by Shakespeare), which I have not found in any other 
printed collection. Kitson, in his Ancient Songs, quotes the following song of 
one verse, which is in the same measure, and was therefore probably sung to the 
same tune. It may be found in Merry Drollery Complete, 1661, and the New 
Academy of Complements, 1694 and 1713. 

" The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

And now it is almost day ; 
And he that's ' at home, in bed with his wife/ 
'Tis time to get him away." 

Any song intended to arouse in the morning even a love-song was formerly 
called a hunt's-up. Shakespeare so employs it in Romeo and Juliet, Act 3, Sc. 5 ; 
and the name was of .course derived from a tune or song employed by early 
hunters. Butler, in his Principles of Musik, 1636, defines a hunfs-up as 
" morning music ;" and Cotgrave defines "Resveil" as a hunt's-up, or Morning 
Song for a new-married wife. In Barnfield's Affectionate Shepherd, 1594, 
" And every morn by dawning of the day, 

When Phoebus riseth with a blushing face, 
Silvanus' chapel clerks shall chaunt a lay, 

And play thee hunt's-up in thy resting place. 
My cot thy chamber, my bosom thy bed, 
Shall be appointed for thy sleepy head." 

Again, in Wifs Bedlam, 1617, 

" Maurus, last morne, at's mistress' window plaid 

An hunt's-up on his lute," &c. 

The following song, which is also taken from Mr. Collier's manuscript, is of 
the character of a love-song : 


The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady free, 
The sun hath risen, from out his prison, 

Beneath the glistering sea. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady bright, 
The morning lark is high, to mark 

The coming of day-light. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady fair, 
The kine and sheep, but now asleep, 

Browse in the morning air. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady gay, 
The stars are fled to the ocean bed, 

And it is now broad day. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 
Awake, my lady sheen, 

The hills look out, and the woods about, 
Are drest in lovely green. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady dear, 
A morn in spring is the sweetest thing 

Cometh in all the year. 

The hunt is up, the hunt is up, 

Awake, my lady sweet, 
I come to thy bower, at this lov'd hour, 

My own true love to greet. 


The religious parody of The Hunt is up, which was written by John Thorne, 
has been printed by Mr. Halliwell, at the end of the moral play of Wit and 
Science, together with other curious songs from the same manuscript (Addit. MS., 
No. 15,233, Brit. Mus.) There are seventeen verses ; the first is as follows : 

" The hunt ys up, the hunt ys up, 

Loe ! it is allmost daye ; 
For Christ our Kyng is cum a huntyng, 
And browght his deare to staye," &c. 

but a more lively performance is contained in " Ane compendious booke of Godly 
and Spirituall Songs . . . with sundrie . . . ballates changed out of prophaine 
Sanges," &c., printed by Andro Hart in Edinburgh in 1621. The writer is very 
bitter against the Pope, who, he says, never ceased, " under dispence, to get our 
pence," and who sold " remission of sins in auld sheep skins;" and compares 
him to the fox of the hunt. The original edition of that book was printed in 1590. 

In Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books, is a piece, with twelve 
variations, by Byrde, called " The Hunt is up," which is also called " Pescod 
Time," in another part of the former book. It bears no appearance of ever having 
been intended for words ; certainly the songs in question could not be sung 
to it. 

A tune called The Queene's Majesties new Hunt is up, is mentioned in Anthony 
Munday's Banquet of dainty e conceits, 1588 ; and the ditty he gives, to be sung 
to it, called " Women are strongest, but truth overcometh all things," is in the 
same measure as the above, but I have not found any copy of the tune under that 
name. In 1565, William Pickering paid 4dL for a license to print " a ballett 
intituled The Hunte ys up," &c. (see Registers of Stationers' Company, p. 129). 


This is one of King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs, in Deuteromelia, 1609, 
and is to be found as a ballad in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, 
vol. i. 1698 and 1707, or in vol. iii. of the edition of 1719. The story seems to 
have been particularly popular, as there are three ballads of later date upon the 
same subject. It is of a young lady who, being alone and unprotected, finds the 
too urgent addresses of a knight likely to prove troublesome ; and, to escape 
from that position, pretends to yield to him, and persuades him to escort her 
home; but 

" When she came to her father's hall, 

It was well walled round about, 
She yode in at the wicket gate, 
And shut the four-ear'd fool without. 

Then she sung down, a-down," &c. 

The knight, regretting the lost opportunity, expresses himself in very uncourteous 
terms on the deceit of women. The ballad is printed in Ritson's Ancient Songs. 



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Yon - der comes a cour-teous ki 

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ight, Lus - ti - ly rak - ing o - ver the lay, 

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s, As she came wand'ring o- ver the way. Then 




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she sang down a down, 

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hey down derry, Then she sang down a down, hey down derry. 

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This is evidently a version of the tune called Dargason. (See p. 65.) The latter 
part differs, but that may be because this copy is taken from Pammelia, 1609, 
where three old tunes, " Shall I go walk the woods so wild," "Robin Hood, Robin 
Hood, said Little John," and this, are arranged to be sung together by three 
persons at the same time. Perhaps, the two lines from the Isle of Gulls, which 
are quoted at page 64, formed a portion of this song. Only one verse is given in 
Pammelia, and I have not succeeded in finding any other copy. 

Oft have I ridden up - on my grey nag, And with his cut tail he play'd the wag, And 

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- on his crag. Fa, 

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la, re, la, la, ri dan - di - no. 

wn he fell up 

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In Ritson's Ancient Songs, class 4 (from the reign of Edward VI. to Elizabeth) 
is " A merry ballad of the Hawthorn tree," to be sung to the tune of Donkin 
Dargeson. This curiosity is copied from a miscellaneous collection in the Cotton 
Library (Vespasian A. 25), and Ritson remarks, "This tune, whatever it was, 
appears to have been in use till after the Restoration." I have found several 
copies of the tune ; one is in the Public Library, Cambridge, among Dowland's 
manuscripts. The copy here given is from the Dancing Master, 1650-51, where 
it is called Dargason, or the Sedany. The Sedany was a country dance, the figure 
of which is described in the The Triumph of Wit, or Ingenuity displayed, p. 206. 
In Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub, we find, " But if you get the lass from Dargison, 
what will you do with her ? " Giffbrd, in a note upon this passage, says, " In 
some childish book of knight-errantry, which I formerly read, but which I cannot 
now recall to mind, there is a dwarf of this name (Dargison) , who accompanies a 
lady, of great beauty and virtue, through many perilous adventures, as her guard 
and guide." In the Isle of Gf-ulls, played by the children of the Revels, in the 
Black Fryars, 1606, may be found the following scrap, possibly of the original 
ballad : " An ambling nag, and a-down, a-down, 

We have borne her away to Dargison" 

See also " Oft have I ridden upon my grey nag," page 63. In the Douce collec- 
tion of Ballads (fol. 207), Bodleian Library, as well as in the Pepysian, is a song 
called " The Shropshire Wakes, or hey for Christmas, being the delightful sports 
of most countries, to the tune of Dargason" It begins thus : 
" Come Kobin, Ralph, and little Harry, 

And merry Thomas to our green ; 
Where we shall meet with Bridget and Sary, 

And the finest girls that e'er were seen. 
Then hey for Christmas a once year, 

When we have cakes, with ale and beer, 
For at Christmas ' every day,' 

Young men and maids ' may dance away,' " &c. 

This tune is inserted in Jones' Musical and Poetical (and especially by a very different version, under the same 

Relics of the Welsh Bards, p. 129, under the name of "The name, in Parry's Cambrian Harmony, published about 

melody of Cynwyd;" and some other curious coincidences fifty years ago), there is considerable variation, as maybe 

occur in the same work. At page 172, the tune called expected in tunes traditionally preserved for so long a 

" The Welcome of the Hostess " is evidently our " Mitter time, but their identity admits of little question. In 

Rant." At page 176, the tune called " Flaunting two," vol. ii., at p. 25, '.' The Willow Hymn" is, " By the osiers 

is the country dance of "The Hemp Dresser, or the Lon- so dank." At p. 44, " The first of August" is, " Come, 

don Gentlewoman." At page 129, " The Delight of the jolly Bacchus," with a little admixture of " In my cottage 

men of Dovey," appears to be an inferior copy of near a wood." At page 33, a tune called "The Britons," 

" Green Sleeves." At page 174, is " Hunting the Hare," which is in The Dancing Master of 1696, is claimed. At 

which we also claim. At page 162, "The Monks' March" p. 45, " Mopsy's Tune, the old way," is "The Barking 

(of which Jones says, " Probably the tune of the Monks Barber," and " Prestwich Bells" is "Talk no more of 

of Bangor, when they marched to Chester, about the year Whig or Tory," contained in many collections. At vol. Hi., 

603,") is "General Monk's March," published by Play- p. 15, "The Heiress of Montgomery" is another version 

ford, and the quick part, "The Rummer;" and at page of "As down in the meadows." At p. 16, "Captain 

142, the air called "White Locks" is evidently Lord Corbett " is " Of all comforts I miscarried ;" and at p. 49, 

Commissioner Whitelocke's coranto, an account of which, "If love's a sweet passion," is claimed." In addition 

with the tune, is contained in Sir J. Hawkins' History of to these, Mr. Jones has himself noticed a coincidence 

Music, vol. iv. page 51, and in Burney's History of M usic, between the tune called "The King's Note," (vol. iii.) 

vol. iii. page 378. In several of these, particularly in the and " Pastyme with good Company." Such mistakes will 

last, which is identified by the second part of the tune always occur when an editor relies solely on tradition. 



There are sixteen verses in the song. The tune is one of those which only end 
when the singer is exhausted; for although, strictly speaking, it consists of but 
eight bars (and in the seventh edition of The Dancing Master only eight bars are 
printed), yet, from never finishing on the key-note, it seems never to end. Many 
of these short eight-bar tunes terminate on the fifth of the key, but when longer 
melodies were used, such as sixteen bars, they generally closed with the key-note. 
There were, however, exceptions to the rule, especially among dance tunes, which 
required frequent repetition. 

Pastoral character, "A MERY BALLET OF THE HATHORNE TRE." 

It was a maid of my coun-try, As she came by a hawthorn tree, As 



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full of flow'rs as might be seen, She marvell'd to see the tree so green. At 

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of this tree, How 

came this fresh-ness 

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fair and clean ? I 

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The tree made answer by and by, 
I have cause to grow triumphantly, 
The sweetest dew that ever be seen, 
Doth fall on me to keep me green. 

Yea, quoth the maid, but where you grow 
You stand at hand for every blow, 
Of every man for to be seen, 
I marvel that you grow so green. 

Though many one take flowers from me, 
And many a branch out of my tree ; 
I have such store they will not be seen, 
For more and more my twigs grow green. 

But how, an they chance to cut thee down, 
And carry thy branches into the town ? 
Then they will never more be seen 
To grow again so fresh and green. 



Though that you do it is no boot, 
Although they cut me to the root, 
Next year again I will be seen 
To bud my branches fresh and green. 

And you, fair maid, can not do so, 
For 'when your beauty once does go,' 
Then will it never more be seen, 
As I with my branches can grow green. 

The Maid with that began to blush, 
And turn'd her from the hawthorn bush ; 
She thought herself so fair and clean, 
Her beauty still would ever grow green. 

* * # 

But after this never I could hear 
Of this fair maiden any where, 
That ever she was in forest seen 
To talk again with the hawthorn green. 

The above will be found in Ritson's Ancient Songs, in Evans' Collection of Old 
Ballads (vol. i., p. 342, 1810), and in Peele's Works, vol. ii., p. 256, edited by 
Dyce. It is included in the last named work, because in the MS. the name of 
"G. Peele" is appended to the song, but by a. comparatively modern hand. The 
Rev. Alexander Dyce does not believe Peele to have been the author, and Ritson, 
who copied from the same manuscript, does not mention his name. 


This is mentioned in the Life of Sir Peter Carew as one of the Freemen's Songs, 
which he used to sing with Henry V1L1. (See page 52). It must have enjoyed 
an extensive and long-continued popularity, for there are three different arrange- 
ments of it in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, all by Byrde ; it is in Lady 
Neville's Virginal Book ; in Pammelia (1609) it is one of the three tunes that 
could be sung together ; and it is in The Dancing Master, from the first edition, 
in 1650, to that of 1690. In the edition of 1650, it is called Greenwood, and in 
some of the later copies, Greenwood, or The Huntsman. 

There were probably different words to the tune, because in the Life of Sir 
Peter Carew it is called "As I walked the woods so wild;" in Lady Neville's 
Virginal Book, " Will you walk the woods so wild ?" and in Pammelia, " Shall 
I go walk," &c. 

j Moderate time. 

j> b r 

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Shall I go walk the woods so wild, Wandering, wand 'ring here and there, As 

1 \ Li f* 



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was once full 

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sore beguil'd, A - 

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las ! for love I 

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die with woe. 

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This celebrated old song is inserted among the Freemen's Songs of three voices 
in Deuteromelia, 1609. It is also to be found in Playford's Musical Companion, 
1687, and for one voice in Wit and Mirth, or Pitts to Purge Melancholy, vofTi., 
1698 and 1707. It is, however, much older than any of these books. - Carew, 
in his Survey of Cornwall, 1602, p. 135, says, " The prowess of one Nicholas, 
son to a widow near Foy, is descanted upon in an old three-man's song, namely, 
how he fought bravely at sea, with one John Dory (a Genowey, as I conjecture) , 
set forth by John, the French King, and after much blood shed on both sides, took 
and slew him," &c. Carew was born in 1555. The only King John of France 
died a prisoner in England, in 1364. In the play of Crammer Crurton's Needle 
there is a song, "I cannot eat but little meat," which was sung to the tune of 
John Dory. The play was printed in 1575, but the song appears to be older. 
(See page 72). Bishop Corbet thus mentions John Dory, with others, in his 
"Journey to Fraunce : " 

" But woe is me ! the guard, those men of warre, 

Who but two weapons use, beef and the barre, 

Begun to gripe me, knowing not the truth, 

That I had sung John Dory in my youth ; 

Or that I knew the day when I could chaunt, 

Chevy, and Arthur, or The Siege of Gaunt" 

Bishop Earle, in his " Character of a Poor Fiddler," says, "Hunger is the greatest 
pains he takes, except a broken head sometimes, and labouring John Dory" In 
Fletcher's comedy The Chances, Antonio, a humourous old man, receives a wound, 
which he will only suffer to be dressed on condition that the song of John Dory be 
sung the while, and he gives 10s. to the singers. It is again mentioned by 
Fletcher in The Knight of the Burning Pestle; by Brathwayte in Drunken 
Barnaby's Journal ; in Vox Borealis, or the Northern Discoverie, 1641 ; in some 
verses on the Duke of Buckingham, 1628 : 

" Then Viscount Slego telleth a long storie 

Of the supplies, as if he sung John Doric ;" 
and twice by Gayton, in his Pleasant Notes upon Don Quixote, 1654. 

A parody was made upon it by Sir John Mennis, on the occasion of Sir John 
Suckling's troop of horse, which he raised for Charles L, running away in the 
civil war, and it was much sung by the Parliamentarians at the time. In will be 
found in Wit Restored, 1658, entitled " Upon Sir John Suckling's most warlike 
preparation for the Scottish War," and begins 

" Sir John got him an ambling nag." 

In the epilogue to a farce called the Empress of Morocco, 1674, intended to 
ridicule a tragedy of the same name by Elk. Settle, and Sir W. Davenant's 
alteration of Macbeth (which had been lately revived with the addition of music 
by Mathew Locke), " the most renowned and melodious song of John Dory was 
to be heard in the air, sung in parts by spirits, to raise the expectation and charm 
the audience with thoughts sublime and worthy of the heroic scene which follows." 
It is quoted in Folly in print, 1667 ; in Merry Drollery complete, 1670 ; and in 



many songs. Dryden refers to it, as one of the most hackneyed in his time, 

in one of his lampoons : 

" But Sunderland, Godolphin, Lory, 

* These will appear such chits in story, 

'Twill turn all politics to jest, 
To be repeated, like John Dory, 
When fiddlers sing at feasts." 
The above lines were also printed under the name of the " Earl of Rochester." 

The name of the fish called John Dory, corrupted from doree or dorn, is 
another proof of the great popularity of this song. 

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fell on a ho - li - day, And up - on a ho - ly 

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tide, a John 

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Do - ry bought him an am - bling nag To Pa - ris for to 

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ride, a, To 

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Pa - ris for to ride, a, And up - on a no - ly 



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And when John Dory to Paris was come, 

A little before the gate-a ; 
John Dory was fitted, the porter was witted, 

To let him in thereat-a. 

The first man that John Dory did meet, 
Was good King John of France-a : 

John Dory could well of his courtesie, 
But fell down in a trance-a. 

A pardon, a pardon, my liege and king, 

For my merry men and me-a : 
And all the churls in merry England 

I'll bring them bound to thee-a. 

And Nichol was then a Cornish man, 

A little beside Bohyde-a ; 
And he manned forth a good black bark, 

With fifty good oars on a side-a. 

Run up, my boy, into the main top, 
And look what thou canst spy-a ; 

Who, ho ! who, ho ! a good ship I do see, 
I trow it be John Dory-a. 

They hoist their sails, both top and top, 

The mizen and all was tried-a ; 
And every man stood to his lot, 

Whatever should betide-a. 

The roaring cannons then were plied, 
And dub-a-dub went the drum-a ; 

The braying trumpets loud they cried, 
To courage both all and some-a. 

The grappling hooks were brought at length, 

The brown bill and the sword-a : 
John Dory at length, for all his strength, 
Was clapt fast under board-a. 


Smoothly and in moderate time. 





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This tune, which Sir John Hawkins thought to be " the oldest country-dance 
tune now extant" (an opinion to which I do not subscribe), is to be found in 
Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books, in Music's Handmaid, 
1678, &c. It is difficult to say from whom it derived its name. It might be from 
" Sir Thomas Sellynger," who was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
before the year 1475, as appears by a brass plate there ; or from Sir Antony 
St. Leger, whom Henry VIII. appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1540. 

In Bacchus' 1 Bountie (4to., 1593), we find this passage: "While thus they 
tippled, the fiddler he fiddled, and the pots danced for joy the old hop-about 
commonly called Sellengar's Round" In Middleton's Father Hubburd's Tales 
(1604) : "Do but imagine now what a sad Christmas we all kept in the country, 
without either carols, wassail bowls, dancing of Sellenger's Round in moonshine 
nights about Maypoles, shoeing the mare, hoodman-blind, hot cockles, or any of our 
Christmas gambols, no, not not so much as choosing king and queen on Twelfth 
Night ! " In Heywood's Fair Maid of the West, part ii. : " They have so tired 
me with their moriscoes [morris dances], and I have so tickled them with our 
country dances, Sellenger's Round and Tom Tiler. We have so fiddled it ! " 

A curious reason for the second name to this tune is given in the comedy 
of Lingua, 1607. Anamnestes : " By the same token the first tune the planets 
played ; I remember Venus, the treble, ran sweet division upon Saturn, the base. 
The first tune they played was Sellenger's Round, in memory whereof, ever since, 
it hath been called The Beginning of the World" On this, Common Sense asks : 
" How comes it we hear it not now ? and Memory, another of the characters, 
says : " Our ears are so well acquainted ivith the sound, that we never mark it." 
In Shirley's Lady of Pleasure, Lady Born well says that, " to hear a fellow make 
himself merry and his horse with whistling Sellenger's Round, and to observe with 
what solemnity they keep their wakes, moriscoes, and Whitsun-ales, are the only 
amusements of the country." 

It is mentioned as The Beginning of the World by Deloney in his history of 
Jack of Newbury, and the times to which he refers are those of Henry VIII. ; 
but, so great was its popularity, that it is mentioned three or four times by 
Heywood ; also by Ben Jonson, by Taylor the water-poet, by Fletcher, Shirley, 
Brome,Farquhar, Wycherley, Morley (1597), Clieveland (1677),Marmion (1641); 
by the author of The Return from Parnassus, and by many other writers. 

There is a wood-cut of a number of young men and women dancing Sellenger's 
Round, with hands joined, round a Maypole, on the title page of a black letter 
garland, called "The new Crown Garland of princely pastime and mirth," printed 
by J. Back, on London Bridge. In the centre are two musicians, the one playing 
the fiddle, the other the pipe, with the inscription, "Hey for Sellenger's Round!" 
above them. 

As the dance was so extremely popular, I shall, in this instance, give the figure 
from the The Dancing Master of 1670, where it is described as a round dance 
" for as many as will." 

" Take hands, and go round twice : back again. All set and turn sides : that 



again. Lead all in a double forward and back : that again. Two singles and a 
double back, set and turn single : that again. Sides all: that again. Arms all: 
that again. As before, as before." Country dances were formerly danced as 
often in circles as in parallel lines. 

The following songs were sung to the tune : "The merry wooing of Robin and 
Joan, the West-country Lovers, to the tune of the Beginning of the World, or 
Sellenger's Round." Roxburgh Collection. "The Fair Maid of Islington, or the 
London Vintner over-reached," in the Bagford Collection. " Robin's Courtship," 
in Wit Restored, 1658. 

As a specimen of old harmony, I have added the arrangement of Sellenger's 
Round by Byrd, from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. Having an instrument 
that would not sustain the tone (for the virginals, like the harpsichord, only 
twitted the wires with a quill) it is curious to see how he has filled up the harmony 
by an inner part, that seems intended to imitate the prancing of the hobby-horse. 
The hobby-horse was the usual attendant on May-day and May Games. 

In moderate time. 






This song was sung in " a right pithy, pleasant, and merry comedy," called 
Crammer Grurton's Needle, which was printed in 1575, but the Rev. Alex. Dyce 
has given a copy of double length from a manuscript in his possession, and 
" certainly of an earlier date than the play." It may be seen in his account of 
Skelton and his writings, vol. i., p. 7. I have selected four from the eight 
verses, as sufficiently long for singing. Warton calls it " the first drinking song of 
any merit in our language." In early dramas it was the custom to sing old songs, 
or to play old tunes, both at the commencement and at the end of the acts. For 
instance, in Summer's Last Will and Testament, which was performed in 1593, 
the direction to the actors in the Prologue is to begin the play with " a fit 
of mirth and an old song:" and at the end of the comedy, Ham Alley , "strike up 
music; let's have an old song." In Peele's Arraignment of Paris, Venus " singeth 
an old song, called The wooing of Colman." In Marston's Antonio and Mellida, 
Feliche sings " the old ballad, And was not good king Solomon." To these in- 
stances many others might be added; indeed, in the very play (Gammer Gf-urton), 
at the end of the second act, Diccon says : 

" In the mean time, fellows, pipe up your fiddles, I say take them 
And let your friends have such mirth as ye can make them." 

The tune is printed in Stafford Smith's Musica Antiqua, and in Ritson's English 
Songs. Ritson says : " Set, four parts in one, by Mr. "Walker, before the year 
1600." And Smith, not knowing, I suppose, who Mr. Walker was, seems to have 
guessed "Weelkes ; but it is the old tune of John Dory in common time. 

In moderate time, and well marked. 

bf ^n ' 

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I can - no 

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eat but lit - tie 

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sto - mach is not 

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d ; But sure I 



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k that I can 

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drink With 

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him tli 

at wears a 









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Though I go bare, take ye no care, 

' For I am never ' cold : 
I stuff my skin so full within 

Of jolly good ale and old. 
Back and side, go bare, go bare, 

Both foot and hand go cold : ' 
But belly, God send thee good ale enough, 

Whether it be new or old. 

I love no roast, but a nut-brown toast, 

And a crab laid in the fire, 
A little bread shall do me stead, 

Much bread I never desire. 
No frost nor snow, nor wind, I trow, 

Can hurt me, if it would ; 
I am so wrapp'd, so thoroughly lapp'd 

With jolly good ale and old. 

Back and side, &c. 



I care right nought, I take no thought 

For clothes to keep me warm, 
Have I good drink I surely think 

' That none ' can do me harm. 
For truly then I fear no man, 

' Though never he ' so bold, 
When I am arm'd and thoroughly warm'd 

With jolly good ale and old. 

Back and side, &c. 

Now let them drink till they nod and wink, 

Even as good fellows should do, 
They shall not miss to have the bliss 

Good ale doth bring men to ; 
And all poor souls that scour black bowls, 

Or have them lustily troled, 
God save the lives of them and their wives, 

Whether they be young or old. 

Back and side, &c. 


In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book there is a tune called Hanskin, and in all 
the early editions of The Dancing Master, viz., from 1650 to 1690, one called 
Half Hannikin. Hankin or Hannikin was the common name of a clown : 
" Thus for her love and loss poor Hankin dies ; 
His amorous soul down flies 
To th' bottom of the cellar, there to dwell : 
Susan, farewell, farewell ! " Musarum Delicice, 1655. 

And Hankin Booby was used as term of contempt. Nash, meaning to call his 
opponent a Welsh clown, calls him a " Gobin a Grace ap Hannikin," and says, 
" No vulgar respects have I, what Hoppenny Hoe and his fellow Hankin Booby 
think of me." (Have with you to Saffron- Waldon, 1596.J 

We find Hankin Booby mentioned as a tune in the interlude of Thersytes, 
which was written in 1537 : 

" And we wyll have minstrelsy 

That shall pype Hankin boby" 
Skelton, in his Ware the Hauke, says : 

" With troll, cytrace, and trovy, 
They ranged, hariltin bovy, 
My churche all aboute. 
This fawconer then gan showte, 
These be my gospellers, 

These be my pystillers, [epistlers] 
These be my querysters [choristers] 
To help me to synge, 
My hawkes to mattens rynge. 

Skelton's Works, Ed. Dyce, vol. i., p. 159. 

By an extract from Sir H. Herbert's office-book of revels and plays performed at 
Whitehall at Christmas, 1622-3, quoted by Mr. Collier, in his Annals of the 
Stage, we find that on Sunday, 19th Jan., 1623, after the performance of Ben 
Jonson'g masque, Time Vindicated, "The Prince did lead the measures with the 
French Ambassador's wife," and " the measures, braules, corrantos, and galliards, 
being ended, the masquers, with the ladies, did daunce two countrey dances, 
namely, The Soldier's Marche and Huff Hamukin." I believe that by Huff 
Hamukin, Half Hannikin is intended, the letters are so nearly alike in form, and 
might be so easily mistaken. In Brome's Jovial Crew, 1652, "Our father is so 
pensive that he makes us even sick of his sadness, that were wont to ' See my 
gossip's cock to-day,' mould cocklebread, daunce Clutterdepouch and Hannykin 
booby, bind barrels, or do anything before him, and he would laugh at us." 
The tune called Hanskin in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book is the same as 



" Jog on, the foot-path way," and will be found in this collection among the airs 
that are mentioned by Shakspeare. The following is Half Hannikin, from The 
Dancing Master. 








This is one of the tunes in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, where it is 
arranged by Byrd. The words are from Deuteromelia, 1609, but it appears that 
Ravenscr'oft, in arranging it as a round, has taken only half the tune. 






-J H J 1 ^ 

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j'"^'rT* a T^'r' 1 * i -- J ' ^ : ' 

There's ne-ver a maid in all this town, But well she knows that malt's comedown, 

A A ^ 

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n^ ^" ~r~ "^ 

lalt's come down, malt's comedown, From an old an -gel to a French crown 

The greatest drunkards in the town 
Are very glad that malt's come down. 

Malt's come down, &c. 




In Beaumont and Fletcher's play, The Knight of the Burning Pestle, Old 
Merrythought sings many snatches of old songs, and among others 
" Nose, nose, jolly red nose, 
And who gave thee this jolly red nose ? 
Cinnamon, ginger, nutmegs and cloves, 
And they gave me this jolly red nose ;" 

which are the four last lines of this song. It is one of the King Henry's Mirth 
or Freemen's Songs in D enter omelia, 1609. 

-m, h-rH M h-r-TTj J J- 

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LP_B i n . - - 1 p . r 

Of all the birds that e-ver I see, The 

owl is the fairest in her de-gree ; For 

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all the daylong she sits in a tree, And when the night comes, away flies she : Te whit tewhoo! to 

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whom drinkst thou ? Sir Knave, to you. This song is well sung I make you a vow, And 

___ . ___ ^ c^ . p - 

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he is a knave that drinketh now : Nose, nose, 
ff J ft P 

jol - ly red nose ! And who gave thee that 

F a S M f i 

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jolly red nose ? Cinnamon, gin - ger, nutmegs and cloves, And that gave me my 

V C 

jol - ly red nose. 
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This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and it is one of the Freemen's 
Songs in Deuteromelia, 1609. It was entered on the books of the Stationer's 
Company as a ballad in 1588, when Thomas Orwyn had a license to print it ; and 
it is alluded to in Dekker's comedy, Old Fortunatus, where Shadow says : " Only 
to make other idiots laugh, and wise men to cry * Who's the fool now ? ' " which 
is the burden of every verse. It is thought to be a satire upon those who tell 
wonderful stories. 


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Martin said to his mi 

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fie, man, fie ! 

Fi i~T f~l 

LJ J J J 1 

Martin said to his man, 


J E 

J c r P 

-d : 

Who's the fool now? Martin said to hismanjFill the cup and I the can jThouhastwell drunken, man, 

:u . r 

I saw the man in the moon ; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw the man in the moon ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw the man in the moon 
Clouting of St. Peter's shoon ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man 

Who's the fool now? 

I saw a hare chase a hound ; 

Fie! man, fie! 
I saw a hare chase a hound ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a hare chase a hound, 
Twenty miles above the ground ; 
Thou hast well drunken, man 

Who's the fool now ? 

I saw a goose ring a hog ; 

Fie ! man, ^ie ! 
I saw a goose ring a hog ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a goose ring a hog, 
And a snail bite a dog ; 

Tho hast well drunken, man 

Who's the fool now ? 

I saw a mouse catch a cat ; 

Fie ! man, fie ! 
I saw a mouse catch a cat ; 

Who's the fool now ? 
I saw a mouse catch a cat, 
And the cheese eat the rat ; 

Thou hast well drunken, man 

Who's the fool now? 




This is also one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs in Deutero- 
melia, 1609, and will be found as a song in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge 
Melancholy, vol. i., 1698 and 1707. 



sol - diers three, Par-dona moy, je vous an pree, 


Lately come forth of the Low Country, With 



ne-ver a pen-ny 


r * r 

Here, good fellow, I drink to thee, And he that will not pledge me this, 

Pardona moy, je vous an pree ; a Par dona moy, je vous an pree, 

To all good fellows, wherever they be, Pays for the shot whatever it is, 

With never a penny of money. With never a penny of money. 

Charge it again, boy, charge it again, 

Pardona moy, je vous an pree ; 
As long as there is any ink in thy pen, 

With never a penny of money. 


This is one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs in Deuteromelia, 
1609, and is to be found as a dance tune in the Skene MS. (about 1630), called 
Brangill of Poictu, i.e., Branle, or Braule of Poictu. 

Braules a were dances much in vogue with the upper classes during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries. Their being danced at Whitehall in 1623, has 
been mentioned at page 73 ; and Pepys speaks of them at the Court of Charles H. 
Branle de Poictu is explained by Morley (1597) as meaning the Double Branle, 
in contradistinction to the French Branle, or Branle- Simple. 

Another Branle de Poictu (quite a different tune) will be found in the Straloch 
Manuscript, for the name was given to any air used for the dance. It was so 

" These pardonnez-moy's who stand so much on the 
new form." Romeo and Juliet, act ii., sc. 4. Dr. John- 
son in a note says : " Pardonnez mot became the language 
of doubt or hesitation among men of the sword, when the 
point of honour was grown so delicate that no other mode 
of contradiction would be endured." 

" Braules, which, Mr. M. Mason observes, seem to be 
what we now call cotillons, are described by Philips as 

"a kind of dance in which several persons danced together 
in a ring, holding one another by the hand." In Marston's 
play of The Malcontent there is a minute, but perhaps 
not now very intelligible description of the figures. See 
Dodsley's Collection of old Plays, vol. iv. Braules are 
alluded to by Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, Massinger, and 



usual in England, formerly, to make dances out of such song and ballad tunes as 
were of a sufficiently cheerful character, that nearly every air in the first edition 
of The Dancing Master, 1650-51, can be proved to be that of a song or " ballet" 
of earlier date than the book. It has for that reason been so valuable an aid in 
the present collection. About 1690, tunes composed expressly for dancing were 
becoming more general, and in the editions of The Dancing Master from 1715 
to 1728, the song and the dance tunes are nearly equally divided. 



U .N-H-i 


We be three poor 

L^> ,. s j =^ 

ma - ri-ners, New - ly come from the 

-j -j 1 1 I B 

seas ; We 

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b-^ | ., 

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n <*i i i~i 

~^T ~^~ " 

spend our lives in jeo - par - dy, While o - thers 

1 r 1 1 

-it ^5* 
live at 

~^ a h~ h 

ease. Shall we go dance the 

i 1 1 1 

1 J 

I A . M 

4 -4-1 

rr *~""H 




'J ,j J. J J J iJJp c . i 

L, 1 =$=l 

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-j 5 "-p p p p 

round, the round, the round? Shall we go dance trie i 

-^F- =5= -L ' 

ound, the round, the round ? And 

-J ^ J H . J 1 


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4 J 

. J 


=1 i j P? 

=3 -H r-J U 

J. j. _ J ' . ' 

he that is a bul - ly 
jol - ly 

1 r"""" 1 

boy, Come pledge me on this ground, a ground, a ground. 



1 . J J 



-J ' ' J. " " ' ^- -" 

We care not for those martial men 

That do our states disdain ; 
But we care for the merchantmen 

Who do our states maintain. 
To them we dance this round, around, around, 

To them we dance this round ; 
And he that is a bully [jolly] boy, 

Come pledge me on the ground, aground, aground. 




This ancient melody is also transcribed from a MSS. of the time of Henry the 
Eighth (No. 4900, Additional MS., Brit. Mus.). The original is, as usual, with- 
out bars, but with an accompaniment in tablature for the lute. In the same 
volume are songs by John Taverner, Shepherde, Heywood, &c. It has the same 
peculiarity as the dance tune at page 27, each part consisting of nine bars. A 
song called " My little pretty one " is in the Roxburgh Collection of Ballads, 
" to a pleasant new tune," but the measure is different. 


TT\ A 1 1 


M : 

J H 

rr-> * j 

<fc) 4 J -j 


; 9 jg 


t) * -or " 
My lit - tie pret - ty one, My pret - ty ho - ney one, 

^*y o 





r j J j i 

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E -R d 

J J J J 11 H tt 

She is a j 

t J J 

oy - ly one, Ar 
Dy - ous 

J J J^ ^ 

id gen - tie a 

J . . 

* ^ * *^j -y 

s . . . can be. 

1 J ' 


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1 1 " 

rf 3 r 

?d ^ 

J ^ Mi 

i i 

_s a tempo. 

1 1 Q 

1 1 


] 4J jE 

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J . / j 


With a beck she 

1 : f -jL 

comes a - non, 

With a wink she 

1 _ : 1 
wilP be gone. 

r* 1 

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P d 

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1 ' 1 

=N) ! 

I * 


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4- ' d 


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No doubt she is a - lone of all that e - ver I see. 



1 1 1 

1 1 


L ^ -i ^ . ^ -J- 


This song is still known in some parts of the country, and was written down for 
me by a friend, in Leicestershire, some years ago. In the " very mery and pithie 
commedie " called The longer tlwu livest the more fool tJiou art, there is a 
stage direction " Here entreth Moros, counterfaiting a vaine gesture and foolish 
countenance, synging the foote [burden] of many songes, as fooles were wont." 
Among the burdens is the following : 

" Robin, lende me thy bowc, thy bowe, 
Robin, the bow, Robin, lend to me thy borv-a." 



The play was entered at Stationers' Hall in 1568-9. " That it was a popular 
song in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign appears also from its being 
mentioned, amongst others, in a curious old musical piece (MS. Harl. 7578), 
containing the description and praises of the city of Durham, written about that 
time." It is to be found as one of the " pleasant roundelayes " in Pammelia, 
1609, and has likewise been printed by Ritson, in his Ancient Songs. The tune 
differs slightly from the copy in Pammelia, but I think for the better. 

Smoothly and slow. 

~$\ ^ 

3 i- 

i *n 

iJ J i 1 1 


rN J^ijp J f V " ^^^ 

Now Robin, lend to me thy bow, Sweet Ro- bin lend to me thy bow, For 

a%n<* j F r P ? ~ . = 


n F 

v ' ' r 

1 p 




J 1 ^ H 


-F ^ f 
I must now a hunt - ing with my 

-H 1 ^ 

* ~m 
la - dy 


3 ij * * j i 

With my sweet la - dy 

f- f . r h- 


_q : 1 





And whither will thy Lady go ? 

Sweet Wilkin, tell it unto me ; 
And thou shalt have my hawke, my hound, and eke my bow, 

To wait on thy Lady. 

My Lady will to Uppingham,* 

To Uppingham forsooth will shee ; 
And I myself appointed for to be the man 

To wait on my Lady. 

Adieu, good Wilkin, all beshrewde, 

Thy hunting nothing pleaseth mee ; 
But yet beware thy babling hounds stray not abroad 

For ang'ring of thy Lady. 

My hounds shall be led in the line, 

So well I can assure it thee ; 
Unless by straine of view some pursue I may finde, 

To please my sweet Ladye. 

With that the Lady shee came in, 

And will'd them all for to agree ; 
For honest hunting never was accounted sinne. 

Nor never shall for mee. 

A market-town in Rutlandshire. 




This is also one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs, in Deutero- 
melia. In the first year of the Registers of the Stationers' Company (1557-58) 
there is an entry of a license to Mr. John Wallye and Mrs. Toye to print a 
"Ballette " called " Who lyve so mery and make such sporte, 

As thay that be of the poorest sorte?" 

These lines will be found in the last verse of the song, and were probably printed 
at the head of it as the title. Ballets were songs of a cheerful character, which 
being " sung to a ditty may likewise be danced." So the " Merry Ballet of the 
Hawthorn Tree" (see page 64), was to be sung to the tune of Dargason, which is 
also mentioned as a dance tune. 

The following song will also be found in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, p. 252, 
and in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. i., 1698 and 1707. In 
Wit and Drollery, as well as in Deuteromelia, the third and fourth lines of each 
verse are marked to be sung in chorus. 

Moderate time. 

Who li-veth so merry in all this land, As doth the poor widow that selleth the sand. And 

J. .J J . .J . J 


r JTI 


H j !s -j J^5i 

I*'J JJ 1 


"" 1 1 

e-ver she singeth as 

1 can guess, Will you buy any sand, any 

sand, Mistress. 
r-J -: -I* 



- i 


H ^ f 

-f- 1 

The broom-man maketh his living most sweet, 
With carrying of brooms from street to street. 
Chorus. Who would desire a pleasanter thing 

Than all the day long to do nothing but sing ? 

The chimney-sweeper all the long day, 
He singeth and sweepeth the soot away ; 
Ch. Yet when he comes home, although he be weary, 
With his pretty, sweet wife he maketh full merry. 

The cobbler he sits cobbling till noon, 
And cobbles his shoes till they be done ; 
Ch. Yet doth he not fear, and so doth say, 

For he knows that his work will soon decay. 

The merchantman he doth sail on the seas, 
And lie on the ship-board with little ease ; 
Ch. For always he doubts that the rocks are near, 
How can he be merry and make good cheer ? 


The husbandman all day goeth to plough, 
And when he comes home he serveth his sow ; 
Ch. He moileth and toileth all the long year, 
How can he be merry and make good cheer ? 

The serving-man waiteth from street to street, 
Either blowing his nails or beating his feet ; 
Ch. Yet all that serves for, four angels* a year, 
Impossible 'tis that he make good cheer. 

Who liveth so merry and maketh such sport 
As those that be of the poorest sort ? 
Ch. The poorest sort, wheresoever they be, 

They gather together by one, two, and three. 

And every man will spend his penny, ^ 

What makes such a shot among a great many.j 


In The Dancing Master this tune is called Trenchmore. In Deuteromelia it is 
one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs, under the name of " To- 
morrow the fox will come to town." 

In a Morality, by William Bulleyn, called A Dialogue both pleasant and piety- 
full, wherein is a goodly regimen against the fever pestilence, &c., 1564, a minstrel 
is thus described: "There is one lately come into the hall, in a green Kendal coat, 
with yellow hose ; a beard of the same colour, only upon the upper lip ; a russet 
hat, with a great plume of strange feathers ; and a brave scarf about his neck ; 
in cut buskins. He is playing at the trea trippe with our host's son ; he playeth 
trick upon the gittern, daunces Trenchmore and Seie de Grie, and telleth news 
from Terra Florida." 

Taylor, the water-poet, in A Merry Wherry-ferry Voyage, says : 
" Heigh, to the tune of Trenchmore I could write 
The valiant men of Cromer's sad affright ; " 

and in A Navy of Land Ships, 1627, " Nimble-heel' d mariners, like so many 
dancers, capering a morisco [morris dance], or Trenchmore of forty miles long, 
to the tune of ' Dusty, my dear,' ' Dirty, come thou to me,' ' Dun out of the mire,' 
or * I wail in woe and plunge in pain : ' all these dances have no other music." 
Deloney, in his History of the gentle craft, 1598, says: "like one dancing the 
Trenchmore, he stamp'd up and down the yard, holding his hips in his hands." 

Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621, says that mankind are at no 
period of their lives insensible to dancing. "Who can withstand it? be we young 
or old, though our teeth shake in our heads like Virginal Jacks, or stand parallel 
asunder like the arches of a bridge, there is no remedy: we must dance Trench- 
more over tables, chairs, and stools." The following amusing description is from 
Selden's Table Talk: 

" The court of England is much alter'd. At a solemn dancing, first you had the 
grave measures, then the corantoes and the galliards, and this kept up with ceremony ; 
and at length to Trenchmore and the Cushion Dance : then all the company dances, 

The angel was a gold coin worth about ten shillings, so named from having the representation of an angel upon it. 



lord and groom, lady and kitchen maid, no distinction. So in our court in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, gravity and state were kept up. In King James's time things were 
pretty well, but in King Charles's time, there has been nothing but Trenchmore and 
the Cushion Dance, omnium gatherum, tolly polly, hoite come toite." 

Trenchmore is mentioned also in Stephen Gosson's Schoole of Abuse, 1579; in 
Hey wood' s A Woman Killed with Kindness, 1600 ; in Chapman's Wit of a 
Woman, 1604; in Barry's Earn Alley, 1611; in Beaumont and Fletcher's Island 
Princess ; in Weelkes' Ayres or Phantasticke Sprites, 1608 ; and in 1728 was 
still to be found in The Dancing Master. In the comedy of The Rehearsal, 
1672, the earth, sun, and moon, are made to dance the Hey to the tune of 

Several political songs were sung to it, one of which is in the collection of 
" Poems on Affairs of State, from 1640 to 1704." In the Roxburghe Collection 
of Ballads is one called " The West-country Jigg, or a Trenchmore Galliard," 
" Four-and- twenty lasses went over Trenchmore Lee." 

The following is the song in Deuteromelia. 
Moderate time. 

To - morrow the fox will come to town, Keep, keep, keep, keep ; To-morrow the fox will 



J.J-U J 


come to town, O keep you all well there. I must de - sire you neighbours all, To 

J- r ir r ' ' r 'J J'r ' i" 

hal-lo the fox out of the hall, And cry as loud as you can call, Whoop, whoop, 



~ J. U 

whoop, whoop, whoop. And cry as loud as you can call, O keep you all well there 

r r 





He'll steal the cock out from his flock, 

Keep, keep, keep, keep, keep ; 
He'll steal the cock e'en from his flock, 

O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. 
He'll steal the hen out of the pen, 

Keep, keep, &c. ; 
He'll steal the hen out of the pen, 

O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. 

He'll steal the duck out of the brook, 

Keep, keep, &c. ; 
He'll steal the duck out of the brook, 

O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. 
He'll steal the lamb e'en from his dam, 

Keep, keep, &c. ; 
He'll steal the lamb e'en from his dam, 

O keep you all well there. 

I must desire you, &c. 


This is frequently mentioned by writers in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, both as a country dance and as a ballad tune. In the recently-discovered 
play of Misogonus, produced about 1560, a The Shaking of the Sheets, Ttie Vicar 
of St. Fools, and The Catching of Quails, are mentioned as country dances. b 
There is a manuscript copy of the ballad in the British Museum (Add. MSS. 
No. 15,225), in which it is ascribed to Thomas Hill; and printed copies, in black 
letter, are to be found in the Roxburghe Collection (i., 499), and in that of 
Anthony a Wood, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (vol. 401., f. 60). In 
1568-9, it was entered at Stationers' Hall to John Awdelay (see Collier's 
Extracts, vol. i., p. 195). 

Dance after my pipe, which is the second title of the ballad, seems to have 
been a proverbial expression. In Ben Jonson's Every man out of his humour, 
Saviolina says: "Nay, I cannot stay to dance after your pipe" In Vox Borealis, 
1641, "I would teach them to sing another song, and make them dance after 
my pipe, ere I had done with them." And in Middleton's The World Lost at 
Tennis, "If I should dance after your pipe I should soon dance to the devil ;" 
and so in many other instances. 

La The Meeting of Crallants at an Ordinary, the host, describing a young man 
who died of the plague, in London, in 1603, says: "But this youngster daunced 
the shaking of one sheete within a few daies after " (Percy Soc. Reprint, p. 20) ; 
and in A West-country Jigg, or a Trenchmore Crattiard, verse 5 : 
" The piper he struck up, 

And merrily he did play 
The Shaking of the Sheets, 
And eke The Irish Hay." 

The tune is also mentioned in Lilly's Pappe with a Hatchet, 1589 ; in Gosson's 
Schoole of Abuse, 1579; by Rowley, Middleton, Taylor the water-poet, Marston, 
Massinger, Hey wood, Dekker, Shirley, &c., &c. 

There are two tunes under this name, the one in William Ballet's Lute Book, 
which is the same as printed by Sir John Hawkins in his History of Music 
(vol. 2, p. 934, 8vo. edit.) ; the other, and in all probability the more popular one, 
is contained in numerous publications, from The Dancing Master of 1650-51, to 
The Vocal Enchantress of 1783. 

See Collier's Hiitory of Early Dramatic Poetry, v. 2, The tune of The Catching of Quaili is also in The Dan- 

P- 4 ?4. cing Matter. 

b Sometimes it is called The Night Piece, or The Shaking 
of the Sheett. 



Many ballads were sung to it, and among them, King Olfrey and the old Abbot, 
which is on the same story as King John and the Abbot of Canterbury; and Tlie 
Song of the Gaps, in the Roxburghe Collection, which is also, in an altered form, 
in Wit and Mirth, or Pills to Purge Melancholy. 

The following ballad is from a black-letter copy, in the Ashmolean Museum. 

Moderate time. 

rj h j j>| 

^ jsj | 

1 1 TJ>* 


i M 

Can you dance The shaking 

o/ <Ae sheets, A dance that ev' - ry 
-*= =- P 

J.J * 

V - 

one must do ; Ca 




H'gfi - B 

""^" .- 

S r 


H 1 

T r- 


h r JH 



rJ J 1 .T^i 1 

f*<^ I ip-j 


n it up with 



a - ty sweets, And 

ev' - ry thing that 

| ff ; m ; 1 

'longs there-to? Make 


\=r~^- T~^ 

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n * 

5^ *- 

fl 1- 


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, ^~ 

J J fa 

>c_* J i t-\ 

' * " - -" ^ T ^ 1 -*^ = 8-^ 
rea - dy, then, your wind - ing sheet, And see how ye can he - stir your feet, For 

1 . 1 1 K , . . 1 1 K-, 




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^"" ' 

! J^~ J 1 


h 1 h 



* i ^~ 


i ^ 


J 3- 


^* J i 


3 J 

F 5 - 

3 '| 


Death is the man that all must meet, For Death is the man that all must meet. 

J J ^ 


J 1 

" t" 1 ^~ 

^ Ml 

- . ^ 1 

-. ^___ __ _ """ 

L_J : J 

Bring away the beggar and the king, 

And every man in his degree ; 
Bring away the old and youngest thing, 

Come all to death, and follow me ; 
The courtier with his lofty looks, 
The lawyer with his learned books, 
The banker with his baiting hooks. 

Merchants, have you made your mart in France, 

In Italy, and all about, 
Know you not that you and I must dance, 

Both our heels wrapt in a clout ; 
What mean you to make your houses gay, 
And I must take the tenant away, 
And dig for your sake the clods of clay ? 



Think you on the solemn 'sizes past, 

How suddenly in Oxfordshire 
I came, and made the judges all aghast, 

And justices that did appear, 
And took both Bell and Barham away, a 
And many a worthy man that day, 
And all their bodies brought to clay. 

Think you that I dare not come to schools, 
Where all the cunning clerks be most ; 

Take I not away both wise and fools, 
And am I not in every coast ? 

Assure yourselves no creature can 

Make Death afraid of any man, 

Or know my coming where or whan. 

Where be they that make their leases strong, 
And join about them land to land, 

Do you make account to live so long, 
To have the world come to your hand ? 

No, foolish nowle, for all thy pence, 

Full soon thy soul must needs go hence ; 

Then who shall toyl for thy defence ? 

And you that lean on your ladies' laps, 

And lay your heads upon their knee, 

' May think that you'll escape, perhaps, 

And need not come to dance with me.' 
But no ! fair lords and ladies all, 
I will make you come when I do call, 
And find you a pipe to dance withall. 

And you that are busy-headed fools, 

To brabble for a pelting straw, 
Know you not that I have ready tools 

To cut you from your crafty law ? 
And you that falsely buy and sell, 
And think you make your markets well, 
Must dance with Death wheresoe'er you dwell. 

Pride must have a pretty sheet, I see, 

For properly she loves to dance ; 
Come away my wanton wench to me, 

As gallantly as your eye doth glance ; 
And all good fellows that flash and swash 
In reds and yellows of.revell dash, 
I warrant you need not be so rash. 

For I can quickly cool you all, 

How hot or stout soever you be, 
Both high and low, both great and small, 

I nought do fear your high degree ; 
The ladies fair, the beldames old, 
The champion stout, the souldier bold, 
Must all with me to earthly mould. 

Therefore take time while it is lent, 

Prepare with me yourselves to dance ; 
Forget me not, your lives lament, 

I come oft-times by sudden chance. 
Be ready, therefore, watch and pray, 
That when my minstrel pipe doth play, 
You may to heaven dance the way. 


This tune is called Wolsey's Wild in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, but in 
William Ballet's Lute Book b it is called Wilson's Wile, and in Musictfs Delight 
on the Cithren, 1666, Wilson's Wild. In the Bagford Collection of Ballads, 
Brit. Mus., there is one called " A proper newe sonet, declaring the Lamentation 
of Beccles, a town in Suffolk," &c., by T. D. (Thomas Deloney), to Wilson's Tune, 
and dated 1586, but it does not appear, from the metre, to have been intended 
for this air. Another "proper new ballad" to Wilson's Neiv Tune is in the 

Anthony a Wood observes: "This solemn Assize, 
mentioned in the foregoing page, was kept in the Court- 
house in the Castle-yard at Oxon, 4 Jul., 1577. The Judges 
who were infected and dyed with the dampe, were Sir 
Rob. Bell, Baron of the Exchequer, and Sir Nich. Bar- 
ham, Serjeant at Lawe." See Hist, et Antiq. Univ. Oxon. 
lib. i. sub an. 1577. This verse, therefore, cannot have 
been in the ballad entered to Awdelay, in 1568-9. 

b This highly interesting manuscript, which is in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin (D. I. 21), contains a 
large number of the popular tunes of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. " Fortune my foe," " Peg a Ramsey," " Bonny 
sweet Robin," "Calleno," "Lightie love Ladies," "Green 
Slseves," " Weladay " (all mentioned by Shakspeare), 

besides " The Witches Dawnce," " The hunt is up," " The 
Shaking of the Shetes," "The Quadran Pavan," "a Horn- 
pipe," " Robin Reddocke," "Barrow Foster's Dreame," 
"Dowland's Lachrimae," " Lusty Gallant," The Black- 
smith," "Rogero," " Turkeyloney," "Staynes Morris," 
"Sellenger's Rownde," " All flowers in brome," "Baloo,". 
" Wigmore's Galliard," "Robin Hood is to the greenwood 
gone," &c., &c.,are to be found in it. "Queen Mariees 
Dump" (in whose reign it was probably commenced) 
stands first in the book. The tunes are in lute tablature, 
a-style of notation now obsolete, in which the letters of 
the alphabet up to K are used to designate the strings and 
frsts of the instrument. 



Library of the Society of Antiquaries. It is on Ballard and Babington's con- 
spiracy, and was written just after their execution, in 1586. Wilson's Delight, 
Arthur a Bradley, and Mall Dixorfs Round, are mentioned as popular tunes in 
Braithwaite's Strappado for the Devil, 1615. 

The song, " Quoth John to Joan," or " I cannot come every day to woo," is 
certainly as old as the time of Henry VIII., because the first verse is to be found 
elaborately set to music in a manuscript of that date, formerly in the possession 
of Stafford Smith (who printed the song in Musica Antiqua, vol. i., p. 32), and now 
in that of Dr. Rimbault. There are two copies of the words in vol. ii. of the 
Roxburghe Collection of Ballads, and it is in all the editions of Wit and Mirth, or 
Pills to purge Melancholy, from 1698 to 1719. In Wifs Cabinet, 1731, it is 
called " The Clown's Courtship, sung to the King at Windsor." 

Moderate time. 

P3 jfr J* i 

i i 

1 h~ 

- 1 

-F f 4 1 1 

Quoth John to Joan, wilt 

thou have me ? I prit' 

,J ^J r. 

iee now, wilt? And Tse 

) i 


* 8 







marry with thee, My cow, my calf, my house, my rents, And all my lands and tenements: O 

r r i r - r ir r 


say, my Joan, say my Joan, will not that do? I cannot come ev' - ry 

day to woo. 

I've corn and hay in the barn hard by, I have a cheese upon the shelf, 

And three fat hogs pent up in the sty ; And I cannot eat it all myself; 

I have a mare, and she is coal-black, I've three good marks that lie in a rag, 

I ride on her tail to save her back. In the nook of the chimney, instead of a bag. 
Then say, my Joan, &c. Then say, my Joan, &c. 

To marry I would have thy consent, 

But, faith, I never could compliment ; 

I can say nought but " hoy, gee ho," 

Words that belong to the cart and the plough : 

Then say, my Joan, say, my Joan, will that not do, 

I cannot come every day to woo. 




In Wedderburn's Complaint of Scotland, 1549, one of the songs sung by the 
shepherds is The frog cam to the myl dur [mill-door]. In 1580, a ballad of 
"A most strange wedding of the frog and the mouse " was licensed to Edward 
White, at Stationers' Hall : and in 1611, this song was printed with music, among 
the " Country Pastimes," in Melismata. It is the progenitor of several others ; 
one beginning " There was a frog lived in a well, 

And a farce mouse in a mill;" 

another, " A frog he would a-wooing go ; " a third in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly, &c., &c. 

~s Moderate 




111 J- J 

u j j i 

)) f 



: J t is =< 

is a frog in the well, 

-9^t 1 -J 


Hum - ble-dum, hum - ble - dum, 


<J'ff <* 3 



t = 

H ! 

LJ = 


L^ 1 


' H J . 

,r^> . , 

. J 3 

=55*| 3 

F ' 

And the merry mouse 

T ' V 

in the mill, 

twee - die, tweedle, t 


- no. 




1 F 



1- - -- : 

The frogge would a-wooing ride, 

Humble-dura, humhle-dum ; 
Sword and buckler by his side, 

Tweedle, tweedle, twino. 
When upon his high horse set, 

Humble-dum, &c., 
His boots they shone as black as jet, 

Tweedle, &c. 

Hast thou any mind of me ? 
I have e'en great mind of thee. 
Who shall this marriage make ? 
Our lord, which is the rat. 

What shall we have to our supper ? 
Three beans in a pound of butter. 
But, when supper they were at, 
The frog, the mouse, and e'en the rat, 

Then came hi Gib, our cat, 

And caught the mouse e'en by the back. 

Then did they separate : 

The frog leapt on the floor so flat ; 

When he came to the merry mill pin, 
Lady Mouse beene you within ? 
Then came out the dusty mouse : 
I am lady of this house ; 

Then came in Dick, our drake, 

And drew the frog e'en to the lake ; 

The rat he ran up the wall, 

' And so the company parted all.' 


This is one of the three country dance tunes arranged to be sung together in 
Pammelia, and is frequently referred to as a ballad tune. 

In the Ashmolean library, in the same manuscript volume with CJievy Ohace 
(No. 48), is a ballad by Elderton, describing the articles sold in the market in 
tune of Lent. The observance of Lent was compulsory in those days, and it was 
by no means palatable to all. In 1570, William Pickering had a license to print 



a ballad, entitled Lenton Stu/, which was, in all probability, the same. Elderton's 
ballad is called " A new ballad, entitled Lenton Stitjf, 

For a little money ye may have enough;" 

to the tune of The Cramp. 
" Lenton stuff is come to the town, 

The cleansing week comes quickly ; 
You know well enough you must kneel down, 

Come on, take ashes trickly ; 
That neither are good flesh nor fish, 
But dip with Judas in the dish, 
And keep a rout not worth a fyshe " [rush]. 

[Heigh ho ! the cramp-a.] 

It is not noticed by Eltson in his list of Elderton's ballads, Bibl. Poet. p. 195-8 ; 
but Mr. Halliwell has printed it in the volume containing The Marriage of Wit 
and Wisdom, for the Shakespeare Society. The following is from Pammelia. 
Moderate time. 

The cramp is in my purse full sore, No money will bide there-in, a, And 


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if I had some salve therefore, O light- ly then would I sing, a, 

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Hey ho ! the cramp, a. Hey ho ! the cramp, a 

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ho ! the cramp, a. 

Hey ho! the era 

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This song, which is one of the " Country Pastimes," in Melismata, 1611, is on 
the same subject as Quoth John to Joan, page 87. The tune begins like The 
Three Ravens, but is in quicker time. In Melismata it is called A Wooing Song 
of a Yeoman of Kenfs son, and the words are given in the Kentish dialect. 

-^ moaerat 

? time 


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I have 

house and land in K 

-f r 

[.ent, And if you'll 

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re me, love me 

i i 

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i p r r 

now. Two - pence half- penny is my rent, I cannot come ev - 'ry day to 

woo. Yes, twopence half-penny is his rent, He cannot come ev - 'ry day to woo 

J J . 

Ich am my vather's eldest zonne, 

My mother eke doth love me well ; 
For ich can bravely clout my shoone, 

And ich full well can ring a bell. a 
Chorus. For he can bravely clout his shoone, 
And he full well can ring a bell. 

My vather he gave me a hogge, 

My mouther she gave me a zow ; 
I have a godvather djjglls there by, 

And he on me bestowed a plow. 
Chorus. He has a godvather dwells there by, 
And he on him bestowed a plow. 

One time I gave thee a paper of pins, 

Anoder time a taudry lace ; 
And if thou wilt not grant me love, 
In truth ich die bevore thy vace. 
Chorus. And if thou wilt not grant his love, 
In truth he'll die bevore thy face. 

Bell-ringing was formerly a great amusement of the 
English, and the allusions to it are of frequent occurrence. 
Numerous payments to bell-ringers are generally to be 

Ich have beene twise our Whitson lord, 

Ich have had ladies many vare ; 
And eke thou hast my heart in hold, 

And in my mind zeemes passing rare. 
Chorus. And eke thou hast his heart in hold, 
And in his mind zeemes passing rare. 

Ich will put on my best white slopp, 
And ich will wear my jellow hose, 
And on my head a good gray hat, 
And in't ich stick a lovely rose. 
Chorus. And on his head a good gray hat, 
And i'nt he'll stick a lovely rose. 

Wherefore cease off, make no delay, 

And if you'll love me, love me now ; 
Or else ich zeek zome oder where, 

For I cannot come every day to woo. 
Chorus. Or else he'll zeek zome oder where, 
For he cannot come every day to woo. 

found in Churchwardens' accounts of the 16th and 17th 



This tune, which was extremely popular in former times, is to be found in 
William Ballet's Lute Book. It resembles " Now foot it as I do, Tom, boy, Tom," 
which is one of three country dances, arranged to be sung together as a round, in 

Nicholas Breton mentions Old Lusty Grallant as a dance tune in his Works of 
a Young Wit, 1577 : "by chance, 

Our banquet done, we had our music by, 

And then, you know, the youth must needs go dance, 

First galliards then larousse, and heidegy 

Old Lusty Gallant All flowers of the broom; 

And then a hall, for dancers must have room ; " 

and Elderton, wrote, " a proper new balad in praise of my Ladie Marques, whose 
death is bewailed," to the tune of New Lusty Grallant. A copy of that ballad is 
in the possession of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury ; but I assume it to have 
been intended for another air, because there are seven lines in each stanza. The 
following is the first : 

" Ladies, I thinke you marvell that 

I writ no mery report to you : 

And what is the cause I court it not 

So merye as I was wont to dooe ? 

Alas ! I let you understand 

It is no newes for me to me to show 

The fairest flower of my garland." 

If sung to this tune, the last line of each stanza would require repetition. 

Nashe, in his Terrors of the Night, 1594, says, " After all they danced Lusty 
Grallant, and a drunken Danish levalto or two." 

There is a song beginning, " Fain would I have a pretie thing to give unto my 
ladie" (to the tune of Lusty Grallanf), in A Handefutt of Pleasant Delites, and 
although that volume is not known to have been printed before 1584, it seems to 
have been entered at Stationers' Hall as early as 1565-6. Fain would I, &c., 
must have been written, and have attained popularity, either in or before the 
year 1566, because, in 1566-7, a moralization, called Fain would I have a godly 
thing to sheiv unto my lady, was entered, and in MSS. Ashmole a 48, fol. 120, is a 
ballad of Troilus and Creseida, beginning 

" When Troilus dwelt in Troy town, 

A man of noble fame-a " 

to the tune of Fain would I find some pretty thing, &c., so that, from the popu- 
larity of the ballad, the tune had become known by its name also. 

I have not found any song called Lusty Grallant : perhaps it is referred to in 
Massinger's play, The Picture, where Ferdinand says : 

s Mr. W. H. Black, in his Catalogue of the Ashmolean tains Chevy Chace). Mr. Halliwell has printed the ballad 
MSS., describes this volume as "written in the middle of of Troilus and Creseida, in the volume containing The 
the sixteenth century" (it is the manuscript which con- Marriage of Wit and Wisdom, for the Shakespeare Society. 


-" is your Theorbo 

Turn'd to a distaff, Signior, and your voice, 

With which you chanted Room for a lusty Gallant, 

Tuned to the note of Lachrymce ? " a 

The ballad of "A famous sea-fight between Captain Ward and the Rainbow" 
(in the Roxburghe Collection) " to the tune of Captain Ward," &c., begins, " Strike 
up, you lusty Gallants." 

In the Grorgeous G-allery of gallant Inventions, 1578, there is a " proper dittie," 
to the tune of Lusty Grallant; and Pepys mentions a song with the burden of 
" St. George for England," to the tune of List, lusty Gallants. 


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Fain would I have a 

pret-ty thing To j 

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jive un - to my 

La - dy. 

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I name no thing, And mean no thing, But as pretty a thing as 

1 1 1 1 

may be. 

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Twenty journeys would I make, 
And twenty days would hie me, 

To make adventure for her sake, 
To set some matter by me. 

Some do long for pretty knacks, 
And some for strange devices ; 

God send me what my lady lacks, 
I care not what the price is. 

There are eight more stanzas, which will be found in Evans' Old Ballads, vol. 1, 
p. 123, edit. 1810, or in the reprint of A Handefull of Pleasant Delites. 


In the Life of Sir Peter Carew, before quoted (page 52) , " By the bank as 
I lay " is mentioned as one of the Freemen's Songs which Sir Peter used to sing 
with Henry VUL ; and this is one of the King Henry's Mirth or Freemen's Songs 
in Deuteromelia. In Laneham's letter from Kenilworth, 1565, " By a bank as 
I lay " is included in the " bunch of ballads and songs, all ancient," which were 
then in the possession of Captain Cox, the Mason of Coventry. In Wager's in- 
terlude, The longer thou livest the more fool thou art, 1568, Moros sings the two 
following lines : " By a bank as I lay, I lay, 

Musing on things past, heigh ho ! " 
In Royal MSS. Append. 58, there is another song, of which the first line is the 

* Lachrymte, a tune often referred to, composed by Dowland. 



same, but the second differs ; and the music to it is not of the light and popular 
class called Freemen's Songs, but a studied composition. The words of the latter 
have been printed by Mr. Payne Collier, in his Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers' Company, vol. i., page 193. They are in the same metre, and 
therefore might also be sung to this tune. 

The last line of the song, as printed in Deuteromelia, is " And save noble James 
our king," because the book was printed in his reign. 

^ Moderate time. 

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By a bank 

as I lay,! 

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lusingon a thingthatwaspastandgone,heighho! 

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In themerry monthofMay, O somewhat before the day, Methought I heard 

at the last, 

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O the gentle nightingale, 
The lady and the mistress of all musick, 

She sits down ever in the dale ; 

Singing with her notes smale [small], 
And quavering them wonderfully thick. 

Oh, for joy, my spirits were quick, 
To hear the bird how merrily she could sing, 
And I said, good Lord, defend 
England, with thy most holy hand, 
And save noble ' Henry ' our king. 


This tune is to be found among Dowland's Manuscripts,* in the public library, 
Cambridge ; in William Ballet's Lute Book, and in Dallis' Lute Book, both in 
the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The first entry in Mr. Payne Collier's Extracts from the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company, is to William Pickering, a "Ballett called Arise and wake" 
(1557). In the Roxburghe Collection of Ballads, there is one commencing, 
" Arise and awake," entitled 

" A godly and Christian A.B.C., 

Shewing the duty of every degree," 

to the tune of Rogero. It may be the ballad referred to, although the copy in the 
Roxburghe Collection was printed at a later date. In the same year, 1557, there 
is an entry of " A Ballett of the A.B.C. of a Priest, called Hugh Stourmy," 
and another of " The aged man's A.B.C." 

* The references to these Manuscripts are, D. d. 2. 11. 
D. d. 3. 18. D. d. .4. 23. D. d. 9. 33. D. d. 14. 24., 
&c. Some appear to be in the handwriting of Dowland, 

the celebrated lutenist of Elizabeth's reign. The tune of 
Rogero is in three or four of them. 



Rogero is mentioned as a dance tune in Stephen Gosson's School of Abuse, 
1579 ; in Heywood's A woman killed with kindness (acted before 1604) ; and in 
Nashe's Have with you to Saffron- Walden, 1596 ; also by Dekker, in The Shoe- 
maker's Holiday, &c. 

Many ballads were sung to the tune of Rogero. In the first volume of the 
Roxburghe Collection, for instance, there are at least four. a Others in the 
Pepysian Collection; in The Grown Crarland of Cf-olden Roses, 1612; in Deloney's 
Strange Histories, 13 1607 ; in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry ; and in Evans' 
Old Ballads. Arise and awake, is also referred to as a ballad tune. 

The following, which is entitled " The valiant courage and policy of the 
Kentishmen with long tails, whereby they kept their ancient laws and customs, 
which William the Conqueror sought to take from them c to the tune of Rogero" 
is from Strange Histories, &c., 1607. It was written by Deloney, " the ballading 
silk-weaver," who died in or before 1600. 

Boldly and marked. 

35:5 fj- 










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When as 

1 s 
the Duke 

of Nor 

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With glist'ring 

spear and 

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shield. Had en - ter'd in - to fair England, And foil'd his foes in field 

J . r 




On Christmas-day in solemn sort 

Then was he crowned here, 
By Albert archbishop of York, 

With many a noble peer. 

Which being done, he changed quite 

The customs of this land, 
And punisht such as daily sought 

His statutes to withstand : 

See folios 130, 258, 482, and 492. 

b The Crown Garland and Strange Histories have been 
reprinted by the Percy Society. 

Evans, who prints this ballad from another copy (The 
Garland of Delight) extracts the following account of the 
event which gave rise to it, from The Lives of the three 
Norman Kings of England, by Sir John Hey ward, 4to, 1613, 
p. 97: "Further, by the counsel of Stigand, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, and of Eglesine, Abbot of St. Augustine's 
(who at that time were the chief governors of Kent), as the 
King was riding towards Dover, at Swanscombe, two 
miles from Gravesend, the Kentishmen came towards him 
armed and bearing boughs in their hands, as if it had been 

And many cities he subdued, 

Fair London with the rest ; 
But Kent did still withstand his force, 

And did his laws detest. 

To Dover then he took his way, 

The castle down to fling, 
Which Arviragus builded there, 

The noble British king. 

a moving wood ; they enclosed him upon the sudden, and 
with a firm countenance, but words well tempered with 
modesty and respect, they demanded of him the use of 
their ancient liberties and laws: that in other matters 
they would yield obedience unto him : that without this 
they desired not to live. The king was content to strike 
sail to the storm, and to give them a vain satisfaction for 
the present; knowing right well that the general customs 
and laws of the residue of the realm would in short time 
overflow these particular places. So pledges being given 
on both sides, they conducted him to Rochester, and 
yielded up the county of Kent, and the castle of Dover 
into his power." 



Which when the brave archbishop bold 

Of Canterbury knew, 
The abbot of Saint Augustines eke, 

With all their gallant crew, 

They set themselves in armour bright, 

These mischiefs to prevent, 
With all the yeomen brave and bold 

That were in fruitful Kent. 

At Canterbury did they meet 

Upon a certain day, 
With sword and spear, with bill and bow, 

And stopt the conqueror's way. 

Let us not live like bond-men poor 
To Frenchmen in their pride, 

But keep our ancient liberty, 
What chance so e'er betide, 

And rather die in bloody field, 
In manlike courage prest (ready), 

Than to endure tbe servile yoke, 
Which we so much detest. 

Thus did the Kentish commons cry 

Unto their leaders still, 
And so march'd forth in warlike sort, 

And stand at Swanscomb hill : 

Where in the woods they hid themselves, 

Under the shady green, 
Thereby to get them vantage good, 

Of all their foes unseen. 

And for the conqueror's coming there, 

They privily laid wait, 
And thereby suddenly appal'd 

His lofty high conceit ; 

For when they spied his approach, 

In place as they did stand, 
Then marched they, to hem him in, 

Each one a bough in hand, 

So that unto the conqueror's sight, 

Amazed as he stood, 
They seem'd to be a walking grove, 

Or else a moving wood. 

The shape of men he could not see, 
The boughs did hide them so : 

And now his heart for fear did quake, 
To see a forest go ; 

Before, behind, and on each side, 

As he did cast his eye, 
He spied those woods with sober pace 

Approach to him full nigh : 

But when the Kentish-men had thus 
Enclos'd the conqueror round, 

Most suddenly they drew their swords, 
And threw the boughs to ground ; 

Their banners they display 'd in sight, 
Their trumpets sound a charge, 

Their rattling drums strike up alarms, 
Their troops stretch out at large. 

The conqueror, and all his train, 

Were hereat sore aghast, 
And most in peril, when they thought 

All peril had been past. 

Unto the Kentish men he sent, 

The cause to understand, 
For what intent, and for what cause, 

They took this war in hand ; 

To whom they made this short reply, 

For liberty we fight, 
And to enjoy king Edward's laws, 

The which we hold our right. 

Then said the dreadful conqueror, 
You shall have what you will, 

Your ancient customs and your laws, 
So that you will be still : 

And each thing else that you will crave 

With reason, at my hand, 
So you will but acknowledge me 

Chief king of fair England. 

The Kentish men agreed thereon, 

And laid their arms aside, 
And by this means king Edward's laws 

In Kent do still abide ; 

And in no place in England else 

These customs do remain, 
Which they by manly policy 

Did of duke William gain. 


The figure of the dance called Turkeyloney is described with others in a manu- 
script in the Bodleian Library (MS. Rawl. Poet. 108), which was written about 
1570. Stephen Gosson, in his Sclwole of Abuse, containing a pleasant Invective 
against Poets, Pipers, Players, Jesters, &c., 1579, alludes to the tune as one of 



the most popular in his day. He says, " Homer, with his music, cured the sick 
soldiers in the Grecians' camp, and purged every man's tent of the plague. 
Think you that those miracles could be wrought with playing dances, dumps, 
pavans, galliards, fancies, or new strains ? They never came where this grew, 

nor knew what it meant Terpander neither piped Hogero, nor Turkeloney, 

when he ended the brabbles at Lacedemon, but, putting them in mind of Lycurgus' 
laws, taught them to tread a better measure:" but, " if you enquire how many 
such poets and pipers we have in our age, I am persuaded that every one of them 
may creep through a ring, or dance the wild morris in a needle's eye. We have 
infinite poets and pipers, and such peevish cattle among us in England, that live 
by merry begging, maintained by alms, and privily encroach upon every man's 
purse, but if they in authority should call an account to see how many Chirons, 
Terpandri, and Homers are here, they might cast the sum without pen or 
counters, and sit down with Rachel to weep for her children, because they are not." 

TurTceylony is also mentioned, as a dance tune, in Nashe's Have with you to 
Saffron- Walden, 1596; and the music will be found in William Ballet's Lute 
Book, described in a note at page 86. 

The words here coupled with the tune are taken from a manuscript in the 
possession of Mr. Payne Collier. Although the manuscript is of the reign of 
James I., the " ballett " Yf ever I marry, I will marry a mayde, was entered 
at Stationers' Hall as early as 1557-8. The name of the air to which it should 
be sung is neither given in the MS., nor in the entry at Stationers' Hall; but the 
words and music agree so well together, that it is very probable the ballet was 

written to this tune. 

In moderate time, and smoothly. 

If e - ver I inar-ry, I'll mar-ry a maid : To marry a widow I'm 


r- ir j. 




a - fraid ; For maids they are sim - pie, and never will grutch, But 



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J ftj U J J 

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g ' 
full oft, as they 

J . i 

4 ' J 
say, know too much, 

i i 


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A maid is so sweet, and so gentle of kind, 

That a maid is the wife I will choose to my mind ; 

A widow is froward, and never will yield ; 

Or if such there be, you will meet them but seeld. [seldom] 

A maid ne'er complaineth, do what so you will ; 

But what you mean well, a widow takes ill : 

A widow will make you a drudge and a slave, 

And cost ne'er so much, she will ever go brave, [gaily dress'd] 

A maid is so modest, she seemeth a rose, 

When first it beginneth the bud to unclose ; 

But a widow full blowen, full often deceives, 

And the next wind that bloweth shakes down all her leaves. 

That widows be lovely I never gainsay, 
But too well all their beauty they know to display ; 
But a maid hath so great hidden beauty in store, 
She can spare to a widow, yet never be poor. 

Then, if ever I marry, give me a fresh maid, 

If to marry with' any I be not afraid; 

But to marry with any it asketh much care, 

And some bachelors hold they are best as they are. 



During the long reign of Elizabeth, music seems to have been in universal 
cultivation, as well as in universal esteem. Not only was it a necessary qualifica- 
tion for ladies and gentlemen, but even the city of London advertised the musical 
abilities of boys educated in Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, as a mode of 
recommending them as servants, apprentices, or husbandmen.* In Deloney's 
History of the gentle Craft, 1598, one who tried to pass for a shoemaker was 
detected as an imposter, because he could neither " sing, sound the trumpet, play 
upon the flute, nor reckon up his tools in rhyme." Tinkers sang catches; milk- 
maids sang ballads ; carters whistled ; each trade, and even the beggars, had 
their special songs ; the base- viol hung in the drawing room for the amusement of 
waiting visitors ; and the lute., cittern, and virginals, for the amusement of wait- 
ing customers, were the necessary furniture of the barber's shop. They had 
music at dinner ; music at supper ; music at weddings ; music at funerals ; music 
at night; music at dawn; music at work; and music at play. 

He who felt not, in some degree, its soothing influences, was viewed as a 
morose, unsocial being, whose converse ought to be shunned, and regarded with 
suspicion and distrust. 

" The man that hath no music in himself, 
Nor is not mov'd with concord of sweet sounds, 
Is fit for treasons, stratagems, and spoils ; 
The motions of his spirit are as dull as night, 
And his affections dark as Erebus : 
Let no such man be trusted." 

Merchant of Venice, act v., sc. 1. 
" Preposterous ass ! that never read so far 
To know the cause why music was ordain'd ! 
Was it not to refresh the mind of man 
After his studies, or his usual pain ? " 

The Taming of the Shrew, act ii., sc. 3. 

"That the preachers be moved at the sermons at the Golden Tunne;" reprinted in The British Bibliographer. 
Crosse " [St. Paul's Cross] "and other convenient times, Edward VI. granted the charters of incorporation for 
and that all other good notorious meanes be used, to re- Bridewell and Christ's Hospital, a few days before his 
quire both citizens, artificers, and other, and also all death. Bridewell is a foundation of a mixed and sin- 
farmers and other for husbandry, and gentlemen and other gular nature, partaking of the hospital, prison, and work- 
for their kitchens and other services, to take servants and house. Youths were sent to the Hospital as apprentices 
children both out of Bridewell and Christ's Hospital at to manufacturers, who resided there ; and on leaving, re- 
their pleasures, . . . with further declaration that many ceived a donation of 101., and their freedom of the city, 
of them be of toward qualities in readyng, wryting, gram- Pepys, in his Diary, 5th October, 1664, says, "To new 
mer, and musike." This is the 66th and last of the Bridewell, and there I did with great pleasure see the 
"Orders appointed to be executed in the cittie of London, many pretty -works, and the little children employed, 
for setting rogfu]es and idle persons to worke, and for every one to do something, which was a very fine sight, 
releefe of the poore." "At London, printed by Hugh and worthy encouragement." 
Singleton, dwelling in Smith Fielde, at the signe of the 


Steevens, in a note upon the above passage in The Merchant of Venice, quotes the 
authority of Lord Chesterfield against what he terms this "capricious sentiment" 
of Shakespeare, and adds that Peacham requires of his gentleman only to be able 
" to sing his part sure, and at first sight, and withall to play the same on a viol, 
or lute." But this sentiment, so far from being peculiar to Shakespeare, may be 
said to have been the prevailing one of Europe. Nor was Peacham an exception, 
for, although he says, " I dare not pass so rash a censure of these " (who love not 
music) " as Pindar doth ; or the Italian, having fitted a proverb to the same effect, 
Whom G-od loves not, that man loves not music;" he adds, " but I am verily per- 
suaded that they are by nature very ill disposed, and of such a brutish stupidity 
that scarce any thing else that is good and savoureth of virtue is to be found 
in them." a Tusser, in his " Points of Huswifry united to the comfort of 
Husbandry," 1570, recommends the country huswife to select servants that sing 
at their work, as being usually the most pains-taking, and the best. He says : 
" Such servants are oftenest painfull and good, 

That sing in their labour, as birds in the wood ;" 

and old Merrythought says, "Never trust a tailor that does not sing at 
his work, for his mind is of nothing but filching." (Dyce's Beaumont and 
Fletcher, vol. ii., p. 171.) 

Byrd, in his Psalmes, Sonnets, and Songs, &c., 1588, gives the following eight 
reasons why every one should learn to sing : 

1st. " It is a knowledge easily taught, and quickly learned, where there is a good 
master and an apt scholar." 

2nd. " The exercise of singing is delightful to nature, and good to preserve the 
health of man." 

3rd. " It doth strengthen all parts of the breast, and doth open the pipes." 

4th. "It is a singular good remedy, for a stutting and stammering in the speech." 

5th. " It is the best means to procure a perfect pronunciation, and to make a good 

6th. " It is the only way to know where nature hath bestowed a good voice ; . . . 
and in many that excellent gift is lost, because they want art to express nature." 

7th. " There is not any music of instruments whatsoever, comparable to that which 
is made of the voices of men ; where the voices are good, and the same well sorted 
and ordered." 

8th. " The better the voice is, the meeter it is to honour and serve God therewith ; 
and the voice of man is chiefly to be employed to that end." 
" Since singing is so good a thing, 
I wish all men would learn to sing." 

Morley, in his Introduction to Pratical Musick, 1597, written in dialogue, 
introduces the pupil thus : " But supper being ended, and music books, 
according to custom, being brought to the table, the mistress of the house pre- 
sented me with a part, earnestly requesting me to sing ; but when, after many 
excuses, I protested unfeignedly that / could not, every one began to wonder ; yea, 

a The Compleat Gentleman : fashioning him absolute in mind or boclie, that may be required in a noble gentleman, 
the most necessary and commendable qualities, concerning By Henry Peacham, Master of Arts, &c., 1622. 


some whispered to others, demanding how I was brought up, so that upon shame 
of mine ignorance, I go now to seek out mine old friend, Master Gnorimus, to 
make myself his scholar." 

Laneham, to whom we are indebted for the description of the pageants at Kenil- 
worth in 1575, thus describes his own evening amusements. " Sometimes I foot 
it with dancing ; now with my gittem, and else with my cittern, then at the 
virginals (ye know nothing comes amiss to me) : then carol I up a song withal ; 
that by and by they come flocking about me like bees to honey; and ever they 
cry, ' Another, good Laneham, another.' ' : He who thus speaks of his playing 
upon three instruments and singing, had been promoted from a situation in the 
royal stables, through the favour of the Earl of Leicester, to the duty of keeping 
eaves-droppers from the council-chamber door. 

Dekker, in The GulVs Horn-book, tells us that the usual routine of a young 
gentlewoman's education was " to read and write ; to play upon the virginals, 
lute, and cittern ; and to read prick-song (i.e., music written or pricked down) at 
first sight" Whenever a lady was highly commended by a writer of that age, 
her skill in music was sure to be included ; as 

" Her own tongue speaks all tongues, and her own hand 
Can teach all strings to speak in their best grace." 

Heywootfs A Woman Jtilld with kindness. 

" Observe," says Lazarillo, who is instructing the ladies how to render them- 
selves most attractive, "it shall be your first and finest praise to sing the note of 
every new fashion at first sight. (Middleton 1 s Blurt, Master Constable, 1602.) 
Gosson, in his Schoole of Abuse, 1579, alluding to the custom of serenading, 
recommends young ladies to be careful not to "flee to inchaunting," and says, "if 
assaulted with music in the night, close up your eyes, stop your ears, tie up your 
tongues; when they speak, answer them not ; when they halloo, stoop not ; when 
they sigh, laugh at them; when they sue, scorn them." He admits that "these are 
hard lessons," but advises them " nevertheless to drink up the potion, though it 
like not [please not] your taste." In those days, however, the " serenate, which 
the starv'd lover sings to his proud fair," was not quite so customary in England 
as the Morning song or Hunfs-up ; such as 

" Fain would I wake you, sweet, but fear 
I should invite you to worse cheer ; . . . 
I'd wish my life no better play, 
Your dream by night, your thought by day : 

Wake, gently wake, 
Part softly from your dreams 1 
The Morning flies 
To your fair eyes, 
To guide her special beams." 

As to the custom of having a base-viol (or viol da gamba) hanging up in draw- 
ing rooms for visitors to play on, one quotation from Ben Jonson may suffice : 
" In making love to her, never fear to be out, for ... a base viol shall hang o' the 
wall, of purpose, shall put you in presently. (Gri/ord's Edit. vol. ii., p. 162.) 


If more to the same purport be required, many similar allusions will be found in 
the same volume. (See pages 125, 126, 127, and 472, and Gifford's Notes.) 

The base-viol was also played upon by ladies (at least during the following 
reign), although thought by some "an unmannerly instrument for a woman." 
The mode in which some ladies passed their time is described in the following 
lines, and perhaps, even in the present day, instances not wholly unlike might be 
found. " This is all that women do, 

Sit and answer them that woo ; 

Deck themselves in new attire, 

To entangle fresh desire ; 

After dinner sing and play, 

Or dancing, pass the time away." 

" England," says a French writer of the seventeenth century, " is the paradise of 
women, as Spain and Italy are their purgatory." a 

The musical instruments principally in use in barbers' shops, during the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, were the cittern, the gittern, the lute, and 
the virginals. Of these the cittern was the most common, perhaps because most 
easily played. It was in shape somewhat like the English guitar of the last 
century, but had only four double strings of wire, i. e., two to each note- 11 These 
were tuned to the notes g, b, d, and e of the present treble staff, or to correspond- 
ing intervals ; for no rules are given concerning the pitch of these instruments, 
unless they were to be used in concert. The instructions for tuning are generally 
to draw up the treble string as high as possible, without breaking it, and to tune 
the others from that. A particular feature of the cittern was the carved head, 
which is frequently alluded to by the old writers. Playford in his " MusicKs 
Delight on the Cithren restored and refined to a more easie and pleasant manner of 
playing than formerly," 1666, speaks of having revived the instrument, and re- 
stored it to what it was in the reign of Queen Mary, and his tuning agrees with 
that in Anthony Holborne's Oittharn Schoole, 1597, and in Thomas Robinson's New 
Oitharen Lessons, 1609. The peculiarity of the cittern, or cithren, was that the 
third string was tuned lower than the fourth, so that if the first or highest string 
were tuned to e, the third would be the g below, and the fourth the intermediate b. 
The cittern appears to have been an instrument of English invention.* 1 

Of the gittern or ghitterne, I can say but little, not having seen any instruc- 
tion-book for the instrument. Ritson says it differed chiefly from the cittern 

Description of England by Jorevin de Rocheford. the great astronomer, Galileo Galilei), I assume to mean 

Paris, 1672. Cittern, because the word Liulo, for Lute, was in common 

b Sir John Hawkins, in his History of Music, vol. ii., use. He says, " Fu la Cetera usata prima tra gli Inglesi 

p. 602, 8vo., copies the Cistrum from Mersenne, as the che da altre nazioni, nella quale Isola si lavoravano gia 

Cittern, but it has six strings, and therefore more closely in eccellenza ; quantunque hoggi le piu riputate da loro 

resembles the English guitar. siano quelle che si lavorano in Brescia ; con tutto questo 

c In Love's Labour Lost, act v., sc. 2, Boyet compares e adoperata ed apprezzata da nobili, e fu cosl delta dagli 

Holofernes' countenance to that of a cittern head. In autori di essa, per forse resuscitare 1'antica Cithara ; ma 

Forde's Lovers' Melancholy, act ii., sc. 1, "Barbers shall la differenza che sia tra la nostra e quella, si e possuto 

wear thee on their citterns;" and in Fletcher's Love's benissitnoconoscere daquelloche se n' e di sopradetto." 

Cure, "You cittern head! you ill-countenanced cur!" Dialogo di Vincenzo Galilei, nobilc Florentine, fol. 1S81, 

&c., &c. p. 147. 

d The word Cetera, as employed hy Galilei (father of 


in being strung with gut instead of wire; and, from the various allusions to it, 
I have no doubt of his correctness. Perhaps, also, it was somewhat less in size. 
In the catalogue of musical instruments left in the charge of Philip van Wilder, 
at the death of Henry VIII., we find " four Gitterons, which are called Spanish 
vialles." As Galilei says, in 1581, that " Viols are little used in Spain, and that 
they do not make them," a I assume Spanish viol to mean the guitarra, or guitar. 
The gittern is ranked with string instruments in the following extract from the 
old play of Lingua, written in this reign : 

" ' Tis true the finding of a dead horse-head 

Was the first invention of string instruments, 

Whence rose the Gitterne, Viol, and the Lute ; 

Though others think the Lute was first devis'd 

In imitation of a tortoise back, 

Whose sinews, parched by Apollo's beams, 

Echo'd about the concave of the shell : 

And seeing the shortest and smallest gave shrillest sound, 

They found out frets, whose sweet diversity 

(Well touched by the skilful learned fingers) 

Raiseth so strange a multitude of Chords ; 

Which, their opinion, many do confirm, 

Because Testudo signifies a Lute." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v., p. 198. 

Coles, in his Dictionary, describes gittern as a small sort of cittern, and Playford 
printed Cithren and Crittern Lessons, with plain and easie Instructions for Beginners 
thereon, together in one book, in 1659. Ritson may have gained his information 
from this book, as he mentions it in the second edition of his Ancient Songs, but 
I have not succeeded in finding a copy. 

The lute (derived from the Anglo-Saxon Hlud, or Lud, i. e., sounded), was 
once the most popular instrument in Europe, although now rarely to be seen, 
except represented in old pictures. It has been superseded by the guitar, but 
for what reason it is difficult to say, unless from the greater convenience of the 
bent sides of the guitar for holding the instrument, when touching the higher notes 
of the finger-board. The tone of the lute is decidedly superior to the guitar, being 
larger, and having a convex back, somewhat like the vertical section of a gourd, or 
more nearly resembling that of a pear. As it was used chiefly for accompanying 
the voice, there were only eight frets, or divisions of the finger-board, and these 
frets (so called from fretting, or stopping the strings) were made by tying 
pieces of cord, dipped in glue, tightly round the neck of the lute, at inter- 
vals of a semitone. It had virtually six strings, because, although the num- 
ber was eleven or twelve, five, at least, were doubled, the first, or treble, being 
sometimes a single string. b The head, in which the pegs to turn the strings were 

" La viola da gamba, e da braccio, nella Spagna non lutes of various sizes, from the mandura, or mandore, 

se ne fanno, e poco vi si usano." Dialogo delta Musiea, to the theorbo and arch-lute; some with less, and others 

fol. 1581., p. 147. with more strings. 
'' I apeak only of the usual English lute. There were 



inserted, receded almost at a right angle. The most usual mode of tuning it was 
as follows : assuming c in the third space of the treble clef to be the pitch of the 
first string (i.e., cc in the scale given at page 14), the base, or sixth string would 
be O; the tenor, or fifth, F ; the counter-tenor, or fourth, b flat ; the great 
mean, or third, d ; the small mean, or second, g ; and the minikin, or treble, cc. a 

Lute strings b were a usual present to ladies as new-year's gifts. From 
Nichols' Progresses we learn that queen Elizabeth received a box of lute-strings, 
as a new-year's gift, from Innocent Corry, and at the same time, a box of lute- 
strings and a glass of sweet water from Ambrose Lupo. When young men 
in want of money went to usurers, it was their common practice to lend it 
in the shape of goods which could only be re-sold at a great loss ; and lute-strings 
were then as commonly the medium employed as bad wine is now. In Lodge's 
Looking Grlasse for London and Mnglande, 1594, the usurer being very- urgent 
for the repayment of his loan, is thus answered,." I pray you, Sir, consider that 
my loss was great by the commodity I took up ; you know, Sir, I borrowed of you 
forty pounds, whereof I had ten pounds in money, and thirty pounds in lute- 
strings, which, when I came to sell again, I could get but five pounds for them, so 
had I, Sir, but fifteen pounds for my forty." So in Dekker's A Night's Con- 
juring, the spendthrift, speaking of his father, says, " He cozen'd young gentle- 
men of their land, only for me, had acres mortgaged to him by wiseacres for three 
hundred pounds, paid in hobby-horses, dogs, bells, and lute-strings, which, if they 
had been sold by the drum, or at an out-rop (auction), with the cry of * No man 
better ?' would never have yielded 50." Nash alludes twice to the custom. In 
Will Summer's Last Will and Testament, he says, " I know one that ran in debt, 
in the space of four or five years, above fourteen thousand pounds in lute-strings 
and grey paper;" and in Christ's Tears over Jerusalem, 1593; "In the first in- 
stance, spendthrifts and prodigals obtain what they desire, but at the second time 
of their coming, it is doubtful to say whether they shall have money or no : the world 
grows hard, and we are all mortal : let them make him any assurance before a 
judge, and they shall have some hundred pounds (per consequence) in silks and 
velvets. The third time, if they come, they have baser commodities. The fourth 
time, lute-strings and grey paper ; and then, I pray you pardon me, I am not for 
you : pay me what you owe me, and you shall have anything." (Dodsley, v. 9, 
p. 22.) ' 

The virginals (probably so called because chiefly played upon by young girls), 
resembled in shape the " square" pianoforte of the present day, as the harpsichord 
did the "grand." The sound of the pianoforte is produced by a hammer striking 
the strings, but when the keys of the virginals or harpsichord were pressed, the 
"jacks," (slender pieces of wood, armed at the upper ends with quills) were 

The notes which these letters represent will be seen 
by referring to the scale at p. 14. 

b Mace, in his Mustek's Monument, 1678, speaking of 
lute-strings, says, " Chuse your trebles, seconds, and 
thirds, and some of your small octaves, especially the 
sixth, out of your Minikins; the fourth and fifth, and 
most of your octaves, of Venice Catlim ; your Pistoys or 
Lyons only for the great bases." In the list of Custom- 

House duties printed in 1545, the import duty on "lute- 
strings called Mynikins" was 22rf. the gross, but as no 
other lute-strings are named, I assume that only the 
smallest were then occasionally imported. Minikin is 
one of the many words, derived from music or musical 
instruments, which have puzzled the commentators on 
the old dramatists. The first string of a violin was also 
called a minikin. 


raised to the strings, and acted as plectra, by impinging, or twitching them. 
These jacks were the constant subject of simile and pun ; for instance, in a play 
of Dekker's, where Matheo complains that his wife is never at home, Orlando says, 
"No, for she's like a pair of virginals, always withjac&s at her tail." (Dodsley's 
Old Plays, vol. in., p. 398). And in Middleton's Father Hubburd's Tales, de- 
scribing Charity as frozen, he says, "Her teeth chattered in her head, and leaped 
up and down like virginal jacks." 

One branch of the barber's occupation in former days was to draw teeth, to bind 
up wounds, and to let blood. The parti-coloured pole, which was exhibited at the 
doorway, painted after the fashion of a bandage, was his sign, and the teeth 
he had drawn were suspended at the windows, tied upon lute strings. The lute, 
the cittern, and the gittern hung from the walls, and the virginals stood in the 
corner of his shop. " If idle," says the author of The Trimming of Thomas 
Nashe, " barbers pass their time in life-delighting musique," (1597). The 
barber in Lyly's Midas, (1592), says to his apprentice, " Thou knowest I have 
taught thee the knacking of the hands,* like the tuning of a cittern," and 
Truewit, in Ben Jonson's Silent Woman, wishes the barber " may draw his own 
teeth, and add them to the lute-string." In the same play, Morose, who had 
married the barber's daughter, thinking her faithless, exclaims "That cursed 
barber ! I have married his cittern, that is common to all men." One of the 
commentators not understanding this, altered it to " I have married his cistern" 
&c. Dekker also speaks of " a barber's cittern for every serving-man to play 

One of the Merrie-conceited jests of George Peele is the stealing of a barber's 
lute, and in Lord Falkland's Wedding Night, we read "He has travelled 
and speaks languages, as a barber's boy plays o'th' gittern." Ben Jonson says, b 
" I can compare him to nothing more happily than a barber's virginals ; for every 
man may play upon him," and in The Staple of News, " My barber Tom, one 
Christmas, got into a Masque at court, by his wit and the good means of his 
cittern, holding up thus for one of the music." To the latter passage Gifford adds 
another in a note. " For you know, says Tom Brown, that a cittern is as natural 
to a barber, as milk to a calf, or dancing bears to a bagpiper." 

As to the music they played, we may assume it to have been, generally, 
the common tunes of the day, and such as would be familiar to all. Morley, in 
his Introduction to Music, tells us that the tune called the Quadrant Pavan, was 
called Gregory Walker, " because it walketh 'mongst barbers and fiddlers more 
common than any other," and says in derision, " Nay, you sing you know not 
what ; it should seem you came lately from a barber's shop, where you had 
Gregory Walker, or a Coranto, played in the new proportions by them lately found 
out." Notwithstanding this, we find the Quadran Pavan (so called, I suppose, 
because it was a pavan for four to dance) was one of the tunes arranged for 
queen Elizabeth in her Virginal Book; and Morley, himself, arranged it for 

The knacking of the hands was 3 peculiar crack with barber was expected to make while shaving a customer, 
the fingers, by knocking them together, which every b Every man in his humour. Act Hi., sc. 2. 


several instruments in his Consort Lessons. I have alluded to the custom of 
introducing old songs into plays, and playing old tunes at the beginning and end 
of the acts, at p. 72. Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and Lady Neville's, 
contain little else than old tunes, arranged with variations, or as then more 
usually termed, with " division." It is often difficult to extract the air accurately 
from these arrangements, if there be no other copy as a guide. Occasionally 
a mere skeleton of the tune is given, sometimes it is "in prolation," i. e., with 
every note drawn out to two, four, or eight times its proper duration, sometimes 
the melody is in the base, at others it is to be found in an inner part. 

The rage for popular tunes abroad had shewn itself in the Masses set to 
music by the greatest composers. Baini, in his Life of Palestrina, gives, what 
he terms, a short list (" breve elenco") of some of them. It contains the 
names of eighty secular tunes upon which Masses had been composed, and sung 
even in the Pope's chapel. The tunes have principally French names, some 
are of lascivious songs, others of dance tunes. He names fifty different authors 
who composed them, and intimates that there is a much larger number than he 
has cited in the library of the Vatican. a Even our island was not quite irre- 
proachable on this point. Shakespeare speaks of Puritans singing psalms to 
hornpipes, and the Presbyterians sang their Divine Hymns to the tunes of 
popular songs, the titles of some of which the editor of Sacred Minstrelsy (vol. i., 
p. 7) " would not allow to sully his pages." Generally, however, the passion 
for melody expended itself in singing old tunes about the country, in the streets, 
and at the ends of plays, in playing them in barbers' shops, or at home, when 
arranged for chamber use with all the art and embellishment our musicians could 
devise. The scholastic music of that age, great as it was, was so entirely devoted 
to harmony, and that harmony so constructed upon old scales, that scarcely any- 
thing like tune could be found in it I mean such tune as the uncultivated ear 
could carry away. Many would then, no doubt, say with Imperia, "I cannot abide 
these dull and lumpish tunes ; the musician stands longer a pricking them than 
I would do to hear them : no, no, give me your light ones." (Middleton's Blurt, 
Master Constable.) No line of demarcation could be more complete than that 
between the music of the great composers of the time, and, what may be termed, 
the music of the people. Perhaps the only instance of a tune by a well-known 
musician of that age having been afterwards used as a ballad tune, is that of The 
Frog Gralliard, composed by Dowland. Musicians held ballads in contempt, and 
the great poets rarely wrote in ballad metre. 

Dr. Drake, in his Shakespeare and his Times, gives a list of two hundred and 
thirty- three British poets b (forty major, and one hundred and ninety-three 
minor), who were contemporaneous with Shakespeare, and even that list, large as 
it is, might be greatly extended from miscellanies, and from ballads. Some idea 
of the number of ballads that were printed in the early part of the reign of 

a " Memorie storico-critiche della Vita, e delle Opere di is already said (and, as I think, truly said) it is not 

Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina." Roma, 2 vols, 4to., rhyming and versing that maketh poesy : one may be a 

1828. Vol. i., p. 136, et seq. This evil was checked by a poet without versing, and a versifier without poetry." 

decree of the Council of Trent. Sir Philip Sidney's Defence of Poesy. 

b The word " Poet " is here too generally applied. "It 


Elizabeth may be formed from the fact that seven hundred and ninety-six ballads, 
left for entry at Stationers' Hall, remained in the cupboard of the council chamber 
of the company at the end of the year 1560, to be transferred to the new 
Wardens, and only forty-four books. a As to the latter part of her reign, see 
Bishop Hall, 1597. 

" Some drunken rhymer thinks his time well spent 

If he can live to see his name in print ; 

Who, when he once is fleshed to the press, 

And sees his handsell have such fair success, 

Sung to the wheel, and sung unto the pail? 

He sends forth thraves* of ballads to the sale." 

And to the same purport, in Martin Mar-sixtus, 1592 : "I lothe to speak it, 
every red-nosed rhymester is an author ; every drunken man's dream is a book ; 
and he, whose talent of little wit is hardly worth a farthing, yet layeth about him 
so outrageously as if all Helicon had run through his pen : in a word, scarce a cat 
can look out of a gutter, but out starts a halfpenny chronicler, and presently a 
proper new ballet of a strange sight is indited." 

Henry Chettle, in his pamphlet entitled Kind Sarffs Dream, 1592, speaks of 
idle ypuths singing and selling ballads in every corner of cities and market towns, 
and especially at fairs, markets, and such like public meetings. Contrasting that 
time with the simplicity of former days, he says, "What hafb there not, contrary 
to order, been printed ? Now ballads are abusively chanted in every street ; and 
from London this evil has overspread Essex and the adjoining counties. There is 
many a tradesman of a worshipful trade, yet no stationer, who after a little bring- 
ing up apprentices to singing brokery, takes into his shop some fresh men, and 
trusts his servants of two months' standing with a dozen groatsworth of ballads. 
In which, if they prove thrifty, he makes them pretty chapmen, able to spread 
more pamphlets by the state forbidden, than all the booksellers in London." 
He particularly mentions the sons of one Barnes, most frequenting Bishop's 
Stortford, the one with a squeaking treble, the other with an ale-blown base, as 
bragging that they earned twenty shillings a day ; whilst others, horse and man, 
the man with many a hard meal, and the horse pinched for want of provender, 
have together hardly taken ten shillings in a week. 

In a pamphlet intended to ridicule the follies of the times, printed in 1591, the 
writer says, that if men that are studious would " read that which is good, a poor 
man may be able" not to obtain bread the cheaper, but as the most desirable of 
all results, he would be able " to buy three ballets for a halfpenny." 4 

" And tell prose writers, stories are so stale, 
That penny ballads make a better sale." 

PasquilVs Madness, 1600. 

The words of the ballads were written by such men as Elderton, " with his ale- 
crammed nose," and Thomas Deloney, " the balleting silk-weaver of Norwich." 

See Collier's Extracts from the Registers of the Sta- c " Thrave " signifies a number of sheaves of corn set 

tioners' Company, vol. i., p. 28. up together ; metaphorically, an indefinite number of any- 

b " Sung to the wheel," i.e., to the spinning wheel; and thing. Nares' Glossary. 

" sung to the pail," sung by milk-maids, of whose love of d Fearefull and lamentable effects nf two dangerous Comet* 

ballads further proofs will be adduced. that shall appeare, &c., 4to, 1591. 


The former is thus described in a MS. of the time of James I., in the pos- 
session of Mr. Payne Collier : 

" Will. Elderton's red nose is famous everywhere, 

And many a ballet shows it cost him very dear ; 

In ale, and toast, and spice, he spent good store of coin, 

You need not ask him twice to take a cup of wine. 

But though his nose was red, his hand was very white, 

In work it never sped, nor took in it delight ; 

No marvel therefore 'tis, that white should be his hand, 

That ballets writ a score, as you well understand." 

Nashe, in Have with you to Saffron Walden, says of Deloney, " He hath rhyme 
enough for all miracles, and wit to make a Garland of Grood Will, &c., but 
whereas his muse, from the first peeping forth, hath stood at livery at an ale-house 
wisp, never exceeding a penny a quart, day or night and this dear year, 
together with the silencing of his looms, scarce that he is constrained to betake 
himself to carded ale" (i.e., ale mixed with small beer), "whence it proceedeth 
that since Candlemas, or his jigg of John for the king, not one merry ditty will 
come from him ; nothing but The Thunderbolt against swearers, Repent, England, 
repent, and the Strange Judgments of Grod." 

In 1581, Thomas Lovell, a zealous puritan, (one who objected to the word 
Christmas, as savouring too much of popery, and calls it Chris^We), published 
" A Dialogue between Custom and Verity, concerning the use and abuse of 
dauncinge and minstralsye." From this, now rare book, Mr. Payne Collier has 
printed various extracts. The object was to put down dancing and minstrelsy ; 
Custom defends and excuses them, and Verity, who is always allowed to have the 
best of the argument, attacks and abuses them. It shows, however, that the old 
race of minstrels was not quite extinct. Verity says : 
" But this do minstrels clean forget : 

Some godly songs they have, 
Some wicked ballads and unmeet, 

As companies do crave. 
For filthies they have filthy songs ; 

For ' some ' lascivious rhymes ; 
For honest, good ; for sober, grave 

Songs ; so they watch their times. 
Among the lovers of the truth, 

Ditties of truth they sing ; 
Among the papists, such as of 

Their godless legends spring 

The minstrels do, with instruments, 

With songs, or else with jest, 
Maintain themselves : but, as they use, [act] 
Of these naught is the best." 

Collier's Extracts Reg. Stat. Comp., vol. ii., pp. 144, 145. 
Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, 1602, speaking of Tregarrick, then the 


residence of Mr. Buller, the sheriff, says, "It was sometime the Wideslade's 
inheritance, until the father's rebellion forfeited it," and the " son then led 
a walking life with his harp, to gentlemen's houses, where-through, and by his 
other active qualities, he was entitled Sir Tristram ; neither wanted he (as some 
say) a ' belle IsoundJ the more aptly to resemble his pattern." 

So in the "Pleasant, plain, and pithy pathway, leading to a virtuous and honest 
life" (about 1550), 

" Very lusty I was, and pleasant withall, 
To sing, dance, and play at the ball .... 
And besides all this, I could then finely play 
On the harp much better than now far away, 
By which my minstrelsy and my fair speech and sport, 
All the maids in the parish to me did resort." 

As minstrelsy declined, the harp became the common resource of the blind, 
and towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth, harpers were proverbially blind : 
" If thou'lt not have her look'd on by thy guests, 
Bid none but harpers henceforth to thy feasts." 

Guilpin's Skialetkeia, 1598. 

There are many ballads about blind harpers, and many tricks were played upon 
them, such as a rogue engaging a harper to perform at a tavern, and stealing the 
plate " while the unseeing harper plays on." As to the other street and tavern 
musicians, Gosson tells us, in his Short Apologie of the Schoole of Abuse , 1586, 
that " London is so full of unprofitable pipers and fiddlers, that a man can no 
sooner enter a tavern, than two or three cast (i.e., companies) of them, hang at 
his heels, to give him a dance before he departs," but they sang ballads and 
catches as well as played dances. They also played at dinner, 

" Not a dish removed 
But to the music, nor a drop of wine 
Mixt with the water, without harmony." 

" Thou need no more send for a fidler to a feast (says Lyly), than a beggar to 
a fair." 

Part-Singing, and especially the singing Rounds, or Roundelays, and Catches, 
was general throughout England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
In the Moralities and the earliest plays, when part-music was sung instead of old 
ballads, it was generally in Canon, for although neither Round, Catch, nor Canon 
be specified, we find some direction from the one to the other to sing after him. a 
Thus, in the old Morality called New Oustome (Dodsley, vol. i.) , Avarice says : 
"But, Sirs, because we have tarried so long, 

If you be good fellows, let us depart with a song." 
To which Cruelty answers : 

" I am pleased, and therefore let every man 
Follow after in order as well as he can." 

Catch, Round or Roundelay, and Canon in unison, are, other, there results a harmony of as many parts as there 

in music, nearly the same thing. In all, the harmony is to are singers. The Oatch differs only in that the words of 

be sung hy several persons; and is so contrived, that, one part are made to answer, or catch the other; as, "Ah! 

though each sings precisely the same notes as his fellows, how, Sophia," sung like " a house o" fire," " Burney's 

yet, hy beginning at stated periods of time from each History," like " burn his history," &c. 


And in John Heywood's The FourP's, one of our earliest plays, the Apothecary, 
having first asked the Pedler whether he can sing at sight, says, " Who that lyste 
sing after me" In neither case are the words of the Round given. 

Tinkers, tailors, blacksmiths, servants, clowns, and others, are so constantly 
mentioned as singing music in parts, and by so many writers, as to leave no doubt 
of the ability of at least many among them to do so. 

Perhaps the form of Catch, or Round, was more generally in favour, because, 
as each would sing the same notes, there would be but one part to remember, and 
the tune would guide those who learnt by ear. 

We find Roundelays generally termed " merry," and cheerfulness was the 
common attribute of country songs. 

In Peele's Arraignment of Paris, 1584 : 

" Some Rounds, or merry Roundelays, we sing no other songs ; 

Your melancholic notes not to our country mirth belongs" 
And in his King Edward I., the Friar says : 

" And let our lips and voices meet in a merry country song." 
In Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale, when Autolycus says that the song is a 
merry one, and that " there's scarce a maid westward but she sings it," Mopsa 
answers, " We can both sing it : if thou wilt bear a part, thou shalt hear 'tis 
in three parts." 

Tradesmen and artificers had evidently not retrograded in their love of music 
since the time of Chaucer, whose admirable descriptions have been before quoted, 
(p. 33, et seq.) Occleve, a somewhat later poet, has also remarked the different 
effect produced by the labour of the hand and of the head. He says : 
" These artificers see I, day by day, 
In the hottest of all their business, 
Talken and sing, and make game and play, 
And forth their labour passeth with gladness ; 
But we labour in travailous stillness ; 
We stoop and stare upon the sheep-skin, 
And keep most our song and our words in." 

From the numerous allusions to their singing in parts, I have selected the 
following. Peele, in his Old Wive>s Tale, 1595, says, " This smith leads a life as 
merry as a king. Sirrah Frolic, I am sure you are not without some Round or 
other ; no doubt but Clunch (the smith) can bear his part;" which he accordingly 
does. In Damon and Pithias, 1571, Grimme the collier sings " a bussing base," 
and Jack and Will, two of his fellows, " quiddell upon it," that is, they sing the 
tune and words of the song whilst he buzzes the burden or under-song. In Ben 
Jonson's Silent Woman, we find, " We got this cold sitting up late and singing 
Catches with doth-ioorkers" In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Sir Toby says, 
" Shall we rouse the night-owl in a Catch that will draw three souls out of one 
weaver ?" and, in the same play, Malvolio says, "Do you make an ale-house of 
my lady's house that ye squeak out your cozier' 's Catches, without any mitigation 
or remorse of voice? " Dr. Johnson says cozier means a tailor, from " coudre," 


to sew but Nares quotes four authorities to prove it to mean a cobbler. In 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb we find 

" Where were the Watch the while ? Good sober gentlemen, 
They were, like careful members of the city, 
Drawing in diligent ale, and singing Catches." 

In A Declaration of egregious Impostures, 1604, by Samuel Harsnet (afterwards 
Archbishop of York), he speaks of " the master setter of Catches, or Rounds, 
used to be sung by tinkers as they sit by the fire, with a pot of good ale between 
their legs." 

Sometimes the names of these Catches are given, as, for instance, " Three blue 
beans in a blue bladder, rattle, bladder, rattle," mentioned in Pile's Old Wive's 
Tale, in Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, and in Dekker's Old Fortunatus; or 
" Whoop, Barnaby," which is also frequently named. But whoever will read the 
words of those in Pammelia, Deuteromelia, Hilton's Catch that catch can, or Play- 
ford's Musical Companion,mll not doubt that many of the Catches were intended for 
the ale-house and its frequenters ; but not so generally, the Rounds or Rounde- 
lays. Singing in parts was, by no means, confined to the meridian of London ; 
Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, 1602, says the same of Cornishmen : " Pastimes 
to delight the mind, the Cornishmen have guary miracles [miracle plays] and 
three-men's songs, cunningly contrived for the ditty, and pleasantly for the note." 

Catches 'seem to have increased in use towards the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, for, although I cannot cite an instance of one composed by a 
celebrated musician of Elizabeth's reign, in that of Charles II. such cases were 

Some of the dances in favour in the reign of Elizabeth will be mentioned as 
the tunes occur ; the Queen herself danced galliards in her sixty-ninth year, and, 
when given up by her physicians in her last illness, refusing to take medicine, she 
sent for her band to play to her ; upon which Beaumont, the French Ambassador, 
remarks, in the despatch to his court, that he believed " she meant to die as 
cheerfully as she had lived." Her singing and playing upon the lute and 
virginals have been so often mentioned, that I will not further allude to them 


By the Registers of the Stationers' Company we find that in 1565 William 
Pickering had a license to print " A Ballett intituled All in a garden grene, 
between two lovers;" and in 1568-9, William Griffith had a similar license. In 
1584, "an excellent song of an outcast lover," beginning " My fancie did I fire 
in faithful form and frame," to the tune of All in a garden grene, appeared in 
A Handeful of Pleasant Delites. 

In the rare tract called " Westward for smelts, or the Waterman's fare of mad 
merry Western Wenches," quarto, 1603, the boatman, finding his fare sleeping, 
sprinkles a little cool water on them with his oar, and, to "keep them from melan- 
choly sleep," promises " to strain the best voice he has, and not to cloy their ears 



with an old fiddler's song, as Riding to Rumford, or All in a garden green, but to 
give them a new one of a serving man and his mistress, which neither fiddler nor 
ballad-singer had ever polluted with their unsavoury breath." 

In the British Museum is a copy of " Psalmes, or Songs of Sion, turned into 
the language, and set to the tunes of a strange land, by Wplliam] Spatyer], 
intended for Christmas Carols, and fitted to divers of the most noted and common, 
but solemne tunes, every where in this land familiarly used and knowne." 1642. 
Upon this copy, a former possessor has written the names of some of the tunes to 
which the author designed them to be sung. One of these is All in a garden grene. 

The tune is in William Ballet's Lute Book, from which this copy is taken, and 
in The Dancing Masters of 1651, 1670, 1686, 1690, &c. The first part of the 
air is the same as another in TJie Dancing Master, called Crathering of Peascods. 
(See Index.) 

The words are contained in a manuscript volume, in the possession of Mr. 
Payne Collier. 

/Moderate time. 

/u& (* &- 

-4 ' ' d 

- * 1 

~s : *~~ 

y 1 ' f 

All in a gar- den green 1 wo 

lov - ers sat at ease, As 

m m ~r 

) " S 

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1 . 

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: 5 E h P 


1 K ' 1 

u 1 1 


Ki h rt J 

1 fc_- 

J J 

K rl J 



r J 'J 


ji > . ^r 

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they could scarce be 

seen a - mong, A - mong the leaf - y trees. 


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-rt J- 

-J J cj 


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. J J 


i j 

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liey long had 



than tru - ly, 

In that time 


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-> ^^ w f_z ; _fl ^ J ___ 

' QI rp'j'prr'a ^ a' 1 ^ 

i i r P U r * -i -^r ^ 

of the year, In that time of the year Com - eth 'twixt May and July 


Quoth he, " Most lovely maid, No sooner night is not, 
My troth shall aye endure; But he returns alway, 

And be not thou afraid, And shines as bright and hot 
But rest thee still secure, As on this gladsome day. 

That I will love thee long He is no older now 

As life in me shall last ; Than when he first was horn ; 

Now I am strong and young, Age cannot make him bow, 
And when my youth is past. He laughs old Time to scorn. 

When I am gray and old, My love shall be the same, 
And then must stoop to age, It never shall decay, 

I'll love thee twenty-fold, But shine without all blame, 
My troth I here engage." Though body turn to clay." 

She heard with joy the youth, She listed to his song, 

When he thus far had gone ; And heard it with a smile, 

She trusted in his truth, And, innocent as young, 

And, loving, he went on : She dreamed not of guile. 

" Yonder thou seest the sun No guile he meant, I ween, 
Shine in the sky so bright, For he was true as steel, 

And when this day is done, As was thereafter seen 

And cometh the dark night, When she made him her weal. 

Full soon both two were wed, 

And these most faithful lovers 
May serve at board at bed, 

Example to all others. 


From the Registers of the Stationers' Company, we find that in 1565-6, 
William Pickering had a license to print a ballet entitled, Row well, ye mariners, 
and in the following year, " Row well, ye mariners, moralized." In 1566-7, 
John Allde had a license to print " Stand fast, ye mariners," which was, in all 
probability, another moralization ; and in the following year, two others; the one, 
" Row well, ye mariners, moralized, with the story of Jonas," the other, " Row 
well, Christ's mariners." In 1567-8, Alexander Lacy took a license to print 
" Row well, God's mariners," and in 1569-70, John Sampson to print " Row 
well, ye mariners, for those that look big." These numerous entries sufficiently 
prove the popularity of the original, and I regret the not having succeeded in 
finding a copy of any of these ballads. 

Three others, to the tune of Row well, ye mariners, have been reprinted by 
Mr. Payne Collier, in his Old Ballads, for the Percy Society. The first (dated 
1570) " A lamentation from Rome, how the Pope doth bewail 

That the rebels in England cannot prevail." 

The second, " The end and confession of John Felton, who sufired in Paules 
Churcheyarde, in London, the 8th August [1570], for high treason." Felton 
placed the Bull of Pope Pius V., excommunicating Elizabeth, on the gate of the 
palace of the Bishop of London, and was hung on a gallows set up expressly 
before that spot. The third, " A warning to London by the fall of Antwerp." 



In A Handefull of Pleasant Delites, 1584, there is "A proper sonet, wherein 
the lover dolefully sheweth his grief to his love and requireth pity," which is 
also, to the tune of Row well, ye mariners. 

The tune is printed in Thomas Robinson's Schoole of Musick, fol., 1603, and 
in every edition of The Dancing Master that I have seen, from the first, dated 
1651, to the eighteenth, 1725. 

Not having the original words, a few verses from the "Lamentation from 
Rome," above mentioned, are given as a specimen of the merry political ballad of 
those days. It is the Song of a fly buzzing about the Pope's nose. The Pope and 
his court are supposed to be greatly disconcerted at the news of the defeat of the 
rebels in Northumberland. 

Moderate time and smoothly. 

~s i \" - 1 1^ r 

j ^ j j j ^=F 

f All you that news would hear, Give 

* 9 

ear to me, poor 

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V- " h S 

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4 ' J - = 

J J Ji 1 h F=fF 

^ j |'j fi i '3JJ i \f= V ''1 4|=fc 

Fa-byn Fly, At Rome I was this year, And in the Pope his nose did lie ; 

~T ' f ^-p - r r 

Iff p |J r 

i r p r=F 

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But there I could not long a-bide, He blew me out 
For first when he had heard the news That re - bels did 

m * m * L " A 

of ev' - ry side, 
their prince mis - use, . . 

-^-p- : P - 2 

L r 

f ft r F r-l-F 

:z=6= ^ ==T 

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a Row well, row we 

.1, Row well, ye 

_i r^ 

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ma - ri - ners. 

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j ) < . t 

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Then - he - with - joy,-Did sport him-self with many a toy : 
He - then - so - stout,-That from his nose he blew me out. 

... .. ty- f m .fr fi-i , 

-Fir ^ ' =^ 

r- > r -H 

-i. 1 ^ LJ ^ 


I have added the old burden over the music, feeling no doubt of its having been sung to this part of the tune. 




But as he was asleep, 

Into the same again I got ; 
I crept therein so deep, 

That I had almost burnt my coat. 
New news to him was brought that night, 
The rebels they were put to flight ; 
But, Lord, how then the Pope took on, 
And called for a Mary-bone. 

Up-ho !-make-haste, 

My lovers all be like to waste ; 


Saint Peter he doth what he list. 

So then they fell to mess ; 

The friars on their beads did pray ; 
The Pope began to bless, 

At last he wist not what to say. 
It chanced so the next day morn, 
A post came blowing of his horn, 
Saying, Northumberland is take ; 
But then the Pope began to quake. 


With pilgrim-salve he 'noint his hose ; 


His nails, for anger, 'gan to pare. 

When he perceived well 

The news was true to him was brought, 
Upon his knees he fell, 

And then Saint Peter he besought 
That he would stand his friend in this, 
To help to aid those servants his, 
And he would do as much for him 
But Peter sent him to Saint Sim. 


The friars all about he cuiFd, 

He-roar'd,-he-cried ; 

The priests they durst not once abide. 

The Cardinals then begin 

To stay, and take him in their arms, 
He spurn "d them on the shin, 

Away they trudg'd, for fear of harms. 
So then the Pope was left alone ; 
Good Lord ! how he did make his moan ! 
The stools against the walls he threw, 
And me, out of his nose he blew. 

I-hopp 'd,-I-skipp ' d, 

From place to place, about I whipp'd ; 


Till from his crown he pull'd the hair. 


This tune is referred to under the names of Lord Willoughby; Lord Wil- 
loughby' s March, and Lord Willoughby' s Welcome Home. In Queen's Elizabeth's 
Virginal Book, it is called Rowland. 

In Lady Neville's Virginal Book (MS., 1591), and in Robinson's School of 
Music, 1603, it is called "Lord Willobie's Welcome Home:" the ballad of The 
Carman's Whistle was to be sung to the tune of The Carman's Whistle, or to 
Lord Willoughby's March; and that of "Lord Willoughby being a true relation 
of a famous and bloody battel fought in Flanders, &c., against the Spaniards ; 
where the English obtained a notable victory, to the glory and renown of our 
nation" was to the tune of " Lord Willoughby, <fc." A copy of the last will 
be found in the Bagford Collection of Ballads, British Museum. 

Peregrine Bertie, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, one of the bravest and most 
skilful soldiers of this reign, had distinguished himself in the Low Countries in 
1586, and in the following year, on the recall of the Earl of Leicester, was 
made commander of the English forces. The tune, with which his name was 
associated, was as popular in the Netherlands as in England, and continued so, in 
both countries, long after his death, which occurred in 1601. It was printed at 
Haerlem, with other English tunes, in 1626, in Neder-landtsche Gedenck-clanck, 
under the name of Soet Mobbert, and Soet, soet Eobbertchen [Sweet Robert, and 
Sweet, sweet little Robert], which it probably derived from some other ballad 
sung to the tune. 

As the ballad of "Brave Lord Willoughby" is printed in Percy's JReliques of 
Ancient Poetry, a few verses, only, are subjoined. 



^ In Marchin 

EpVJ | 

^r time. 

|_J J J J 

J M fl 

|j , J J | 




'teenth day of 

1 ^1 *\ 

Ju - ly, With 

r 1 1 

13 J i i i 

glist'-ring sword and 

T> ' ff (' J 



J J 

^ J J 


i j.i i M . j-^ i rl . . 

? i- 

- ^ ^ 

-t j j 



Sri ^^ 

F J I 

-i- : r r ' ' 

shield, A fa - mous fight in Flan - ders Was fought-en in the 

i p ( 

-m 1 

1 p^^l 


j r r r 

r r J J 

J i J j3 

-rd m 

1 d 

field: The most cou-ra-geous of - ficers Were English Captains three ; But the 

J r riJ.J 

bra - vest in the bat - tie Was brave Lord Wil - lough - by. 

Stand to it, noble pikemen, 

And look you round about : 
And shoot you right, you bowmen, 

And we will keep them out : 
You musquet and caliver men, 

Do you prove true to me, 
I'le be the foremost man in fight, 

Says brave Lord Willoughbey. 

The sharp steel-pointed arrows, 

And bullets thick did fly, 
Then did our valiant soldiers 

Charge on most furiously ; 
Which made the Spaniards waver, 

They thought it best to flee, 
They fear'd the stout behaviour 

Of brave Lord Willoughbey. 

Then quoth the Spanish general, 

Come let us march away, 
I fear we shall be spoiled all 

If here we longer stay ; 
For yonder comes Lord Willoughbey 

With courage fierce and fell, 
He will not give one inch of way 

For all the devils in hell. 

And then the fearful enemy 

Was quickly put to flight, 
Our men pursued couragiously, 

And caught their forces quite ; 
But at last they gave a shout, 

Which ecchoed through the sky, 
God, and St. George for England ! 

The conquerors did cry. 



To the souldiers that were maimed, 

And wounded in the fray, 
The queen allowed a pension 

Of fifteen pence a day ; 
And from all costs and charges 

She quit and set them free : 
And this she did all for the sake 

Of brave Lord WilloughbSy. 

Then courage, noble Englishmen, 

And never be dismaid ; 
If that we be but one to ten 

We will not be afraid 
To fight with foraign enemies, 

And set our nation free. 
And thus I end the bloody bout 

Of brave Lord Willoughbey. 


This is mentioned as a dance tune by Nicholas Breton, in a passage already 
quoted from his Works of a young Wit, 1577 (ante p. 91) ; and by Nashe, in the 
following, from his Have with you to Saffron- Walden, 1596 : 

" Or doo as Dick Harvey did, that having preacht and beat downe three pulpits in 
inveighing against dauncing, one Sunday evening, when his wench or friskin was foot- 
ing it aloft on the greene, with foote out and foote in, and as busie as might be at 
Rogero, Basilino, Turhelony, All the flowers of the broom,) Pepper is black, Greene 
Sleeves, Peggie Ramsey,* he came sneaking behind a tree, and lookt on ; and though 
hee was loth to be scene to countenance the sport, having laid God's word against it so 
dreadfully ; yet to shew his good will to it in heart, hee sent her eighteen pence in 
hugger-mugger (i.e., in secret), to pay the fiddlers." 

The tune is contained in William Ballet's Lute Book, under the name of 
All flour es in broome. 

f\\ 7 4 . J 

i M 

- m 

. J J 

J . * J J 

i-Q) 4 -*- 

* . J 

1 * 


J. J\n 

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J . J* 1 J. J 1 ^ H'-^J 1 . J* p^ 

t?-tffl < ' *^ 

. * * 


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?t . 

~d M~ 

J J J 

j . j j j i . t J 

1 ; t 

* j 

"5 5 I 5'in 

j 3 1 


~i i 

cj ^ 1 S - S J. 

^ n r r . i r , f 

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=i " r i* p r 

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rf B 

j . i j j 

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l_4: 1 


Ir 1 1 


All the tunes here mentioned will be found in this Collection, except Satilino. 



This tune is frequently mentioned under both names. In Playford's Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1695, it is called Paul's Steeple. In his Division Violin, 
1685, at page 2, it is called The Duke of Norfolk, or Paul's Steeple ; and at 
page 18, Paul's Steeple, or the Duke of Norfolk. 

The steeple of the old Cathedral of St. Paul was proverbial for height. In the 
Vulgaria, printed by Wynkin de Worde, in 1530, we read: " Poule's Steple is a 
mighty great thing, and so hye that unneth [hardly] a man may discerne 
the wether cocke, the top is unneth perceived." So in Lodge's Wounds of 
Civil War, & clown talks of the Paul's Steeple of honour, as the highest point 
that can be attained. The steeple was set on fire by lightning, and burnt 
down on the 4th June, 1561 ; and within seven days, a ballad of " The true 
report of the burning of the steeple and church of Paul's, in London," was 
entered, and afterwards printed by William Seres, " at the west-ende of Pawles 
church, at the sygne of the Hedghogge." In 1564, a ballad was entered for 
" the encouraging all kind of men to the re-edifying and building Paul's steeple 
again ;" but the spire was never re-constructed. Mr. Payne Collier has printed 
a ballad, written on the occasion of the fire, in his Extracts from the Registers of 
the Stationers' Company, vol. i., p. 40; and it seems to have been intended for the 
tune. The first verse is as follows : 

" Lament each one the blazing fire, 
That down from heaven came, 
And burnt S. Powles his lofty spire 
With lightning's furious flame. 
Lament, I say, 
Both night and day, 
Sith London's sins did cause the same." 

In 1562-3, John Cherlewood had a license for printing another, called " When 
young Paul's steeple, old Paul's steeple's child." 

In Fletcher's comedy, Monsieur Thomas, act iii., sc. 8, a fiddler, being questioned 
as to what ballads he is best versed in, replies : 

" Under your mastership's correction, I can sing 
The Duke of Norfolk; or the merry ballad 
Of Diverus and Lazarus; The Rose of England ; 
In Crete, when Dedimusjirst began ; 
Jonas, his crying out against Coventry ; 
Maudlin, the merchant's daughter ; 
The Devil and ye dainty dames ; 
The landing of the Spaniards at Bow ; 
With the bloody battle at Mile-End." a 

Of the ballads mentioned above, Diverus and Lazarus perhaps, Deloney's ballad of Fair Rosamond, reprinted in 
seems to be an intentional corruption of Dives andLazarus. Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry. In Crete is often re- 
The Rose of England may be ferred to as a ballad tune ; for instance, My mind to me a 
"The rose, the rose, the English rose, kingdom is, was to be sung to the tune of In Crete, accord- 
It is the fairest flower that blows ; " ing to a black-letter copy in the Pepysian Collection, 
a copy of which is in Mr. Payne Collier's Manuscript; or, Maudlin, the merchant's daughter, The merchant's daughter 


In the Pepysian Collection, vol. i., 146, and Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 180, 
is a black-letter ballad, called " A Lanthorne for Landlords " to the tune of 
The Duke of Norfolk, the initial lines of which are 

" With sobbing grief my heart will break 

Asunder in my breast, &c." 

In The Loyal Garland, 1686, and in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 188 (or 
Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 312), Gf-od speed the plough, and bless the corn-mow, 
&c., to the tune of lam the Duke of Norfolk, beginning 
" My noble friends, give ear, 
If mirth you love to hear, 

I'll tell you as fast as I can, 
A story very true : 
Then mark what doth ensue, 

Concerning a husbandman." 

This ballad-dialogue, between a husbandman and a serving-man, has been orally 
preserved in various parts of the country. One version will be found in Mr. Davies 
Gilbert's Christmas Carols; a second in Mr. J. H. Dixon's Ancient Poems and 
Songs of the Peasantry (printed for the Percy Society) ; and a third in " Old 
English Songs, as now sung by the Peasantry of the Weald of Surrey and Sussex," 
&c., ; " harmonized for the Collector" [the Rev. Mr. Broadwood] " in 1843, by 
G. A. Dusart." 

In the Collection of Poems on Affairs of State, vol. iii., 70, is " A new ballad 
to an old tune, called lam the Duke of Norfolk." It is a satire on Charles II., 
and begins thus : " I am a senseless thing, with a hey, with a hey ; 
Men call me a king, with a ho ; 
To my luxury and ease, 
They brought me o'er the seas, 
With a hey nonny, nonny, nonny no." 

In Shadwell's Epsom Wells, 1673, act iii., sc. 1, we find, " Could I not play 
I am the Duke of Norfolk, Cf-reen Sleeves, and the fourth Psalm, upon the 
virginals ? " and in Wycherley's Gf-entleman Dancing Master, Ger. says, " Sing 
him Arthur of Bradley, or lam the Duke of Norfolk." 

A curious custom still remains in parts of Suffolk, at the harvest suppers, to 
sing the song "I am the Duke of Norfolk" (here printed with the music); one 
of the company being crowned with an inverted pillow or cushion, and another 
presenting to him a jug of ale, kneeling, as represented in the vignette of the 
Horkey. [See Suffolk Cf-arland, 1818, p. 402.] The editor of the Suffolk 
Crarland says, that " this custom has most probably some allusion to the homage 
formerly paid to the Lords of Norfolk, the possessors of immense domains in the 
county." To " serve the Duke of Norfolk," seems to have been equivalent to 
making merry, as in the following speech of Mine host, at the end of the play of 
The merry Devil of Edmonton, 1617 : 


" Why, Sir George, send for Spendle's noise a presently ; 

Ha ! ere 't be night, I'll serve the good Duke of Norfolk." 
To which Sir John rejoins : 

" Grass and hay ! mine host, let's live till we die, 
And be merry ; and there's an end." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v., 271. 

Dr. Letherland, in a note which Steevens has printed on King Henry IV., 
Part I., act ii., sc. 4 (where Falstaff says, " This chair shall be my state, this 
dagger my sceptre, and this cushion my crown"), observes that the country people 
in Warwickshire also use a cushion for a crown, at their harvest home diversions ; 
and in the play of King Edward IV., Part II., 1619, is the following passage : 
" Then comes a slave, one of those drunken sots, 
In with a tavern reck'ning for a supplication, 
Disguised with a cushion on his head." 

In the Suffolk custom, he who is crowned with the pillow, is to take the ale, to 
raise it to his lips, and to drink it off without spilling it, or allowing the cushion 
to fall ; but there was, also, another drinking custom connected with this tune. 
In the first volume of Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy, 1698 and' 
1707, and the third volume, 1719, is a song called Bacchus 9 Health, " to be sung 
by all the company together, with directions to be observed." They are as 
follows : " First man stands up, with a glass in his hand, and sings 
Here's a health to jolly Bacchus, (sung three times) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 
For he doth make us merry, (three times} 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

* Come sit ye down together, (three times) 
(At this star all bow to each other and sit down.) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 

And bringf more liquor hither (three times) 
(At this dagger all the company beckon to the drawer.) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

It goes into the * cranium, (three times) 
(At this star the first man drinks his glass, while the others sing and point at him.) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho ; 

And f thou'rt a boon companion (three times) 
(At this dagger all sit down, each clapping the next man on the shoulder.) 

I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. 

Every line of the above is to be sung three times, except I-ho, I-ho, I-ho. Then 
the second man takes his glass and sings ; and so round. 

About 1728, after the success of TJie Beggars' Opera, a great number of other 
ballad operas were printed. In the Cobblers' Opera, and some others, this tune is 
called J am the Duke of Norfolk ; but in The Jovial Grew, The Livery Make, and 
The Lover his own Rival, it is called There was a bonny Hade. It acquired that 
name from the following song, which is still occasionally to be heard, and which 
is also in Pills to purge Melancholy, from 1698 to 1719 : 

a Spindle's noise, i.e., Spindle's band, or company of musicians. 



There was a bonny blade, 

Had married a country maid, 
And safely conducted her home, home, home ; 

She was neat in every part, 

And she pleas'd him to the heart, " 
But ah! and alas! she was dumb, dumb, dumb. 

She was bright as the day, 

And brisk as the May, 
And as round and as plump as a plum, 

But still the silly swain 

Could do nothing but complain 
Because that his wife she was dumb. 

She could brew, she could bake, 

She could sew, and she could make, 
She could sweep the house with a broom ; 

She could wash, and she could wring, 

And do any kind of thing, 
But ah ! and alas ! she was dumb. 

To the doctor then he went, 

For to give himself content, 
And to cure his wife of the mum : 
" Oh! it is the easiest part 

That belongs unto my art 
For to make a woman speak that is dumb." 

To the doctor he did her bring, 

And he cut her chattering string, 
And at liberty he set her tongue ; 

Her tongue began to walk, 

And she began to talk 
As though she never had been dumb. 

Her faculty she tries, 

And she fills the house with noise, 
And she rattled in his ears like a drum ; 

She bred a deal of strife, 

Made him weary of his life 
He'd give any thing again she was dumb. 

To the doctor then he goes, 
And thus he vents his woes : 
" Oh ! doctor, you've me undone ; 
For my wife she's turn'd a scold, 
And her tongue can never hold, 
I'd give any kind of thing she was dumb." 

" -When I did undertake 

To make thy wife to speak, 
It was a thing easily done, 

But 'tis past the art of man,' 

Let him do whate'er he can, 
For to make a scolding wife hold her tongue." 

From the last line of the verses of this song, the tune also became known as 
" Alack! and alas ! she was dumb," or " Dumb, dumb, dumb." 

Rather slow. 

P 2 is i 

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J J J-:=R= 

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1 1 1" 1 

4 " 

am the Duke o 


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Nor - folk, . . New 

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- ly come to 

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Suf- folk, Say 

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shall I be at - tend - ed, or no, no, no? Good Duke be not of -fended, And 


you shall be at - tend- ed, And you shall be at - tend-c- ed, now, now, now 





This tune is to be found in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. It is 
mentioned as a dance tune by Nashe in Have with you to Saffron- Walden, 1596. 
(See ante p. 116.) A copy of the following ballad by Elderton is in the collection 
of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury : " Prepare ye to the plough, to the tune 
of Pepper is black." 

" The Queen holds the plough, to continue good seed, 

Trusty subjects, be ready to help if she need." 
Moderate time. 





H -r ^ 

Look up, my lords, an 

d mark my words, And 

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hear what I shall 

j 1 

sing ye; And 

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sub - jects all, both great and small, Now mark what words I 

1 1 i 1 i 

bring ye. 

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Parnaso hill, not all the skill Can bring about that I found out, 

Of nymphs, or muses feigned, By Christ himself ordained, &c. 

There are twelve stanzas, each of eight lines, subscribed W. Elderton. Printed 
by Wm. How, for Richard Johnes. 


This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's, and Lady Neville's, Virginal Books (with 
thirty variations by Dr. John Bull) ; in Anthony Holborne's Cittharn Schoole, 
1597 ; in Barley's New Booke of Tablature, 1596, &c. It is called " Walsingham^ 
" Save with you to Walsingham" and " As I went to Walsingham" 

It belongs, in all probability, to an earlier reign, as the Priory of Walsingham, 
in Norfolk, which was founded during the Episcopate of William, Bishop of 
Norwich (1146 to 1174), was dissolved in 1538. 

Pilgrimages to this once famous shrine commenced in or before the reign of 
Henry HI., who was there in 1241. Edward I. was at Walsingham in 1280, and 
again in 1296 ; and Edward H. in 1315. The author of The Vision of Piers 
Ploughman, says 

" Heremy tes on a hepe, with hooked staves, 
Wenten to Walsyngham, and her [their] wenches after." 

A curious reason why pilgrims should have both singers and pipers to accompany 
them, will be found in note a, at page 34. 

Henry VH., having kept his Christmas of 1486-7, at Norwich, "from thence 
went in manner of pilgrimage to Walsingham, where he visited Our Lady's Church, 
famous for miracles ; and made his prayers and vows for help and deliverance." 


And in the following summer, after the battle of Stoke, " he sent his banner to 
be offered to Our Lady of Walsingham, where before he made his vows." 

" Erasmus has given a very exact and humorous description of the superstitions 
practised there in his time. See his account of the Virgo Parathalassia, in his 
colloquy, intitled Peregrinatio Religionis ergo. He tells us, the rich offerings in 
silver, gold, and precious stones, that were shewn him, were incredible ; there being 
scarce a person of any note in England, but what some time or other paid a visit, 
or sent a present, to Our Lady of Walsingham. At the dissolution of the monas- 
teries in 1538, this splendid image, with another from Ipswich, was carried to 
Chelsea, and there burnt in the presence of commissioners; who, we trust, did not 
burn the jewels and the finery." Percy's Religues. 

The tune is frequently mentioned by writers of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. In act v. of Fletcher's The Honest Marts Fortune, one of the servants 
says, "I'll renounce my five mark a year, and all the hidden art I have in carving, 
to teach young birds to whistle Walsingham." A verse of " As you came from 
Walsingham," is quoted in The Knight of the Burning Pestle, and in Hans Beer- 
pot, his invisible Comedy, 4to., 1618. 

In The weakest goes to the wall, 1600, the scene being laid in Burgundy, the 
following lines are given : 

" King Richard's gone to Walsingham, to the Holy Land, 
To kill Turk and Saracen, that the truth do withstand ; 
Christ his cross be his good speed, Christ his foes to quell, 
Send him help in time of need, and to come home well." 

In the Bodleian Library is a small quarto volume, apparently in the hand-writing 
of Philip, Earl of Arundel (eldest son of the Duke of Norfolk, who suffered in 
Elizabeth's time), containing A lament for Walsingham. It is in the ballad style, 
and the two last stanzas are as follows : 

" Weep, weep, O Walsingham ! Sin is where Our Lady sat, 

Whose days are nights ; Heaven turned is to hell ; 

Blessings turn'd to blasphemies" Satan sits where Our Lord did sway : 

Holy deeds to despites. Walsingham, Oh, farewell ! " 

In Nashe's Have with you to Saffron-Walden, 1596, sign. L, "As I went to 
Walsingham " is quoted, which is the first line of the ballad in the Pepysian 
Collection, vol. i., p. 226, and a verse of which is here printed to the music. 

One of the Psalmes and Songs of Sion, turned into the language, and set to the 
tunes of a strange land, 1642, is to the tune of Walsingham ; and Osborne, in his 
Traditional Memoirs on the Reigns of Elizabeth and James, 1653, speaking of the 
Earl of Salisbury, says : 

" Many a hornpipe he tuned to his Phillis, 

And sweetly sung Walsingham to's Amaryllis." 

In Don Quixote, translated by J. Phillips, 1687, p. 278, he says, " An infinite 
number of little birds, with painted wings of various colours, hopping from branch 
to branch, all naturally singing Walsingham, and whistling John, come kiss 
me now" 

Two of the ballads are reprinted in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry ; the 
one beginning, "Gentle herdsman, tell to me ;" the other, " As ye came from the 



Holy Land." The last will also be found in Deloney's Garland of Goodwill, 
reprinted by the Percy Society. 

Slow and plaintive. 

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I went 



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with a jol - ly pal - - mer In a pil - grim's weed. 

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This ballad is on one of the affairs of gallantry that so frequently arose out of 



This tune is to be found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in A New Book 
of Tablature, 1596 ; in the Collection of English Songs, printed at Amsterdam, in 
1684; in Select Ayr es, 1659; in A Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, 1685 ; 
in Playford's Pleasant Musical Companion, Part IT., 1687; in The Beggars' 
Opera, 1728 ; in The Musical Miscellany, vol. v. ; and in many other collections. 

It probably took its name from Sir John Packington, commonly called " lusty 
Packington," the same who wagered that he would swim from the Bridge at 
Westminster, i.e., Whitehall Stairs, to that at Greenwich, for the sum of 3,000?. 
" But the good Queen, who had particular tenderness for handsome fellows, would 
not permit Sir John to run the hazard of the trial." His portrait is still pre- 
served at Westwood, the ancient seat of the family. 

In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book it is called Packington's Pound ; by Ben 
Jonson, Paggington's Pound; and, in a MS. now in Dr. Rimbault's possession, 
A Fancy of Sir John Pagington. 

Some copies, viz., that in the Virginal Book, and in the Amsterdam Collection, 
have the following difference in the melody of the first four bars : 

and it is probably the more correct reading, as the other closely resembles the 
commencement of " Robin Hood, Robin Hood, said Little John." 

The song in Ben Jonson's comedy of Bartholomew Fair, commencing, " My 
masters and friends, and good people, draw near," was written to this air, and is 
thus introduced : 

Night. To the tune of Paggington's Pound, Sir ? 

Cokes. (Sings} Fa, la la la, la la la, fa la la, la ! Nay, I'll put thee in tune and all ! 
Mine own country dance 1 Pray thee begin." Act 3. 



The songs written to the tune are too many for enumeration. Besides those 
in the various Collections of Ballads hi the British Museum, in D'Urfey's Pills, 
and in the Pitt to purge State Melancholy, 1716, in one Collection alone, viz., 
The Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, there are no fewer than thirteen. The 
following are curious : 

No. 1. A popular Beggars' Song, by which the tune is often named, com- 
mencing : " From hunger and cold who liveth more free ? 

Or who is so richly cloathed as we." Select Ayres, 1659. 

No. 2. " Blanket Fair, or the History of Temple Street. Being a relation of 
the merry pranks plaid on the river Thames during the great Frost." 

" Come, listen awhile, though the weather be cold." 

No. 3. " The North Country Mayor," dated 1697, from a manuscript volume 
of Songs by "Wilmot, Earl of Rochester, and others, in the Harleian Library : 
" I sing of no heretic Turk, or of Tartar, 
But of a suffering Mayor who may pass for a Martyr; 
For a story so tragick was never yet told 
By Fox or by Stowe, those authors so old ; 
How a vile Lansprasado 
Did a Mayor bastinado, 

And played him a trick worse than any Strappado : 
O Mayor, Mayor, better ne'er have transub'd, [turn'd Papist] 
Than thus to be toss'd in a blanket and drubb'd," &c. 

The following song, in praise of milk, is from Playford's Musical Companion, 
Part II., 1687 : 

Moderate time and smoothly. 

f T "f 

In praise of a dai-ry I pur-pose to sing, But all things in order; first God save the King! 

r E r 

And the Queen I may say ; That ev'-ry Mayday, Has ma-ny fair dai-ry- maids all fine and gay : As - 

r.- Y ' 

- sist me, fair damsels, to finish my theme, In - spiring my fan-cy with strawbeny cream 




The first of fair dairy-maids, if you'll believe, 
Was Adam's own wife, our great-grandmother Eve, 

Who oft milk'd a cow, 

As well she knew how ; 

Though butter was not then so cheap as 'tis now, 
She hoarded no butter nor cheese on her shelves, 
For butter and cheese in those days made themselves. 

In that age or time there was no horrid money, 
Yet the children of Israel had both milk and honey : 

No queen you could see, 

Of the highest degree, 

But would milk the brown cow with the meanest she ; 
Their lambs gave them clothing, their cows gave them meat, 
And in plenty and peace all their joys were compleat. 

Amongst the rare virtues that milk does produce, 
For a thousand of dainties it's daily in use ; 

Now a pudding I'll tell thee, 

Ere it goes in the belly, 

Must have from good milk both the cream and the jelly : 
For a dainty fine pudding, without cream or milk, 
Is a citizen's wife without satin or silk. 

In the virtues of milk there is more to be muster'd, 
The charming delights both of cheese-cake and custard, 

For at Tottenham Court, 

You can have no sport, 

Unless you give custards and cheese-cake too for't ; 
And what's the jack-pudding that makes us to laugh, 
Unless he hath got a great custard to quaff? 

Both pancake and fritter of milk have good store, 

But a Devonshire whitepot* must needs have much more ; 

No state you can think, 

Though you study and wink, 

From the lusty sack-posset b to poor posset drink, 
But milk's the ingredient, though sack's ne'er the worse, 
For 'tis sack makes the man, though 'tis milk makes the nurse. 

Elderton's ballad, called " News from Northumberland," a copy of which is in 
the Library of the Society of Antiquaries, was probably written to this tune. 


This tune is taken from the first edition of The Dancing Master. It is also in 
William Ballet's Lute Book (time of Elizabeth) ; and was printed as late as about 
1760, in a Collection of Country Dances, by Wright. 

The Maypole Song, in Actceon and Diana, seems so exactly fitted to the air, 
that, having no guide as to the one intended, I have, on conjecture, printed it 
with this tune. 

a Devonshire white-pot, or hasty -pudding, consisting of A pint ; then fetch, from India's fertile coast, 
flour and milk boiled together. Nutmeg, the glory of the British toast." 

b The following is a receipt for sack-posset : Dryden's Miscellany Poems, vol. v., p. 138. 

" From fair Barbadoes, on the western main, 
Fetch sugar, half a pound ; fetch sack, from Spain, 


. Boldly and rather quick. 

Come, ye young men, come a - long, With your mu - sic, dance, and song, 


Bring your lass - es in your hands, For 'tis that which love commands 

r r 

r r if 

f Repeat in Chorus 

Then to the Maypole come a - way, 

For it is now a ho - li - day. 

j j 

r i r 1 1 

It is the choice time of the year, 
For the violets now appear ; 
Now the rose receives its hirth, 
And pretty primrose decks the earth. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 

Here each hatchelor may chuse 
One that will not faith abuse ; 
Nor repay with coy disdain 
Love that should be loved again. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 

And when you well reckoned have 
What kisses you your sweethearts gave, 
Take them all again, and more, 
It will never make them poor. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 

When you thus have spent the time 

Till the day he past its prime, 

To your beds repair at night, 

And dream there of your day's delight. 

Then to the May-pole come away, 

For it is now a holiday. 


This is in every edition of The Dancing Master, except the first, either under 
the name of The Shepherd? s Daughter, or Parson and Dorothy. It is also under 
the latter title in several of the ballad operas. Percy says the ballad of The 
Knight and Shepherd's Daughter, " was popular in the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
being usually printed with her picture before it, as Hearne informs us in his pre- 
face to Grul Neubrig. Hist. Oxon., vol. i., 70. 

Four lines are quoted in Fletcher's comedy The Pilgrim, act iv., sc. 2: "He 
called down his merry men all," &c. ; and in The Knight of the Burning Pestle : 
" He set her on a milk-white steed," &c. 

1 In William Ballet's Lute Book, the third note of the melody is E; in the 2nd edition of The Dancing Master, B. 



Copies of the ballad will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 30 ; 
and in the Douce Collection, with the burden or chorus, " Sing, trang, dildo dee," 
at the end of each verse, which is not given by Percy. The two last bars are 
here added for the burden. In some copies the four first bars are repeated. 

Rather slow. 

1 p*~ 


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1 ^> 

rj * 


hjM*Sf -13 :=^=i 

was a shep-herd's daugh - ter, Cai 


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trip - ping on the 

way, An 


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there, by chance, a Knight she met, which caused her to stay. Sing, trang, dil-do dee. 

J J I 

s> u 


The ballad will be found in Percy's Religues of Ancient Poetry, series 3, book i. 


This is the only tune, composed by a well-known musician of the age, that 
I have found employed as a ballad tune. 

In Dowland's First Book of Songes, 1597, it is adapted to the words, " Now, 
now, I needs must part " (to be sung by one voice with the lute, or by four 
without accompaniment) ; but in his Lute Manuscripts it is called The Frog 
G-alliard, and seems to have been commonly known by that name. 

In Morley's Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611, it is called The Frog Grattiard ; 
in Thomas Robinson's New Citharen Lessons, 1609, The Frog; and in the Skene 
Manuscript, Froggis Cralziard. 

In Nederlandtsche Credenck-Olanck, printed at Haerlem in 1626, it is called 
Nou, nou [for Now, now] ; but all the ballads I have seen, that were written 
to it, give the name as The Frog Grdlliard. 

In Anthony Munday's Banquet of daintie Conceits, 15 88, there is a song to the 
tune of Dowland's G-alliard, but it could not be sung to this air. 

It seems probable that Now, now, was originally a dance tune, and the 
composer finding that others wrote songs to his galliards, afterwards so adapted 
it likewise. 

The latest Dutch copy that I have observed is in Dr. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke 
Rymen, printed at Amsterdam in 1647. 

Dowland is celebrated in the following sonnet, which, from having appeared in 
The Passionate Pilgrim, has been attributed to Shakespeare, but was published 
previously in a Collection of Poems by Richard Barnfield. 


" To his friend, Master It. L., in praise of Mitsic and Poetry." 
" If music and sweet poetry agree, 

As they must needs, (the sister and the brother,) 
Then must the love be great 'twixt thee and me, 

Because thou lov'st the one, and I the other. 
Don/land to thee is dear, whose heavenly touch 

Upon the lute doth ravish human sense ; 
Spenser to me, whose deep conceit is such, 
As, passing all conceit, needs no defence ; 
Thou lov'st to hear the sweet melodious sound 

That Phoebus' lute, the queen of music, makes, 
And I, in deep delight am chiefly drown' d, 

When as himself to singing he betakes ; 
One God is good to both, as poets feign, 
One knight loves both, and both in thee remain ! " 

Anthony Wood says of Dowland, that " he was the rarest musician that the 
age did behold." In No Wit, no Help, like a Woman's, a comedy by Thomas 
Middleton (1657), the servant tells his master bad news; and is thus answered : 
" Thou plaiest Dowland's Lachrimce to thy master." 

In Peacham's Crarden of Heroical Devices, are the following verses, portraying 
Dowland's forlorn condition in the latter part of his life : 
" Here Philomel in silence sits alone 

In depth of winter, on the bared briar, 
Whereon the rose had once her beauty shown, 
Which lords and ladies did so much desire ! 
But fruitless now, in winter's frost and snow, 
It doth despis'd and unregarded grow. 

So since (old friend) thy years have made thee white, 
And thou for others hast consum'd thy spring, 

How few regard thee, whom thou didst delight, 
And far and near came once to hear thee sing! 

Ungrateful times, and worthless age of ours, 

That lets us pine when it hath cropt our flowers." 

The device which precedes these stanzas, is a nightingale sitting on a bare 
brier, in the midst of a wintry storm. 

The following ballads were sung to the tune under the title of The Frog 
Grattiard: "The true love's-knot untyed: being the right path to advise princely 
virgins how to behave themselves, by the example of the renouned Princess, the 
Lady Arabella, and the second son to the Lord Seymore, late Earl of Hertford;" 
commencing " As I to Ireland did pass, 

I saw a ship at anchor lay, , 
Another ship likewise there was, 

Which from fair England took her way. 
This ship that sail'd from fair England, 

Unknown unto our gracious King, 
The Lord Chief Justice did command, 

That they to London should her bring," &c. 



A copy in the British Museum Collection, and printed by Evans in Old Ballads, 
1810, vol. iii., 184. 
Also, " The Shepherd's Delight," commencing 

" On yonder hill there stands a flower, 

Fair hefall those dainty sweets ; 
And by that flower there stands a bower, 
Where all the heavenly muses meet," &c. 

A copy in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. L, 388, and Evans, vol. i., 388. 

P3 r J M 


4 8 : f. 



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f- * i ' -1 ' 1 ~* ; ~ 

Now, O now I needs must part, Part - ing though I ab - sent mourn. 
While I live .1 needs must love, Love lives not when life is gone ; 

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Ab-sencecan no joy im-part, Joy once fled can ne'er re -turn. 
Now, at last, des - pair doth prove, Love di - vi - ded, lov - eth none. 

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Sad despair doth drive me hence, 

l r .J^.^i, ^^ 

That des - pair un - kind-ness sends ; 

' P 

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f ?* 


If that part - ing be of - fence, It is she, who then of-fends. 


Dear, when I from thee am gone, 
Gone are all my joys at once ! 

I loved thee, and thee alone, 
In whose love I joyed once. 

While I live I needs must love, 
Love lives not when life is gone 

Now, at last, despair doth prove 
Love divided loveth none. 

And although your sight I leave, 
Sight wherein my joys do lie, 

Till that death do sense bereave, 
Never shall affection die. 





This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and in The Dancing Master, 
from 1650 to 1665. 

Paul's Wharf was, and still is, one of the public places for taking water, near 
to St. Paul's Cathedral. In " The Prices of Fares and Passages to be paide to 
Watermen," printed by John Cawood, (n.d.,) is the following : " Item, that no 
Whyry manne, with a pare of ores, take for his fare from Pawles Wharfe, Queen 
hithe, Parishe Garden, or the blacke Fryers to Westminster, or White hall, or 
lyke distance to and fro, above iijrf. 

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This was one of the favorite Morris-dances of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, and frequently alluded to by writers of those times. 

Nashe, in his Introductory Epistle to the surreptitious edition of Sidney's 
Astrophel and Stella, 4to., 1591, says, "Indeede, to say the truth, my stile is 
somewhat heavie gated, and cannot daunce Trip and goe so lively, with ' Oh my 
love, ah my love, all my love gone,' as other shepheards that have beene Fooles in 
the morris, time out of minde." He introduces it more at length, and with a 
description of the Morris-dance, in the play of Summer's last Will and Testament, 

" VER goes in andfetcheth out the Hobby-horse and the Morris-dance, mho 

dance about. 

Ver. "About, about ! lively, put your horse to it; rein him harder; jerk him with 
your wand. Sit fast, sit fast, man ! Fool, hold up your ladle there." 

Will Summer. " brave Hall ! b well said, butcher ! Now for the credit of 
Worcestershire. The finest set of Morris-dancers that is between this and Streatham. 
Marry, methinks there is one of them danceth like a clothier's horse, with a wool-pack 

* The ladle is still used by the sweeps on May-day. 

b The tract of " Old Meg of Herefordshire for a Mayd 
Marian, and Hereford towne for a Morris-dance," 4to, 
1609, is dedicated to old Hall, a celebrated laborer of 
Herefordshire; and the author says, "The People of 
Herefordshire are beholding to thee ; thou givest the men 
light hearts by thy pipe, and the women light heeles by 
thy tabor. O wonderful piper I O admirable tabor-man !" 

. . . . "The wood of this olde Hall's tabor should 
have beene made a paile to carie water in at the beginning 
of King Edward the Sixt's reigne ; but Hall (being wise, 
because hee was even then reasonably well strucken in 
years) saved it from going to the water, and converted it 
in these days to a tabor." For more about old Hall and 
his pipe and tabor, see page 134. 



upon his back. You, friend, with the hobby-horse, go not too fast, for fear of wearing 
out my lord's tile-stones with your hob-nails." 

Ver. " So, so, so ; trot the ring twice over, and away." 

After this, three clowns and three maids enter, dancing, and singing the song 
which is here printed with the music. 

Trip and go seems to have become a proverbial expression. In Gosson's Schoole 
of Abuse, 1579 : " Trip and go, for I dare not tarry." In The two angrie Women 
of Abington, 1599 : " Nay, then, trip and go." In Ben Jonson's Case is altered: 
" delicate trip and go" And in Shakespeare's Lovers Labour Lost : " Trip 
and go, my sweet." 

The tune is taken from Musictes Delight on the Githren, 1666. It resembles 
another tune, called The Boatman. (See Index.) 
Moderate time and trippingly. 

-J" i J 

Trip and go, heave and ho, 

to and fro ; From the town 




T TT~ 

x> the grove, Two and two le 

t us rove, A may - ing, a play - ing ; Love hath no gain- 



r T-Pir r c 


- say - ing : So trip and go, trip and go, 


Mer-ri - ly trip and 





The Morris-dance was sometimes performed by itself, but was much more 
frequently joined to processions and pageants, especially to those appointed for 
the celebration of May-day, and the games of Robin Hood. The festival, in- 
stituted in honour of Robin Hood, was usually solemnized on -the first and 
succeeding days of May, and owes its original establishment to the cultivation 
and improvement of the manly exercise of archery, which was not, in former 
times, practised merely for the sake of amusement. 

" I find," says Stow, " that in the month of May, the citizens of London, of all 
estates, lightly in every parish, or sometimes two or three parishes joining 
together, had their several Mayings, and did fetch in May-poles, with divers 
warlike, sheivs, with good archers, Morris-dancers, and other devices for pastime all 


the day long : and towards the evening they had stage-plays and bonfires in the 
streets. . . .These great Mayings and May-games, made by the governors and 
masters of this city, with the triumphant setting up of the great shaft (a principal 
Maypole in Cornhill, before the parish church of St. Andrew, which, from the pole 
being higher than the steeple itself, was, and still is, called St. Andrew Under- 
shaft), by means of an insurrection of youths against aliens on May-day, 1517, a the 
ninth of Henry the Eighth, have not been so freely used as afore." Survey of 
London, 1598, p. 72. 

The celebration of May-day may be traced as far back as Chaucer, " who, in 
the conclusion of his Court of Love, has described the Feast of May, when " 
" Forth go'th all the court, both most and least, 

To fetch the floures fresh, and braunch 'and bloom 

And namely hawthorn brought, both page and groom ; 

And they rejoicen in their great delight; 

Eke each at other throw the floures bright, 

The primerose, the violete, and the gold, 

With freshe garlants party blue and white." 

Henry the Eighth appears to have been particularly attached to the exercise of 
archery, and the observance of May. " Some short time after his coronation," 
says Hall, " he came to Westminster, with the queen, and all their train : and on 
a time being there, his grace, the Earls of Essex, Wiltshire, and other noblemen, 
to the number of twelve, came suddenly in a morning into the queen's chamber, 
all appareled in short coats of Kentish Kendal, with hoods on their heads, and 
hosen of the same, every one of them his bow and arrows, and a sword and 
buckler, like outlaws or Robin Hood's men ; whereof the queen, the ladies, and 
all other there, were abashed, as well for the strange sight, as also for their 
sudden coming : and, after certain dances and pastime made, they departed." 
Hen. VIII. , fo. 6, b. The same author gives a curious account of Henry and 
Queen Catherine going a Maying. 

Bourne, in his Antiquitates Vulgar es, says, " On the Calends, or first day of 
May, commonly called May-day, the juvenile part of both sexes were wont to rise 
a little before midnight and walk to some neighbouring wood, accompanied with 
music, and the blowing of horns, where they brake down branches from the trees, 
and adorn them with nosegays and crowns of flowers. When this is done, they 
return with their booty homewards, about the rising of the sun, and make their 
doors and windows to triumph in the flowery spoil. The after part of the day is 
chiefly spent in dancing round a tall pole, they call a May-pole ; which being 
placed in a convenient part of the village, stands there, as it were consecrated 
to the goddess of flowers, without the least violence offered it hi the whole circle 
of the year." Borlase, in his Natural History of Cornwall, tells us, " An ancient 
custom, still retained by the Cornish, is that of decking their doors and porches, 
on the first of May, with green sycamore and hawthorn boughs, and of planting 
trees, or rather stumps of trees, before their houses : and on May-eve, they from 

The "story of 111 May-day, in the time of Henry the the subject of an old ballad in Johnson's Crown Garland 
Eight, and why it is so called ; and how dueen Catherine of Golden Roses, and has been reprinted in Evans' Old 
begged the lives of two thousand London apprentices," is Ballads, vol. iii. p. 76, edition of 1810. 


towns make excursions into the country, and having cut down a tall elm, brought 
it into town, fitted a straight and taper pole to the end of it, and painted the 
same, erect it in the most public places, and on holidays and festivals adorn it 
with flower garlands, or insigns and streamers." 

Philip Stubbes, the puritan, who declaims as vehemently against May-games as 
against dancing, minstrelsy, and other sports and amusements, thus describes 
" the order of their May-games " in this reign. " Against May, Whitsuntide, or 
some other time of the year, every parish, town, and village, assemble themselves 
together, both men, women, and children ; and either all together, or dividing 
themselves into companies, they go, some to the woods and groves, some to the 
hills and mountains, some to one place, some to another, and in the morning they 
return, bringing with them birch, boughs, and branches of trees, to deck their 
assemblies withal. . . . But their chiefest jewel they bring from thence is their 
May-pole, which they bring home with great veneration, as thus: they have 
twenty or forty yoke of oxen, every ox having a sweet nosegay of flowers tied to 
the tip of his horns ; and these oxen draw home this May-pole, (this stinking 
idol rather) , which is covered all over with flowers and herbs, bound round 
about with strings, from the top to the bottom, and sometime painted with 
variable colours, with two or three hundred men, women, and children, follow- 
ing it with great devotion. And thus, being reared up, with handkerchiefs 
and flags streaming on the top, they strew the ground about, bind green boughs 
about it, set up summer halls, bowers, and arbours, hard by it ; and then fall 
they to banquet and feast, to leap and dance about it, as the heathen people 
did at the dedication of their idols, whereof this is a perfect pattern, or rather 
the thing itself." (Anatomie of Abuses, reprint of 1585 edit., p. 171.) 

Browne, also, has given a similar description of the May-day rites, in his 
Britannia's Pastorals, book ii., song 4 : 

" As I have seen the Lady of the May 

Sit in an arbour, .... 

Built by a May-pole, where the jocund swains 

Dance with the maidens to the bagpipe's strains, 

When envious night commands them to be gone, 

Call for the merry youngsters one by one, 

And, for their well performance, ' she ' disposes 

To this a garland interwove with roses ; 

To that a carved hook, or well-wrought scrip ; 

Gracing another with her cherry lip : 

To one her garter ; to another, then, 

A handkerchief, cast o'er and o'er again ; 

And none returneth empty, that hath spent 

His pains to fill their rural merriment." 

The Morris-dance, when performed on May-day, and not connected with the 
Games of Robin Hood, usually consisted of the Lady of the May, the fool or jester, 
a piper, and two, four, or more, morris-dancers. But, on other occasions, the hobby- 
horse, and sometimes a dragon, with Robin Hood, Maid Marian, Friar Tuck, Little 
John, and other characters supposed to have been the companions of that famous 


outlaw, were added to the dance. Maid Marian was sometimes represented by a 
smooth-faced youth, dressed in a female garb; Friar Tuck, Robin Hood's chaplain, 
by a man of portly form, in the habit of a Franciscan friar; the hobby-horse was a 
paste-board resemblance of the head and tail of a horse, on a wicker frame, and 
attached to the body of a man, whose feet being concealed by a foot-cloth hanging 
to the ground, he was to imitate the ambling, the prancing, and the curveting of 
the horse; the dragon (constructed of the same materials) was made to hiss, yell, 
and shake his wings, and was frequently attacked by the man on the hobby-horse, 
who then personated St. George. 

The garments of the Morris-dancers were adorned with bells, which were not 
placed there merely for the sake of ornament, but were sounded as they danced. 
These, which were worn round the elbows and knees, were of unequal sizes, 
and differently denominated ; as the fore bell, the second bell, the treble, the mean 
or countertenor, the tenor, the great bell or base, and sometimes double bells were 
worn. a The principal dancer in the Morris was more superbly habited than his 
companions ; as appears from a passage in The blind Beggar of Bethnall Crreen 
(dramatised from the ballad of the same name), by John Day, 1659 : " He wants 
no clothes, for he hath a cloak laid on with gold lace, and an embroidered jerkin ; 
and thus he is marching hither like the foreman of a morris." 

In The Vow-breaker, or Fair Maid of Clifton, by William Sampson, 1636, 
we find, " Have I not practised my reins, my careers, my prankers, my ambles, 
my false trots, my smooth ambles, and Canterbury paces and shall the mayor 
put me, besides the hobby-horse? I have borrowed the fore-horse bells, his 
plumes, and braveries ; nay, I have had the mane new shorn and frizzled. Am 
I not going to buy ribbons and toys of sweet Ursula for the Marian and shall 
I not play the hobby-horse ? Provide thou the dragon, and let me alone for the 
hobby-horse." And afterwards : " Alas, sir ! I come only to borrow a few 
ribbands, bracelets, ear-rings, wire-tiers, and silk girdles, and handkerchers, for a 
Morris and a show before the queen ; I come to furnish the hobby-horse." 

There is a curious account of twelve persons of the average age of a hundred 
years, dancing the Morris, in an old book, called " Old Meg of Herefordshire for 
a Mayd Marian, and Hereford towne for a Morris-dance; or twelve Morris-dancers 
in Herefordshire of 1200 years old," b quarto, 1609. It is dedicated to the re- 
nowned old Hall, taborer of Herefordshire, and to " his most invincible weather- 
beaten nut-brown tabor, which hath made bachelors and lasses dance round 
about the May-pole, three-score summers, one after another in order, and is not 
yet worm-eaten." Hall, who had then " stood, like an oak, in all storms, for 
ninety-seven winters," is recommended to " imitate that Bohemian Zisca, who at 
his death gave his soldiers a strict command to flay his skin off, and cover a drum 
with it, that alive and dead he might sound like a terror in the ears of his enemies: 
so thou, sweet Hereford Hall, bequeath in thy last will, thy vellum-spotted skin 

* For the bells of the Morris, see Ford's play, The Witch eight persons in Herefordshire, whose ages, computed 

of Edmonton, act 2, so. 1. Weber is mistaken as to together, amounted to 800 years; probably the same as 

"mean" meaning tenor. mentioned by Lord Bacon, as happening " a few years 

b Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, vol.2, p.208, 1813, since in the county of Hereford." See History, Nalnrn! 

Fives an account of a May-game, or Morris dance, by >n,i> K.rpfrimfnfal, of T.ifr and Dent/,, lfi.38. 



to cover tabors ; at the sound of which to set all the shires a dancing. . . . The 
court of kings is for stately measures; the city for light heels and nimble footing ; 
western men for gambols ; Middlesex men for tricks above ground ; Essex men 
for the Hey ; Lancashire for Hornpipes; Worcestershire for bagpipes; but Here- 
fordshire for a Morris-dance, puts down not only all Kent, but very near (if one 
had line enough to measure it) three quarters of Christendom. Never had Saint 
Sepulchre's a truer ring of bells ; never did any silk-weaver keep braver time ; 
never could Beverley Fair give money to a more sound taborer ; nor ever had 
Robin Hood a more deft Maid Marian." 

Full particulars of the Morris-dance and May-games may be found by referring 
to Strutt's Sports and Pastimes ; to Ritson's RoUn Hood ; to an account of a 
painted window, appended to part of Henry IV., in Steevens' Shakespeare, the 
xv. vol. edition ; to Gifford's Ben Jonson, vol. i., pages 50, 51, 52, vol. iv.,p. 405, 
and vol. vii., p. 397 ; to The British Bibliographer, vol. iv., p. 326 ; Brand's 
Popular Antiquities; Douce's Illustrations of Shakespeare; and Dr. Drake's 
Shakespeare and his Times, vol. i., &c., &c. 


From Lady Neville's Virginal Book, which was transcribed in 1591. 




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Gifford has given the following description of the sport called Barley-break, in 
a note upon Massinger's Virgin Martyr, act v., sc. 1 : " Barley-break was 
played by six people a (three of each sex), who were coupled by lot. A piece of 
ground was then chosen and divided into three compartments, of which the middle 
one was called Hell. It was the object of the couple condemned to this division, 
to catch the others, who advanced from the two extremities ; in which case a 
change of situation took place, and hell was filled by the couple who were excluded 
by pre-occupation, from the other places : in this ' catching,' however, there was 
some difficulty, as, by the regulations of the game, the middle couple were not 
to separate before they had succeeded, while the others might break hands when- 
ever they found themselves hard pressed. When all had been taken in turn, the 
last couple was said to be in hell, and the game ended." In this description, 
Gifford does not in any way allude to it as a dance, but Littleton explains Chorus 
circularis, barley-break, when they dance, taking their hands round. See Payne 
Collier's note on Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. iii., p. 316. Strutt, in his Sports and 
Pastimes, quotes only two lines from Sidney, which he takes from Johnson's 
Dictionary : " By neighbours praia'd, she went abroad thereby, 

At barley-brake her sweet swift feet to try." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 344, is a ballad called " The Praise of our 
Country Barley-brake, or 

Cupid's advisement for young men to take 
Up this loving old sport, called Barley -brake." 

" To the tune of When this old cap was neiv." It commences thus : 
" Both young men, maids, and lads, 

Of what state or degree, 
Whether south, east, or west, 

Or of the north country ; 
I wish you all good health, 

That in this summer weather 
Your sweet-hearts and yourselves 

Play at barley-break together." &c. 

Allusions to Barley-break occur repeatedly in our old writers. Mr. M. Mason 
quotes a description of the pastime with allegorical personages, from Sir John 
Suckling : " Love, Reason, Hate, did once bespeak 

Three mates to play at Barley-break ; 
Love Folly took, and Reason Fancy ; 
And Hate consorts with Pride ; so dance they" &c. 


The tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, where it is arranged by Byrd. 
Ward, in his Lives of the Crresham Professors, states that it is also contained in 
one of the MSS. formerly belonging to Dr. John Bull. A copy of the original 
ballad is in the collection of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury. Watkin's Ale is 
referred to in a letter prefixed to Anthony Munday's translation of Gerileon in 

" Rather, perhaps, by not less than six people. break." The Guardian, act i., sc. 1. 
" Heyday ! there are a legion of young cupids at Barli- 



England, part ii., 1592, and in Henry Chettle's pamphlet, Kind-barfs Dreame, 
printed in the same year. The ballad is entitled : 

" A ditty delightful of Mother Watkin's ale 

A warning well weighed, though counted a tale." 
Moderate time. 

There was a maid this o - ther day, And she would needs go forth to play; 
And, as she walk'd, she sigh 'd and said, I am a - fraid to die a maid. 

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When that he-heard a lad What talk this maiden had, Tnere-of he was full glad, 
To say, fair maid, I pray, Whither go you to play ? Good sir, then did she say, 

-H E 





And did not spare For I will without fail, Maiden, give you Watkin's 

What do you care I"' Watkin's ale, good Sir, quoth she, What is that? I pray, tell 

' //, 


Each part of the tune is to be repeated for the words. The following stanza 
is the seventh : 

Thrice scarcely changed hath the moon, 
Since first this pretty trick was done ; 
Which being heard of one by chance, 
He made thereof a country dance. 
And as I heard the tale, 
He called it Watkin's Ale, 

Which never will be stale 
I do believe ; 

This dance is now in prime, 
And chiefly us'd this time, 
And lately put in rhime : 

Let no man grieve, 
To hear this merry jesting tale, 
The which is called Watkin's Ale : 
It is not long since it was made, 
The finest flower will soonest fade. 


This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books (arranged 
by Byrd) , as well as in several others of later date. The ballad is mentioned in a 
letter, bearing the signature of T. N., addressed to his good friend A[nthony] 
M[unday], prefixed to the latter's translation of G-erileon of England, part ii., 
quarto, 1592 ; and by Henry Chettle in his Kind-harPs Dreame, printed in the 
same year. 


The Carmen of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries appear to have been 
singularly famous for their musical abilities ; but especially for whistling their 
tunes. Falstaff's description of Justice Shallow is, that " he came ever in the 
rear-ward of the fashion," and " sang the tunes he heard the carmen whistle, 
and sware they were his Fancies, or his Good-nights." a (Henry IV., Part ii., 
act 3.) In Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, Waspe says, " I dare not let him 
walk alone, for fear of learning vile tunes, which he will sing at supper, and in 
the sermon times ! If he meet but a carman in the street, and I find him not 
talk to keep him off on him, he will whistle him all his tunes over at night, in his 
sleep." (Act i., sc. 1.) In the tract called "The World runnes on Wheeles," b 
by Taylor, the Water-poet, he says, " If the carman's horse be melancholy or 
dull with hard and heavy labour, then will he, like a kind piper, whistle him a 
fit of mirth to any tune, from above Eela to below Gammoth ; c of which gene- 
rosity and courtesy your coachman is altogether ignorant, for he never whistles, 
but all his music is to rap out an oath." And again he says, " The word carmen, 
as I find it in the [Latin] dictionary, doth signify a verse, or a song; and betwixt 
carmen and carman, there is some good correspondence, for versing, singing, and 
whistling, are all three musical." Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says, 
" A carman's whistle, or a boy singing some ballad early in the street, many 
times alters, revives, recreates a restless patient that cannot sleep ; " and again, 
" As carmen, boys, and prentices, when a new song is published with us, go sing- 
ing that new tune still in the streets." Henry Chettle, in his Kind-hart's 
Dreame, says, " It would be thought the carman, that was wont to whistle to his 
beasts a comfortable note, might as well continue his old course, whereby his 
sound served for a musical harmony in God's ear, as now to follow profane 
jigging vanity." In The Pleasant Historic of the two angrie Women of Abington, 
quarto, 1599, Mall Barnes asks, " But are ye cunning in the carman's lash, and 
can ye whistle well ? " In The Hog hath lost its Pearl, Haddit, the poet, tells the 
player shortly to expect " a notable piece of matter ; such a jig, whose tune, with 
the natural whistle of a carman, shall be more ravishing to the ears of shop- 
keepers than a whole concert of barbers at midnight." (Dodsley's Old Plays, 
vol. vi.) So in Lyly's Midas, " A carter with his whistle and his whip, in true 
ears, moves as much as Phoebus with his fiery chariot and winged horses." In 
Heywood's A Woman Jcitt'd with Kindness, although all others are sad, the stage 
direction is, " Exeunt, except Wendall and Jenkin ; the carters whistling." And 
Playford, in his Introduction to the skill of Music, 1679, says, " Nay, the poor 
labouring beasts at plough and cart are cheered by the sound of music, though it 
be but their master's whistle." 

" Good-nights are "Last dying speeches" made into crab-shell, brought out of China, and some imagined it 

ballads. See Essex's last Good-night. to be one of the Pagan temples, in which the cannibals 

b Taylor's tract was written against coaches, which in- adored the devil." He argues that the cart-horse is a 

jured his trade as a waterman. He says, "In the year more learned beast than a coach-horse, "for scarce any 

1564, one William Boonen, a Dutchman, brought first the coach-horse in the world doth know any letter in the book ; 

use of coaches hither, and the said Boonen was Queen when as every cart-horse doth know the letter G most 

Elizabeth's coachman, for indeed a coach was a strange understandingly." 

monster in those days, and the sight of them put both c Gamut, then the lowest note of the scale, as Eela was 

horse and man into amazement. Some said it was a great the highest. 



The following ballads were sung to the tune : "The Comber's Whistle, or The 
Sport of the Spring," commencing 

"All in a pleasant morning;" 

a copy in Pepys' Collection, vol. iii., 291, and Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 67. 
"All is ours and our husbands', or the Country Hostesses' Vindication ; " a copy 
in the Roxburghe Collection, vol. ii., 8. 

" The Courteous Carman and the Amorous Maid: or the Carman's Whistle," a 
&c., " To the tune of The Carman's Whistle; or Lord WillougM>y > s March." 


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So comely was her countenance, 

And ' winning was her air,' 
As though the goddess Venus 

Herself she had been there ; 
And many a smirking smile she gave 

Amongst the leaves so green, 
Although she was perceived, 

She thought she was not seen. 

At length she chang'd her countenance, 

And sung a mournful song, 
Lamenting her misfortune 

She staid a maid so long; 
Sure young men are hard-hearted, 

And know not what they do, 
Or else they want for compliments 

Fair maidens for to woo. 

There are twelve stanzas in the ballad, of which five 
are here omitted. A black-letter copy in the DOHCP 

Collection, fol. 33, and one in Mr. Payne Collier's Collec- 



Why should young virgins pine away 

And lose their chiefest prime ; 
And all for want of sweet-hearts, 

To cheer us up in time ? 
The young man heard her ditty, 

And could no longer stay, 
But straight unto the damosel 

With speed he did away. 

When he had played unto her 

One merry note or two, 
Then was she so rejoiced, 

She knew not what to do : 
O God-a-mercy, carman, 

Thou art a lively lad ; 
Thou hast as rare a whistle 

As ever carman had. 

Now, if my mother chide me 

For staying here so long ; 
What if she doth, I care not, 

For this shall be my song : 
' Pray, mother, be contented, 

Break not my heart in twain ; 
Although I have been ill a-while, 

I now am well again.' 

Now fare thee well, brave carman, 

I wish thee well to fare, 
For thou didst use me kindly, 

As I can well declare : 
Let other maids say what they will, 

The truth of all is so, 
The bonny carman's whistle 

Shall for my money go. 

The following is the old arrangement of the tune of The Carman's Whistle, 
by Byrd, taken from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 

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This tune is arranged both by Morley and by John Munday, in Queen Eliza- 
beth's Virginal Book ; it is in A new Book of Tablature, 1596 ; in Morley's First 
Booke of Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611 ; and in Robinson's Schoole of Mustek, 
1603. In The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1686, it appears under the title of 
" The new Exchange, or Durham Stable ; " but the tune is there altered into 
2 time, to fit it for dancing. 

On the 4th March, 1587-8, John Wolfe had a license to print a ballad called 
" Goe from the windowe." Nash, in his controversial tracts with Harvey, 1599, 
mentions a song, " Go from my garden, go." In Beaumont and Fletcher's 
"Knight of the Burning Pestle, Old Merrythought sings 



Slowly and smoothly 

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Go from my windo 

w, love, 


Go from my window, my 

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dear ; The 

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wind and the rain Will drive you back a - gain, You can-not be lodged here. 

i j J r J i 


Begone, begone, my juggy, my puggy, 
Begone, my love, my dear ; 
The weather is warm, 
'Twill do thee no harm : 
Thou canst not be lodged here." 
In Fletcher's Monsieur Thomas, we find 

" Come up to my window, love, come, come, come, 
Come to my window, my dear ; 
The wind nor the rain 
Shall trouble thee again : 
But thou shalt be lodged here." 

It is again quoted by Fletcher in The Woman's Prize, or the Tamer tamed, act i., 
sc. 3 ; by Middleton in Blurt, Master Constable ; and by Otway in The Soldier's 

It is one of the ballads that were parodied in " Ane compendious booke of 
Godly and Spiritual! Songs . . with sundrie of other ballates, chainged out of 
prophaine Songes, for avoiding of Sinne and Harlotrie ; " printed in Edinburgh 
in 1590 and 1621. There are twenty- two stanzas in the Godly Song, the following 
are the two first : '' Quho [who] is at my windo, who, who ? 
Goe from my windo ; goe, goe. 
Quha calles there, so like ane strangere ? 
Go from my windo, goe. 

Lord, I am here, ane wratched mortall, 
That for thy mercie dois crie and call 
Unto Thee, my Lord celestiall ; 
See who is at my windo, who ? " 

At the end of Hey wood's The Rape of Lucrece, a song is printed beginning 
" Begone, begone, my Willie, my Billie, 

Begone, begone, my deere ; 
The weather is warme, 'twill doe thee no harme, 

Thou canst not be lodged here." 
which is also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 1661, p. 25. 



In Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707, vol. ii., 44, or 1719, vol. iv., 44, is another 
version of that song, beginning, " Arise, arise, my juggy, my puggy ; " but in 
both editions it is printed to the tune of " Good morrow, 'tis St. Valentine's day," 
and not to the original music. 

I received the following traditional version of "Go from my window " from a 
very kind friend of former days, the late R. M. Bacon, of Norwich.* The tune is 
very like that of Ophelia's Song, "And how should I your true love know ; " the 
first and last strains being the same in both. The words promise an improvement 
of the original, and it is to be regretted that my informant had only heard 
the first stanza, which is here printed to the music. 

Rather slow. 

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Go from my window, my love, my love ; Go from my window, my dear ; For the 

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wind is in the west, And the cuckoo's in his nest, And you can't have a lodging here. 



This tune is referred to under the names of " Dulcina;" " As at noon Dulcina 
rested ; " " From Oberon in fairy-land ; " and " Robin Goodfellow." 

The ballad of " The merry pranks of Robin Goodfellow " (attributed to Ben 
Jonson) commences with the line, " From Oberon in fairy-land ; " and in the old 
black-letter copies, is directed to be sung to the tune of Dulcina, The ballad of 
" As at noon Dulcina rested," is said, upon the authority of Cayley and Ellis, to 
have been written by Sir Walter Raleigh. Both are printed in Percy's Reliques 
of Ancient Poetry, series iii., book 2. 

The Milk-woman in Walton's Angler, says, "What song was it, I pray 
you? Was it, "Come, shepherds, deck your heads," or "As at noon Dulcina 
rested," &c. 

Mr. Bacon was for many years the well-known editor, 
as well as principal proprietor, of The Norwich Mercury, 
and editor of The Quarterly Musical Review. His memory 
was so stored with traditional songs, learnt in boyhood, 
that, having accepted a challenge at the tea-table to sing 
a song upon any subject a lady would mention, I have 
heard him sing verse after verse upon tea-spoons, and 
other such themes, proposed as the most unlikely for 

songs to have been written upon. He had learnt a number 
of sea songs, principally from one old sailor, and some 
were so descriptive, that it was almost thrilling to hear 
them sung by him. Seventeen years ago, these ap- 
peared to me too irregular and declamatory to be reduced 
to rhythm, but I have since greatly regretted the loss of 
an opportunity that can never recur. 



The following ballads were also sung to the tune : 

" The downfall of dancing ; or the overthrow of three fiddlers and three bag- 
pipers," &c., " to the tune of Robin Goodfellow. Copies in the Douce and Pepys 

" A delicate new ditty, composed upon the posie of a ring, being, 'I fancy none 
but thee alone : ' sent as a new year's gift by a lover to his sweet-heart. To the 
tune of Dulcina" Roxburghe Collection, vol. i., 80. 

"The desperate damsel's tragedy, or the faithless young man;" beginning, 
" In the gallant month of June. " 

" A pleasant new song, betwixt a sailor and his love. To the tune of Dukina;" 
beginning, " What doth ail my love so sadly." In the Bagford and Roxburghe 
Collections, where several more will be found. 

A Cavalier's drinking-song, by Matt. Arundel, to the tune of Robin Good- 
fellow, commencing, "Some say drinking does disguise men," is printed in Tixall 
Poetry, quarto, 1813. The last verse dates this after the Restoration. 

Dulcina was also one of the tunes to the " Psalms and Songs of Sion ; turned 
into the language and set to the tunes of a strange land," 1642. 

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From O - beron, in 

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fai - ry - land, The 

king of ghosts and 

sha - dows there, 

p- -?- A 


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Mad Robin I, at his command, Am sent to view the night - sports here. 


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What re-vel rout Is 

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where I go, 

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will o'er-see, And 

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mer - ry be, And make good sport, With ho, ho, ho ! 

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This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1725, called " A soldier's 
life," or " Who list to lead a soldier's life." There were, evidently, two tunes 
under the same name (one of which I have not discovered), because some of the 
ballads could not be sung to this air. In Peele's Edward Z, 1593, we find, 
" Enter a harper and sing, to the tune of Who list to lead a soldier's life, the 
following : " Go to, go to, you Britons all, 

And play the men both great and small," &c. ; 
and in Deloney's Strange Histories, 1607 

" When Isabell, fair England's queen, 

In woeful wars had victorious been," &c ; 

neither of which could be sung to this air, but " A Song of an English Knight, 
that married the Royal Princess, Lady Mary, sister to Henry VIH., which Knight 
was afterwards made Duke of Suffolk ; " beginning 

"Eighth Henry ruling in this land, 

He had a sister fair ;" 

and "A Song of the Life and Death of King Richard HI., who, after many 
murders by him committed, &c., was slain at the battle of Bosworth, by 
Henry VH., King of England;" beginning 

" In England once there reigned a king, 

A tyrant fierce and fell," a 
as well as several others, are exactly fitted to the tune. 

Ophelia's Song, " Good morrow, 'tis St. Valentine's day," and the traditional 
air to " Lord Thomas and Fair Ellinor," are only different versions of this. 

In the Pepys Collection, vol i., is a black-letter ballad of " The joyful peace 
concluded between the King of Denmark and the King of Sweden, by the means of 
our most worthy sovereign James," &c., to the tune of "Who list to lead a 
soldier's life;" dated 1613. 

In The Miseries of inforced Marriage (Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. v.), the song, 
" Who list to have a lubberly load," was, perhaps, a parody on "Who list to lead 
a soldier's life," the words of which I have not been successful in finding. 
; Gracefully. 

These two ballads have been reprinted by Evans in 
Old Ballad*, vol. iif ., 30 and 84 (1810) ; but he lias omitted 

the names of the tunes to which they were to be sung, not 
only in these, but in numberless other instances. 




This traditional version of the tune of Lord Thomas and Fair Mlinor is taken 
from Sandys' Collection of Christmas Carols. It is, evidently, the air of Who 
list to lead a soldier's life ? adapted for words of a somewhat different measure. 
(See the opposite page.) 

At p. 17 of Ritson's Observations on the Minstrels, in enumerating the probable 
" causes of the rapid decline of the minstrel profession, since the time of Eliza- 
beth," he says, " It is conceived that a few individuals, resembling the character, 
might have been lately, and may possibly be still found, in some of the least 
polished or less frequented parts of the kingdom. It is not long since the public 
papers announced the death of a person of this description, somewhere in Derby- 
shire ; and another was within these two years to be seen in the streets of London ; 
he played on an instrument of the rudest construction, which he, properly enough, 
called a hum-strum, and chanted (amongst others) the old ballad of Lord Thomas 
and Fair Mlinor, which, by the way, has every appearance of being originally a 
minstrel song." 

The ballad will be found hi book i., series 3, of Percy's Heliques of Ancient 
Poetry, and it is one of those still kept in print in Seven Dials. The black-letter 
copies direct it to be sung " to a pleasant new tune." See Douce Collection, i. 121. 
Gracefully, ; ^ ^-^j 

TfYTl s~l 

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J J J J -h- 


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Thomas he was a bold fo - res - ter, And a chaser of the king's 

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deer, Fair El-li-norwas a fine woman, And Lord Thomas he loved her dear 

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In Henry Chettle's Kind-harfs Dreame, 1592, two lines are quoted from the 
ballad of " The Friar and the Nun." The tune is in The Dancing Master, from 
1650 to 1725; in Musick's Delight on the Cithren, 1666; in Pills to purge 
Melancholy ; and in many of the ballad-operas, such as The Beggars' Opera, The 
Devil to pay, The Jovial Grew, &c. Henry Carey wrote a song to the tune in his 
Honest Yorkshireman, 1735, and there are three, or more, in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly. In vol. ii. of some editions, and vol. iv. of others, the title and tune of 
" The Friar and the Nun " are printed by mistake with the song of " Fly, merry 
news," which has no reference to them. The ballad of The London Prentice, was 




occasionally sung to it, and in some of the ballad-operas the tune bears that name. 
In The Plot, 1735, it is called " The merry songster." The composer of the 
modern song, " Jump, Jim Crow," is under some obligations to this air. 

Henry Carey's song is called " The old one outwitted," and begins 
" There was a certain usurer, 
He had a pretty niece," &c. 

In The Beggars' Opera, the name of " All in a misty morning " is given to 
the tune, from the first line of a song called The Wiltshire Wedding, which will 
be found in Pills to purge Melancholy, iv. 148, or ii. 148. There are fifteen 
verses, of which the following nine suffice to tell the story. 


-Prk-2 rq-| 

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in a mis-ty 



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Cloudy was the 

weather, I i 

meeting with an 

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nd JM 

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old man 

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Clothed all in 

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leather, With ne 

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er a shirt up - 


on his back, But 

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wool un - to hi 

skin. With how d'ye do, and how 

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d'ye do, and 

m * . 

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how d'ye do a- gain. 




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The rustic was a thresher, 

And on his way he hied, 
And with a leather hottle 

Fast buckled by his side ; 
And with a cap of woollen, 

Which covered cheek and chin ; 
With how d'ye do? and how d'ye do? 

And how d'ye do ? again. 

I went a little further, 

And there I met a maid 
Was going then a milking, 

A milking, sir, she said ; 
Then I began to compliment, 

And she began to sing : 
With how d'ye do? &c. 

This maid, her name was Dolly, 

Cloth'd in a gown of gray, 
I, being somewhat jolly, 

Persuaded her to stay : 
Then straight I fell to courting her, 

In hopes her love to win, 
With how d'ye do? &c. 

I told her I would married be, 
And she should be my bride, 

And long we should not tarry, 
With twenty things beside : 
" I'll plough and KO\V, and reap and mow, 
Whilst thou shalt sit and spin," 

With how d'ye do? &c. 



" Kind sir, I have a mother, 

Besides, a father, still, 
And so, before all other, 

You must ask their good will ; 
For if I be undutiful 

To them, it is a sin ;" 
With how d'ye do? &c. 

Now, there we left the milking-pail, 
And to her mother went, 

And when we were come thither, 
I asked her consent ; 

I doff'd my hat, and made a leg, 
When I found her within ; 

With how d'ye do? &c. 

Her dad came home full weary, 
(Alas ! he could not choose ;) 

Her mother being merry, 
She told him all the news. 

Then he was mighty jovial too, 
His son did soon begin 

With how d'ye do? &c. 

The parents being willing, 

All parties were agreed, 
Her portion, thirty shilling ; 

We married were with speed. 
Then Will, the piper, he did play, 

Whilst others dance and sing ; 
With how d'ye do ? and how d'ye do ? 

And how d'ye do? again. 


This favorite old tune will be found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in 
Playford's Introduction ; in Apollo's Banquet for the Treble Violin ; and in the 
First part of the Division Violin, containing a collection of Divisions upon several 
excellent grounds, printed by Walsh; as well as Playford's Division Violin (1685.) 
In Pills to purge Melancholy, vol. iii., 1707., and vol. v., 1719, it is adapted to a 
song called Stow, the Friar. It is mentioned in Heywood's A Woman kill'd with 
Kindness, 1600 : 

Jack Slime. " I come to dance, not to quarrel : come, what shall it be ? Hogero ? 
Jerikin. " Rogero, no; we will dance The Beginning of the World. 
Sisly. " I love no dance so well as John, come hiss me now." 
In 'Tis merry when Grossips meet, 1609 : 

Widow. " No musique in the evening did we lacke ; 

Such dauncing, coussen, you would hardly thinke it ; 

Whole pottles of the daintiest burned sack, 

' Twould do a wench good at the heart to drinke it. 

Such store of tickling galliards, I do vow ; 

Not an old dance, but John, come hisse me now. 

In a song in Westminster Drollery, 1671 and 1674, beginning, " My name is 
honest Harry:" "The fidlers shall attend us, 

And first play, John, come hisse me ; 

And when that we have danc'd a round, 

They shall play, Hit or misse me" * 

In Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621: "Yea, many times this love will 
make old men and women, that have more toes than teeth, dance John, come Mss 
me now." It is also mentioned in The Scourge of Folly, 8vo. (n.d.) ; in Brath- 
wayte's Shepherd's Tales, 1623; in Tom Tiler and his Wife, 1661; and in Henry 
Bold's Songs and Poems, 1685. 

H it or miss is a tune in The Dancing Master of 1G50, 
and later editions. It is referred to by Whitlock, in his 
Zootamia, or present Manners of the English, 12mo., 1654, 

where he speaks of one whose practice in physic is 
"nothing more than the country dance called Hit or 




" In former times 't hath been upbraided thus, 
That barber's music was most barbarous ; 
For that the cittern was confin'd unto 
' The Ladies' Fall,' or ' John, come kiss me now,' 

' Green Sleeves and Pudding Pyes,' ' The P 's Delight,' 

'Winning of Bulloigne,' ' Essex's last Good-night,' &c." 

From lines " On a Barber who became a great Master of Musick." The ground 
of John, come kiss me now, was a popular theme for fancies and divisions (now 
called fantasias and variations) for the. virginals, lute, and viols. In the 
Virginal Book, only the first part of the tune is taken, and it is doubtful if it 
then had any second part ; the copy we have given is from Playford's and Walsh's 
Division Violin. It is one of the songs parodied in Andro Hart's Compendium 
of G-odly Songs, before mentioned, on the strength of which' the tune has been 
claimed as Scotch, although it has no Scotch character, nor has hitherto been 
found in any old Scotch copy. Not only are all the other tunes to the songs in the 
Compendium, of which any traces are left, English, but what little secular music 
was printed in Scotland until the eighteenth century, was entirely English or 
foreign. The following are the first, second, and twenty-first stanzas of the 
"Godly Song": 

John, come kisse me now ; 

John, come kisse me now, 
Johne, come kisse me by and by, 

And make no more adow. 

The Lord thy God I am, 

That John dois thee cell ; 
Rather slow and stately. 

John represents man, 
By grace celestiall. 

My prophites call, my preachers cry, 
John, come kisse me now ; 

John, come kisse me by and by, 
And make no more adow. 

John, come kiss me now, now, now, 



The tunes called Nancie in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book; Eduward 
Nouwels, in Bellerophon (Amsterdam, 1622, p. 115); Sir Eduward NouweVs 
Delight, in Friesche Lust-hof, 1634 ; and The London Prentice, in Pills to purge 
Melancholy (vi., 342), and in The Devil to pay, 1731, are the same: but the two 
last contain only sixteen bars, while all the former consist of twenty-four. 
The following is the version called Sir Edward Noel's Delight. 
In marching time. 




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The ballad of " The honour of a London Prentice : being an account of his 
matchless manhood, and brave adventures done in Turkey, and by what means he 
married the king's daughter," is evidently a production of the reign of Elizabeth. 
The apprentice maintains her to be " the phoenix of the world," " the pearl of 
princely majesty," &c., against "a score of Turkish Knights," whom he over- 
throws at tilt. 

The ballad is printed in Ritson's English Songs (among the Ancient Ballads), 
and in Evans' Old Ballads, vol. iii., 178. Copies will also be found in the Bagford, 
Roxburghe (iii. 747), and other Collections. It was "to be sung to the tune 
of All you that love good fellows ; " under which name the air is most frequently 


Bishop Earle, in his Micosmography, 1628, in giving the character of a Pot- 
poet, says, " He is a man now much employed in commendations of our navy, and 
a bitter inveigher against the Spaniard. His frequentest works go out in single 
sheets, and are chanted from market to market to a vile tune, and a worse throat ; 
whilst the poor country wench melts, like her butter, to hear them. And these 
are the stories of some men of Tyburn, or A strange monster out of Germany." 
One of these ballads of " strange monsters out of Germany " will be found in the 
Bagford and in the Pepys Collection (ii. 66) , " to the tune of All you that love 
good fellows" It is entitled "Pride's fall: or a warning for all English women 
by the example of a strange monster born late in Germany, by a merchant's 
proud wife of Geneva." The ballad, evidently a production of the reign of 
James !.,* is perhaps the one alluded to by Bishop Earle. 

There are other ballads about London apprentices; one of "The honors achieved 
in Fraunce and Spayne by four prentises of London," was entered to John 
Danter, in 1592. " Well, my dear countrymen, What-tfye-lacks" (as apprentices 
were frequently called, from their usual mode of inviting custom), "I'll have you 
chronicled, and all to be praised, and sung in sonnets, and bawled in new brave 
ballads, that all tongues shall troul you in scecula seculorum." Beaumont and 
Fletcher's Philaster. 

One of the ballads to the tune of " the worthy London prentice " relates 
to a very old superstition, and will recall to us the "Out, damned spot!" in 
Macbeth. It is entitled the " True relation of Susan Higges, dwelling in Ris- 
borow, a towne in Buckinghamshire, and how she lived twenty years by robbing 
on the high wayes, yet unsuspected of all that knew her ; till at last coming to 
Messeldon, and there robbing and murdering a woman, which woman knew her, 
and standing by her while she gave three groanes, she spat three drops of blood in 
her face, which never could be washt out, by which she was knowne, and executed 
for the aforesaid murder, at the assises in Lent at Brickhill." A copy is in the 
Roxburghe Collection, i. 424; also in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 203 (1810). 

I have not found any song or ballad commencing " All you that love good 
fellows," although so frequently quoted as a tune ; but there are several "All you 
that are," and "All you that be good fellows," which, from similarity of metre, 
I assume to be intended for the same air. 

In a chap-book called " The arraigning and indicting of Sir John Barleycorn, 
knight ; newly composed by a well-wisher to Sir John, and all that love him," are 
two songs, "All you that are good fellows," and "All you that be good fellows," 
" to the tune of Sir John Barleycorn, or Jack of all trades" Lowndes speaks of 
this tract as printed for T. Passenger in 1675, and of the author as Thomas 
Robins ; but there are Aldermary and Bow Church-yard editions of later date. 

Another "All you that are good fellows" is here printed to the shorter copy of 
the tune. It is from a little black-letter volume (in Wood's library, Ashmolean 
Museum) entitled " Good and true, fresh and new Christmas Carols," &c., 
printed by E. P. for Francis Coles, dwelling in the Old Bailey, 1642. It is one 

m See Fgirholt's Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume, p. 107 ; printed for the Percy Society. 



of the merry Christmas carols, and to be sung to the tune of " All you that 
are good fellows." 

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i_J i 

All you that a 

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I p - 

re good fel - lows, Come he 



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to hd 9 f 

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song; I know you do not hate good cheer, Nor li-quorthat 

V "^ 

is strong. 


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hope there is none 

Lfl^ ^ S-l 

here, But 

1 1 i 

soon will take Yny part, See - 



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- ing my mas - ter 

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and my dame Say wel - come with their 

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This is a time of joyfulness, 

And merry time of year, 
When as the rich with plenty stor'd 

Do make the poor good cheer. 
Plum-porridge, roast beef, and minc'd pies, 

Stand smoking on the board ; 
With other brave varieties, 

Our master doth afford. 

Our mistress and her cleanly maids 

Have neatly play'd the cooks ; 
Methinks these dishes eagerly 

At my sharp stomach looks, 
As though they were afraid 

To see me draw my blade ; 
But I revenged on them will be, 

Until my stomach's stay'd. 

Come fill us of the strongest, 

Small drink is out of date ; 
Methinks I shall fare like a prince, 

And sit in gallant state : 
This is no miser's feast, 

Although that things be dear ; 
God grant the founder of this feast 

Each Christmas keep good cheer. 

This day for Christ we celebrate, 

Who was born at this time ; 
For which all Christians should rejoice, 

And I do sing in rhyme. 
When you have given thanks, 

Unto your dainties fall, 
Heav'n bless my master and my dame, 

Lord bless me, and you all. 




The correct date of this fine old melody appears altogether uncertain, as it 
is to be found in different forms at different periods; but it is here placed in juxta- 
position to Sir Edward Noel's Delight, and All you that love good fellows, or 
The London Prentice, because evidently derived from the same source. The 
commencement of the air is also rather like Prince Rupert's March, and the end 
resembles Old King Cole, with the difference of being major instead of minor. 
Next to the National Anthems, there is not any tune of a more spirit-stirring 
character, nor is any one more truly characteristic of English national music. 
This version of the tune is as played by the band of the Grenadier Guards. The 
words are from a copy about a hundred years old, with the music. 
, March. 


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Repeat the last part in Chorus. 

tow row, row, row, row, row, To the Bri-tish Gre - na - dier. 


Those heroes of antiquity ne'er saw a cannon ball, 
Or knew the force of powder to slay their foes withal ; 
But our brave boys do know it, and banish all their fears, 
Sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, for the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. But our brave boys, &rc= 


Whene'er we are commanded to storm the palisades, 
Our leaders march with fusees, and we with hand grenades, 
We throw them from the glacis, about the enemies' ears, 
Sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. We throw them, &c. 

And when the siege is over, we to the town repair, 
The townsmen cry Hurra, boys, here comes a Grenadier, 
Here come the Grenadiers, my boys, who know no doubts or fears, 
Then sing tow, row, row, row, row, row, the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. Here come the, &c. 

Then let us fill a bumper, and drink a health to those 
Who carry caps and pouches, and wear the louped clothes, 
May they and their commanders live happy all their years, 
With a tow, row, row, row, row, row, for the British Grenadiers. 
Chorus. May they, &c. 


The Cushion Dance was in favour both in court and country in the reign of 
Elizabeth, and is occasionally danced even at the present day. In Lilly's Euphues, 
1580, Lucilla, says, "Trulie, Euphues, you have mist the cushion, for I was neither 
angrie with your long absence, neither am I well pleased at your presence." This 
is, perhaps, in allusion to the dance, in which each woman selected her partner by 
placing the cushion before him. Taylor, the water-poet, calls it " a pretty little 
provocatory dance," for he before whom the cushion was placed, was to kneel and 
salute the lady. In Hey wood's A Woman killed with Kindness, (which Henslow 
mentions in his diary, in 1602), the dances which the country people call for are, 
Rogero ; The Beginning of the World, or SeUenger's Hound; John, come kiss me 
now; Tom Tyler; The hunting of the Fox; The Hay ; Put on your smock a 
Monday ; and The Cushion Dance ; and Sir Francis thus describes their style of 
dancing : 

" Now, gallants, while the town-musicians 
Finger their frets within ; and the mad lads 
And country lasses, every mother's child, 
With nosegays and bride-laces in their hats, 
Dance all their country measures, rounds, and jigs, 
What shall we do ? Hark ! they're all on the hoigh ; 
They toil like mill -horses, and turn as round ; 
Marry, not on the toe : aye, and they caper, 
But not without cutting ; you shall see, to-morrow, 
The hall floor peck'd and dinted like affnill-stone, 
Made with their high shoes : though their skill be small, 
Yet they tread heavy where their hob-nails fall." 

When a partner was selected in the dance, he, or she, sang "Prinkum- 
prankum is a fine dance," &c. ; which line is quoted by Burton, in his Anatomy 
of Melancholy ; and, " No dance is lawful but Prinkum-prankum," in Tlie Muses'* 
Looking-glass, 1638. 

In the Apothegms of King James, the Earl of Worcester, &c., 1658, a wedding 


entertainment is spoken of: and, " when the masque was ended, and time had 
brought in the supper, the cushion led the dance out of the parlour into the hall." 
Selden, speaking of Trenchmore and The Cushion Dance in Queen Elizabeth's 
time, says, " Then all the company dances, lord and groom, lady and kitchen- 
maid, no distinction." (See ante p. 82.) In The Dancing Master of 1686, and 
later editions, the figure is thus described : 

" This dance is begun by a single person (either man or woman), who, taking a 
cushion in hand, dances about the room, and at the end of the tune, stops and sings, 
' This dance it will no further go." The musician answers, ' I pray you, good Sir, 
why say you so ? ' Man. ' Because Joan Sanderson will not come too.' Musician. 
' She must come too, and she shall come too, and she must come whether she will 
or no.' Then he lays down the cushion before the woman, on which she kneels, and 
he kisses her, singing 'Welcome, Joan Sanderson, welcome, welcome.' Then she 
rises, takes up the cushion, and both dance, singing, 'Prinkum-prankum is a fine dance, 
and shall we go dance it once again, once again, and once again, and shall we go dance 
it once again.' Then making a stop, the woman sings as before, ' This dance it will 
no further go.' Musician. ' I pray you, madam, why say you so ?' Woman. ' Because 
John Sanderson will not come too.' Musician. ' He must come too, and he shall 
come too, and he must come whether he will or no.' And so she lays down the 
cushion before a man, who kneeling upon it, salutes her; she singing, 'Welcome, 
John Sanderson, welcome, welcome.' Then he taking up the cushion, they take 
hands, and dance round, singing as before. And thus they do, till the whole com- 
pany are taken into the ring ; and if there is company enough, make a little ring in its 
middle, and within that ring, set a chair, and lay the cushion in it, and the first man 
set in it. Then the cushion is laid before the first man, the woman singing, ' This 
dance it will no further go ;' and as before, only instead of ' Come too,' they sing, ' Go 
fro ;' and instead of ' Welcome, John Sanderson,' they sing, ' Farewell, John Sanderson, 
farewell, farewell;' and so they go out one by one as they came in. NOTE. The 
women are kissed by all the men in the ring at their coming and going out, and like- 
wise the men by all the women." 

This agreeable pastime tended, without doubt, to popularize the dance. 

One of the engravings in Johannis de Brunes Emblemata (4to., Amsterdam, 
1624, and 1661) seems to represent the Cushion Dance. The company being 
seated round the room, one of the gentlemen, hat in hand, and with a cushion held 
over the left shoulder, bows to a lady, and seems about to lay the cushion at her 

In 1737, the Rev. Mr. Henley, or " Orator Henley," as he called himself, 
advertised in the London Daily Post that he would deliver an oration on the 
subject of the Cushion Dance."** 

A political parody is to be found in Poems on Affairs of State, from 1640 to 
1704, called, " The Cushion Dance at Whitehall, by way of Masquerade. To the 
tune of Joan Sanderson." 

Enter Godfrey Aid-worth, followed by the King and Duke. 
King. " The trick of trimming is a fine trick, 

And shall we go try it once again? 
Duke. "The plot it will no further go. 
King. " I pray thee, wise brother, why say you so," tfec. 



The tunes of Cushion-Dances (like Barley-Breaks) have the first part in 
| , and the last in i time. The earliest printed copy I have found is in TaUature 
de Luth, intitule Le Secret des Muses, 4to., Amsterdam, 1615, where it is 
called Graillarde Anglaise. In Nederlandtsche Gredenck-Clanck, Haerlem, 1626, 
the same air is entitled Grallarde Suit Margriet, which being intended as English, 
may be guessed as " Galliard, Sweet Margaret." It is the following : 


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The Galliard (a word meaning brisk, gay ; and used in that sense by Chaucer) 
is described by Sir John Davis as a swift and wandering dance, with lofty turns 
and capriols in the air. Thoinot Arbeau, in his Orchesographie, 1589, says that, 
formerly, when the dancer had taken his partner for the galliard, they first placed 
themselves at the end of the room, and, after a bow and curtsey, they walked once 



or twice round it. Then the lady danced to the other end, and remained there 
dancing, while the gentleman followed ; and presenting himself before her, made 
some steps, and then turned to the right or left. After that she danced to the 
other end, and he followed, doing other steps ; and so again, and again. " But 
now" says he, " in towns they dance it tumultuously, and content themselves 
with making the five steps and some movements without any design, caring only 
to be in position on the sixth of the bar" (pourvu qu'ils tombent en cadence). 
In the four first steps, the left and right foot of the dancer were raised alternately, 
and on the fifth of the bar he sprang into the air, twisting round, or capering, as 
best he could. The repose on the sixth note gave more time for a lofty spring.* 
" Let them take their pleasures," says Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy; 
" young men and maids flourishing in their age, fair and lovely to behold, well 
attired, and of comely carriage, dancing a Greek Gf-alliarde, and, as their dance 
requireth, keep their time, now turning, now tracing, now apart, now altogether, 
now a curtesie, then a caper, &c., it is a pleasant sight." 

The following tune is from The Dancing Master of 1686, called "Joan Sanderson, 
or The Cushion Dance, an old Round Dance." 

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Nare, in his Glossary, refers to Cinque pace, but that 
was a dance in common time : four steps to the four beatg 

of the bar, and the fifth on a long note at the commence- 
ment of the second bar. 



Reverting to the pavan and galliard, Morley says, " The pavan" (derived from 
pavo, a peacock) "for grave dancing; galliards, which usually follow pavans, they 
are for a lighter and more stirring kind of dancing." The pavan was sometimes 
danced by princes and judges in their robes, and by ladies with long trains held up 
behind them; but usually the galliard followed the pavan, much in the same manner 
as the gavotte follows the minuet. Butler, in his Principles of Musick, 1636, says, 
" Of this sort (the Ionic mood) are pavans, invented for a slow and soft kind of 
dancing, altogether in duple proportion [common time]. Unto which are framed 
galliards for more quick and nimble motion, always in triple proportion : and, 
therefore, the triple is oft called galliard time, and the duple pavan time. In this 
kind is also comprehended the infinite multitude of Ballads, set to sundry pleasant 
and delightful tunes by cunning and witty composers, with country dances fitted 
unto them, . . . and which surely might and would be more freely permitted by 
our sages, were they used as they ought, only for health and recreation." (p. 8.) 
At this time Puritanism was nearly at its height. 


Stafford Smith found this song, with the tune, in a manuscript of about the year 
1600, and printed it in his Musica Antiqua, p. 57. I discovered a second copy of 
the tune in Elizabeth Rogers' MS. Virginal book, in the British Museum, under 
the name of The faithful Brothers. 

The song is evidently in allusion to Queen Elizabeth, and in the usual com- 
plimentary style to her beauty, to her vow of virginity, &c. 

With my flock as walk-ed ^ l ? The plains and mountains o - ver, 

Late, a dam - sel pass'd me by ; . . With an in-tent to move her, I 

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Such a face she had for to 

Invite any man to love her; 

But her coy behaviour taught 

That it was but in vain to move her ; 

For divers so this dame had wrought 

That they themselves might move her." 

Phoebus for her favour spent 
His hair, her fair brows to cover ; 
Venus' cheek and lips were sent, 
That Cupid and Mars might move her ; 
But Juno, alone, her nothing lent, 
Lest Jove himself should love her. 

Though she be so pure and chaste, 
That nobody can disprove her ; 
So demure and straightly cast, 
That nobody dares to move her ; 
Yet is she so fresh and sweetly fair 
That I shall always love her. 

Let her know, though fair she be, 
That there is a power above her ; 
Thousands more enamoured shall be, 
Though little it will move her ; 
She still doth vow virginity, 
When all the world doth love her. 


This tune is called (70 no more a rushing, in a MS. Virginal Book of Byrd's 
arrangements and compositions, in the possession of Dr. Rimbault ; and Tell me, 
Daphne, in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 

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This tune was found by Dr. Rimbault in a MS. volume of Lute Music, written 
by Rogers, a celebrated lutenist of the reign of Charles II. , in the library at 
Etwall Hall, Derbyshire. It is there called The Cripple, and the ballad of 
The stout Cripple of Cornwall is directed to be sung to the tune of The blind 
Beggar. See Roxburghe Collection, i. 389, and Bagford, i. 32. It is also in 
Evans' Old Ballads, i. 97 (1810) ; but, as too frequently the case, the name of 
the tune to which it was to be sung, is there omitted. 

1 This line is evidently incorrect, but I have no other copy to refer to. 



Pepys, in his diary, 25th June, 1663, speaks of going with Sir William and 
Lady Batten, and Sir J. Minnes, to Sir W. Rider's, at Bednall Green, to dinner, 
" a fine place ; " and adds, " This very house was built by the blind Beggar of 
Bednall Green, so much talked of and sang in ballads ; but they say it was only 
some outhouses of it." The house was called Kirby Castle, then the property of 
Sir William Ryder, Knight, who died there in 1669. 

" This popular old ballad," says Percy, " was written in the reign of Elizabeth, 
as appears not only from verse 23, where the arms of England are called the 
'Queenes armes;' but from its tune being quoted in other old pieces written in 
her time. See the ballad on Mary Ambree" &c. 

In a black-letter book called The World's Folly, we read that " a dapper fellow, 
that in his youth had spent more than he got, on his person, fell to singing 
The blind Beggar, to the tune of Heigh ho! " (Brit. Bibliographer, ii. 560.) 

In the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament," and 
in "Rats rhimed to death, or the Rump Parliament hang'd up in the shambles" 
(1660), are many songs to the tune of The blind Beggar, as well as in the King's 
Pamphlets, Brit. Museum. 

Among them, "A Hymn to the gentle craft, or Hewson's lamentation" 
(a satire on Lord Hewson, one of Cromwell's lords, who had been a cobbler, 
and had but one eye), and " The second Martyrdom of the Rump." 

The tune was sometimes called Pretty Bessy, and a ballad to be sung to it, 
under that name, is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 142. 
Moderate time and with expression. 


was a blind beg - gar had long lost his sight, He 

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The ballad of The blind Beggar will be found in Percy's Reliques, book ii., 
series 2; in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 10; and in Dixon's Songs of the Peasantry 
of England. It is still kept in print in Seven Dials, and sung about the country, 
but to the following tune. 

Moderate time and with expression. 



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This tune is in the Choice Collection of 180 Loyal Songs, &c. (3rd edit. 1685), 
and in Pills to purge Melancholy, as well as in every edition of TJie Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1725. In The Dancing Master it is called An old man is 
a bed full of bones, from a song, of which four lines are quoted in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight, act i., sc. 1., and one in Shirley's The Constant Maid, 
act ii., sc. 2., where the usurer's niece sings it. 

The song of Cook Lorrel is in Ben Jonson's masque, The G-ipsies metamor- 
phosed. Copies are also in the Pepys Collection of Ballads ; in Dr. Percy's folio 
MS., p. 182; a and, with music, in Pills to purge Melancholy. It is a satire upon 
rogues and knaves of all classes supposed to be doomed to perdition. Cook 
Lorrel, a notorious rogue, invites his Satanic Majesty into the Peak in Derby- 
shire to dinner; and he, somewhat inconvenienced by the roughness of the 
road, commences by feasting on the most delicate sinner : 

"His stomach was queasie (for, riding there coach'd, 

The jogging had caused some crudities rise) ; 
To help it he called for a Puritan poach'd, 

That used to turn up the eggs of his eyes, &c." 

a See Dr. Dibdin's Decameron, vol. 3. 



Wjnken de Worde printed a tract called Cocke LorrelVs Bole in which persons 
of all classes, and, among them the MynstreUes, are summoned t go on board 
his Ship of Fools. Cock Lorels's Boat is mentioned in a MS. poem in the 
Bodleian Library, called Doclour Double Ale, and in John Heywood's Epigrams 
upon 300 Proverbs, 1566 (in the Epigram upon a Busy-body, No. 189). 

In S. Rowland's Martin MarJchall, his defence and answer to the Bellman of 
London, 1610, is a list of rogues by profession, in which Cock Lorrel stands 
second. He is thus described : " After him succeeded, by the general council, 
one Cock Lorrell, the most notorious knave that ever lived. By trade he was a 
tinker, often carrying a pan and hammer for shew ; but when he came to a good 
booty, he would cast his profession in a ditch, and play the padder." In 1565, 
a book was printed called The Fraternitye of Vacabondes ; whereunto also is 
adjoyned the twenty-jive orders of knaves: confirmed for ever by Cocke Lorell. 

In Satirical Poems by Lord Rochester (Harl. MSS., 6913) there is a ballad to 
the tune of An old man is a bed full of bones, but the air is far more generally 
referred to by the name of Cock Lorrel. 

In the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament " 
there are many to this air, such as "The Rump roughly but righteously 
handled; " "The City's Feast to the Lord Protector;" " St. George for England" 
(commencing, "The "Westminster Rump hath been little at ease"); &c., &c. 
Others in the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus. ; in the Collection of 180 Loyal 
Songs, 1685 ; in Poems on Affairs of State, vol. i., 1703; and in the Roxburghe 
Collection of Ballads. 

A tune called The Painter is sometimes mentioned, and it appears to be 
another name for this air, because the ballad of " The Painter's Pastime : or a 
woman defined after a new fashion," &c., was to be sung to the tune of Cook 
Laurel. A black-letter copy is in the Douce Collection (printed by P. Brooksby, 
at the Golden Ball, &c.). 

Some copies of the tune are in a major, others in a minor key. The four lines 
here printed to it are from an Antidote to Melancholy, 1651, for, although some 
of the ballads above quoted are witty, they would not be admissible in the 
present day. 

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Let's cast a-way care, and merrily sing, For there is a time for ev'ry thing, He that 

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The tune of Fortune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book; in William 
Ballet's MS. Lute Book; in Vallet's Tablature de Luth, book i., 1615, and 
book ii., 1616; in Bellerophon, 1622; in Nederlandtsche G-edenck-Clanck, 1626 ; in 
Dr. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Hymen, 1652 ; and in other more recent publica- 
tions. In the Dutch books above quoted, it is always given as an English air. 

A ballad " Of one complaining of the mutability of Fortune " was licensed to 
John Charlewood to print in 1565-6 (See Collier's JEx. Reg. Stat. Comp., p. 139). 
A black-letter copy of " A sweet sonnet, wherein the lover exclaimeth against 
Fortune for the loss of his lady's favour, almost past hope to get it again, and in 
the end receives a comfortable answer, and attains his desire, as may here appear : 
to the tune of Fortune my foe" is in the Bagford Collection of Ballads (643 m., 
British Museum). It begins as follows : 


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There are twenty-two stanzas, of four lines each, in the above. 

Fortune my foe is alluded to by Shakespeare in The Merry Wives of Windsor, 
act ii., sc. 3 ; and the old ballad of Titus Andronicus, upon which Shakespeare 
founded his play of the same name, was sung to the tune. A copy of that ballad 
is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 392, and reprinted in Percy's Reliques. 

Ben Jonson alludes to Fortune my foe, in The case is altered, and in his masque 
TJie Gipsies Metamorphosed; Beaumont and Fletcher, in The Custom of the 
Country, The Knight of the Burning Pestle, and The Wild Croose Chase ; Lilly 
gives the first verse in his Maydes Metamorphosis, 1600 ; Chettle mentions the 
tune in Kind-hart* s Dreame, 1592 ; Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, 1621 ; 
Shirley, in The Gfrateful Servant, 1630 ; Brome, in his Antipodes, 163& See 


also Lodge's Rosalind, 1590 ; Lingua, 1607 ; Every Woman in her humour, 1609 ; 
The Widow's Tears, 1612 ; Henry Hutton's Follie's Anatomic, 1619 ; TJie two 
merry Milkmaids, 1620 ; Vox Borealis, 1641 ; The Rump, or Mirror of the 
Times, 1660 ; Tom's Essence, 1677, &c. In Forbes' Oantus, 1682, is a parody 
on Fortune my foe, beginning, Satan my foe, full of iniquity, with which the tune 
is there printed. 

One reason for the great popularity of this air is that " the metrical lamenta- 
tions of extraordinary criminals have been usually chanted to it for upwards of 
these two hundred years." Rowley alludes to this in his Noble Soldier, 1634: 
" The King ! shall I be bitter 'gainst the King ? 
I shall have scurvy ballads made of me, 
Sung to the hanging tune ! " 

And in " The penitent Traytor : the humble petition of a Devonshire gentleman, 
who was condemned for treason, and executed for the same, anno 1641," the 
last verse but two runs thus : 

" How could I bless thee, couldst thou take away 
My life and infamy both in one day ? 
But this in ballads will survive I know, 
Sung to that preaching tune, Fortune my Joe" 
The last is from " Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament." 

Deloney's ballad, " The Death of King John," in his Strange Histories, 1607 ; 
and " The most cruel murder of Edward V., and his brother the Duke of York, 
in the Tower, by their uncle, the Duke of Gloucester" (reprinted in Evans' Old 
Ballads, iii. 13, ed. 1810), are to this tune; but ballads of this description which 
were sung to it are too many for enumeration. In the first volume of the Rox- 
burghe Collection, at pages 136, 182, 376, 392, 486, 487, 488, and 490, are 
ballads to the tune of Fortune, and all about murders, last dying speeches, or 
some heavy misfortunes. 

In the Pepys' Collection, i. 68, is a ballad of " The lamentable burning of the 
city of Cork, by the lightning which happened the last day of May, 1622, after 
the prodigious battle of the stares" (i.e., starlings), "which fought most strangely 
over and near the city the 12th and 14th May, 1621." 

Two other ballads require notice, because the tune is often referred to under 
their names, Dr. Faustus, and Aim not too high. The first, according to the title 
of the ballad, is " The Judgment of God shewed upon Dr. John Faustus : tune, 
Fortune my foe." A copy is in the Bagford Collection. 4 It is illustrated by two 
woodcuts at the top : one representing Dr. Faustus signing the contract with the 
devil ; and the other shewing him standing in a magic circle, with a wand in his 
left hand, and a sword with flame running up it, in his right: a little devil 
seated on his right arm. Richard Jones had a licence to print the ballad " of the 
life and deathe of Dr. Faustus, the great cungerer," on the 28th Feb., 1588-9. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 434, is "Youth's warning piece," &c., " to the 
tune of Dr. Faustus;" printed for A. K., 1636. And in Dr. Wild's Iter 
Boreale, 1671, " The recantation of a penitent Proteus," &c., to the tune of 
Dr. Faustus. 

1 It is also printed in my National English Airs, quarto, part i., 1838. 


The other name is derived from 

" An excellent song, wherein you shall finde 

Great consolation for a troubled mind. 
To the tune of Fortune my foe." Commencing thus : 

"Ayme not too hie in things above thy reach ; 
Be not too foolish in thine owne conceit ; 
As thou hast wit and worldly wealth at will, 
So give Him thanks that shall encrease it still," &c. 

This ballad is also in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 106., printed by the "Assignes 
of Thomas Symcocke : " and, in the same, others to the tune of Aim net too high 
will be found, viz., in vol. i., at pages 70, 78, 82, 106, 132, and 482 ; in vol. ii., 
at pages 128, 130, 189, 202, 283, 482, and 562, &c. 

In the Douce Collection there is a ballad of "The manner of the King's" 
[Charles the First's] " Trial at "Westminster Hall," &c. ; " the tune is Aim not 
too high." 


Death and the Lady is one of a series of popular ballads which had their rise 
from the celebrated Dance of Death. A Dance of Death seems to be alluded to 
in The Vision of Pierce Plowman, written about 1350 : 

" Death came driving after, and al[l] to dust pashed 

Kyngs and Kaisars, Knights and Popes ;" 

but the subject was rendered especially popular in England by Lydgate's free 
translation from a French version of the celebrated German one by Machaber. 

Representations of The Dance of Death were frequently depicted upon the 
walls of cloisters and cathedrals. Sir Thomas More speaks of one " pictured in 
Paules," of which Stow, in his Survey of London, gives the following account : 
" John Carpenter, town clerk of London in the reign of Henry VI., caused, with 
great expense, to be curiously painted upon board, about the north cloister of 
Paul's, a monument of Death leading all estates, with the speeches of Death, and 
answer of every state. This cloister was pulled down in 1549." 

On the walls of the Hungerford Chapel in Salisbury Cathedral was a painting 
executed about 1460, representing Death holding conversation with a young 
gallant, attired in the fullest fashion, who thus addresses him : 
" Alasse, Dethe, alasse ! a blessful thing thou were 
If thou woldyst spare us in our lustynesse, 
And cum to wretches that bethe of he[a]vy chere, 
When they thee clepe [call] to slake their dystresse. 
But, owte alasse ! thyne owne sely self-willdnesse 
Crewelly we[a]rieth them that sighe, wayle, and weepe, 
To close their eyen that after thee doth clepe." 
To which Death gloomily replies : 

" Graceles Gallante, in all thy luste and pryde 
Remembyr that thou ones schalte dye; 
De[a]th shold fro' thy body thy soule devyde, 
Thou mayst him not escape, certaynly. 


To the de[a]de bodys cast downe thyne eye, 
Behold them well, consyder and see, 
For such as they are, such shalt thou be." 

Among the Roxburghe Ballads is one entitled " Death's uncontrollable sum- 
mons, or the mortality of mankind; being a dialogue between Death and a young 
man," which very much resembles the verses in the Hungerford Chapel, above 
quoted. We have also " The dead man's seng," reprinted in Evans' Collection, 
"Death and the Cobbler," and "Death's Dance," proving the popularity of these 
moralizations on death. Another "Dance and Song of Death," which was 
licensed in 1568, has been printed at page 85. 

In the Douce Collection is a black-letter copy of " The midnight messenger, or 
a sudden call from an ear&ly glory to the cold grave, in a dialogue between Death 
and a rich man," &c., beginning 

" Thou wealthy man, of large possessions here, 
Amounting to some thousand pounds a year, 
Extorted by oppression from the poor, 
The time is come that thou shalt be no more," &c. ; 
which is reprinted in Dixon's Songs of the Peasantry, &c. 

In Mr. Payne Collier's MS. volume, written in the reign of James I., is a 
dialogue of twenty-four stanzas, between " Life and Death," commencing 
Life. " Nay, what art thou, that I should give 

To thee my parting breath ? 
Why may not I much longer live ? " 
Death. " Behold ! my name is Death." 
Life. " I never have seen thy face before ; 

Now tell me why thou came : 
I never wish to see it more 
Death. " Behold ! Death is my name," &c. 

The following " Dialogue betwixt an Exciseman and Death " is from a copy in 
the Bagford Collection, dated 1659. 

Upon a time when Titan's steeds were driven Speake, what's thy name? and quickly tell 
To drench themselves against the western me this, 

heaven ; Whither thou goest, and what thy bus'ness is ? 
And sable Morpheus had his curtains spread, EXCISEMAN. 

And silent night had laid the world to bed, Whate'er my bus'ness is, thou foule-mouthed 
'Mongst other night-birds which did seek for scould, 

prey, I'de have you know I scorn to be coutroul'd 

A blunt exciseman, which abhorr'd the day, By any man that lives ; much less by thou, 

Was rambling forth to seeke himself a booty Who blurtest out thou knowst not what, nor 
'Mongst merchants' goods which had not paid how ; 

the duty : I goe about my lawful bus'ness; and 

But walking all alone, Death-chanc'd to meet I'le make you smarte for bidding of mee stand. 

him, DEATH. 

And in tbis manner did begin to greet him. Imperious cox-combe ! is your stomach vext ? 

DEATH. Pray slack your rage, and barken wbat conies 
Stand, wbo conies here? what means this knave next : 

to peepe I have a writt to take you up ; therefore, 

And sculke abroad, when honest men should To chafe your blood, I bid you stand, once 

sleepe ? more. 




A writt to take mee up ! excuse mee, sir, 
You doe mistake, I am an officer 
In publick service, for my private wealth ; 
My bus'ness is, if any seeke by stealth 
To undermine the states, I doe discover 
Their falsehood ; therefore hold your hand, 
give over. 


Nay, fair and soft ! 'tis not so quickly done 
As you conceive it is : I am not gone 
A jott the sooner, for your hastie chat 
Nor bragging language ; for I tell you flat 
'Tis more than so, though fortune seeme to 

thwart us, 

Such easie terms I don't intend shall part us. 
With this impartial arme I'll make you feele 
My fingers first, and with this shaft of steele 
I'le peck thy bones ! as thou alive wert hated, 
So dead, to doggs thou shalt be segregated. 


I'de laugh at that ; I would thou didst but dare 
To lay thy fingers on me ; I'de not spare 
To hack thy carkass till my sword was broken, 
I 'de make thee eat the wordes which thou hast 

spoken ; 

All men should warning take by thy trans- 

How they molested men of my profession. 
My service to the states is so welle known, 
That I should but complaine, they'd quickly 


My publicke grievances ; and give mee right 
To cut your eares, before to-morrow night. 


Well said, indeed ! but bootless all, for I 
Am well acquainted with thy villanie; 
I know thy office, and thy trade is such, 
Thy service little, and thy gaines are much : 
Thy braggs are many; but 'tis vaine to swagger, 
And thinke to fighte mee with thy guilded 

dagger : 

As I abhor thy person, place, and threate, 
So now I'le bring thee to the judgement seate. 

The judgement seate ! I must confess that 


Doth cut my heart, like any sharpned sword : 
What! come t' account! methinks the dreadful 


Of every word doth make a mortal wound, 
Which sticks not only in my outward skin, 
But penetrates my very soule within. 
'Twas least of all my thoughts that ever Death 
Would once attempt to stop excisemen's breath. 
But since 'tis so, that now I doe perceive 
You are in earnest, then I must relieve 
Myself another way : come, wee'l be friends, 
If I have wronged thee, I'le make th' amendes. 
Let's joyne together; I'le pass my word this 


Shall yield us grub, before the morning light. 
Or otherwise (to mitigate my sorrow), 
Stay here, I'le bring you gold enough to- 


To-morrow's gold I will not have ; and thou 
Shalt have no gold upon to-morrow : now 
My final writt shall to th' execution have thee, 
All earthly treasure cannot help or save thee. 


Then woe is mee ! ah ! how was I befool'd ! 
I thought that gold (which answereth all 

things) could 

Have stood my friend at any time to baile mee ! 
But griefe growes great, and now my trust doth 

faile me. 

Oh ! that my conscience were but clear within, 
Which now is racked with my former sin ; 
With horror I behold my secret stealing, 
My bribes, oppression, and my graceless deal- 
s' in g; 

My office-sins, which I had clean forgotten, 
Will gnaw my soul when all my bones are 

rotten : 

I must confess it, very griefe doth force mee, 
Dead or alive, both God and man doth curse 


Let all excisemen hereby warning take, 
To shun their practice for their conscience sake. 

Of all the ballads on the subject of Death, the most popular, however, was 
Death and the Lady. In Mr. George Daniel's Collection there is a ballad 
" imprinted at London by Alexander Lacy" (about 1572), at the end of which 
is a still older woodcut, representing Death and the Lady. It has been used as 
an ornament to fill up a blank in one to which it bears no reference ; but was, in 
all probability, engraved for this, or one on the same subject. The tune is in 



Henry Carey's Musical Century, 1738. He calls it " the old tune of Death and 
the Lady." Also in The Gobbler's Opera, 1729 ; The Fashionable Lady ; and 
many others about the same date. 

The oldest copies of Aim not too high direct it to be sung to the tune of Fortune, 
but there is one class of ballads, said to be to the tune of Aim not too high, that 
could not well be sung to that air. The accent of Fortune my foe is on the first 
syllable of each line; exactly agreeing with the tune. But these ballads on 
Death have the accent on the second, and agree with the tune of Death and the 
Lady. See, for instance, the four lines above quoted from The Dialogue between 
Death and the rich man, which the black-letter copies direct to be sung to the 
tune of Aim not too high. I believe, therefore, that Aim not too high, had either 
a separate tune, which is the same I find under the name of Death and the Lady, 
or else, Fortune, being altered by the singer for the accent of those ballads, and 
sung in a major key, gradually acquired a different shape. (Many of these airs 
are found both in major and minor keys.) This would account for Fortune and 
Aim not too high being so frequently cited as different tunes in ballads printed 
about the same period. 

I suppose, then, that ballads to the tune of Aim not too high may be either 
to Fortune, or Death and the Lady; a point to be determined generally by the 
accent of the words. 

The ballad of Death and the Lady is printed in a small volume entitled A Gruide 
to Heaven, 12mo., 1736 ; and it is twice mentioned in Goldsmith's popular tale, 
The Vicar of Wakefield, first printed in 1776. 

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What bold attempt is this ? pray let me know 
From whence you come, and whither I must go! 
Shall I, who am a lady, stoop or bow 
To such a pale-fac'd visage? Who art thou? 


Do you not know me? Well, I'll tell you, then : 
Tis I who conquer all the sons of men ! 
No pitch of honour from my dart is free ; 
My name is Death ! have you not heard of me ? 


Yes, I have heard of thee time after time ; 
But, being in the glory of my prime, 
J did not think you would have called so soon. 
Why must my sun go down before its noon ? 


Talk not of noon ! you may as well be mute ; 
This is no more the time for to dispute : 
Your riches, jewels, gold, and garments brave 
Houses and lands, must all new masters have. 
Though thy vain heart to riches was inclin'd, 
Yet thou must die, and leave them all behind. 


My heart is cold ; I tremble at the news ! 
Here's bags of gold if thou wilt me excuse, 
And seize on them : and finish thou the strife 
Of those that are most weary of their life. 
Are there not many bound in prison strong, 
In bitter grief of soul have languish'd long? 
All such would find the grave a place of rest 
From all the griefs by which they are opprest. 
Besides, there's many both with hoary, head, 
And palsied joints, from which all strength is 


Release thou those, whose sorrows are so great, 
But spare my life to have a longer date. 


Though they, by age, are full of grief and 


Yet their appointed time they must remain. 
I come to none before their warrant's seal'd, 
And when it is, all must submit and yield ; 
I take no bribe, believe me this is true ; 
Prepare yourself, for now I come for you. 


Be not severe ! O Death ! let me obtain 
A little longer time to live and reign ! 
Fain would I stay, if thou my life wilt spare, 
I have a daughter, beautiful and fair ; 
I'd live to see her wed, whom I adore ; 
Grant me but this, and I will ask no more. 


This is a slender, frivolous excuse, 
I have you fast, and will not let you loose ; 
Leave her to Providence, for you must go 
Along with me, whether you will or no. 
I, Death, command e'en kings to leave their 


And at my feet they lay their sceptres down. 
If unto kings this favour I don't give, 
But cut them off, can you expect to live 
Beyond the limits of your time and space? 
No ! I must send you to another place. 


You learned doctors, now express your skill, 
And let not Death of me obtain his will ; 
Prepare your cordials, let me comfort find, 
And gold shall fly like chaffbefore the wind ! 


Forbear to call, their skill will never do, 
They are but mortals here, as well as you ; 
I gave the fatal wound, my dart is sure ; 
'Tis far beyond the doctor's skill to cure. 
How freely can you let your riches fly 
To purchase life, rather than yield to die ! 
But while you flourish'd here in all your store, 
You would not give one penny to the poor, 
Who in God's name their suit to you did make ; 
You would not spare one penny for His sake. 
The Lord beheld wherein you did amiss, 
And calls you hence to give account for this. 


Oh, heavy news ! must I no longer stay ? 
How shall I stand at the great judgment day." 
Down from her eyes the crystal tears did flow : 
She said, "None knows what now I undergo. 
Upon a bed of sorrow here I lie, 
My carnal life makes me afraid to die ; 
My sins, alas ! are many, gross, and foul, 
Lord Jesus Christ have mercy on my soul ! 
And though I much deserve thy righteous 

Yet pardon, Lord, and send a blessing down !" 

Then, with a dying sigh, her heart did break, 
And she the pleasures of this world forsake. 
Thus do we see the high and mighty fall, 
For cruel death shows not respect at all 
To any one of high or low degree : 
Great men submit to death, as well as we. 
If old or young, our life is but a span 
A lump of clay so vile a creature's man. 
Then happy they whom Christ has made his 

Die in the Lord, and ever blessed are ! 




This tune was found by Dr. Rimbault in a MS. volume of virginal music in the 
possession of T. Birch, Esq., of Repton, Derbyshire. The black-letter copies of 
the ballad of King Henry II. and the Miller of Mansfield, direct it to be sung to 
the tune of The French Levalto, and, as the air was found under that name, it 
may be a French tune, although neither Dr. Rimbault nor I think it so. The 
progression of the last four notes in each part is very English in character. 

There are copies of the ballad in the Roxburghe Collection (v. i. 178 and 228) ; 
in the Bagford (p. 25) ; and in the Pepys. It is also in Old Ballads, 1727, 
v. i., p. 53 ; and in Percy's Reliques, series 3, book ii. The French Levalto is 
frequently referred to as a ballad tune. 

Rather slow and gracefully. 

Hen-ry, our royal King, would ride a hunt - ing, To the green fo - rest so 

plea-sant and fair, To see the harts skip-ping, and dain - ty does trip-ping Un - 

-to mer-ry Sherwood his no-bles re-pair. Hawk and hound were unbound, all things pre- pa- red 

For the game, in the same, with good re - gard. Hawk and hound were un - bound, 


all things pre-pa - red For the game, in the same, with good re -gard. 



All a long summer's day rode the king pleasantlye, 

With all his princes and nobles eche one ; 
Chasing the hart and hind, and the bucke gallantlye, 

Till the darke evening forc'd all to turne home. 
Then at last, riding fast, he had lost quite 
All his lords in the wood, late in the night. 

Wandering thus wearilye, all alone, up and downe, 

With a rude miller he mett at the last : 
Asking the ready way unto faire Nottingham ; 

Sir, quoth the miller, I meane not to jest, 
Yet I thinke, what I thinke, sooth for to say, 
You doe not lightlye ride out of your way. 

Why, what dost thou thinke of me, quoth our king merrily 
Passing thy judgment upon me so briefe ? 

Good faith, sayd the miller, I meane not to flatter thee; 
I guess thee to be but some gentleman thiefe ; 

Stand thee backe, in the darke; light not adowne, 

Lest that I presentlye crack thy knaves crowne. &c. 


This ballad is quoted in Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, and Monsieur 
Tlwmas ; in The Varietie, 1649 ; and in Davenant's The Wits, where Twack, an 
antiquated beau, boasting of his qualifications, says 

" Besides, I sing Little Musgrove ; and then 
For Chevy Chase no lark comes near me." 

A copy t)f the ballad is in the Bagford Collection, entitled " A lamentable 
ballad of Little Musgrove and the Lady Barnet, to an excellent new tune." It is 
also in Wit restored, 1658 ; in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iii. 312 (1716) ; and 
in Percy's Reliques, series 3, book i. 

The tune is the usual traditional version. 


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As it fell out on a high holiday, As many there be in the year, When 

young men and maids to - ge-therdo go, Their mass- es and matins to hear 





The tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book. 

Whenever gipsies are introduced in old plays, we find some allusions to their 
singing, dancing, or music, and generally a variety of songs to be sung by them. 
In Middleton's Spanish Gripsy, Roderigo, being invited to turn gipsy, says 
" I can neither dance, nor sing ; but if my pen 
From my invention can strike music times, 
My head and brains are yours." 

In other words, " I think I can invent tunes, and therefore have one qualification 
for a gipsy, although I cannot dance, nor sing." 

By Round is here meant a country dance. Country dances were formerly danced 
quite as much in rounds as in parallel lines ; and in the reign of Elizabeth were 
in favour at court, as well as at the May-pole. In the Talbot papers, Herald's 
College, is a letter from the Earl of Worcester to the Earl of Shrewsbury, dated 
Sep. 19th, 1602, in which he says, " We are frolic here in court; much dancing 
in the privy chamber of country dances before the Queen's Majesty, who is 
much pleased therewith." (Lodge, iii. 577.) 




This ballad was entered to Richard Jones on Jan. 5th, 1591-2, as " A plesante 
songe of the valiant actes of Guy of Warwicke, to the tune of Was ever man so ' 
tost in love." The copy in the Bagford Collection (p. 19) is entitled " A pleasant 
song of the valiant deeds of chivalry achieved by that noble knight, Sir Guy of 
Warwick, who, for the love of fair Phillis, became a hermit, and died in a cave of 



a craggy rock, a mile distant from Warwick. Tune, Was ever man, &c." Other 
copies are in the Pepys Collection ; Roxburghe, iii. 50 ; and in Percy's Reliques, 
series 3, book ii. 

It is quoted in Fletcher's Knight of the Burning Pestle, act ii., sc. 8 ; and in 
The little French Lawyer, act ii., sc. 3. 

William of Nassyngton (about 1480) mentions stories of Sir Guy as usually 
sung by minstrels at feasts. (See ante page 45.) Puttenham, in his Art of 
Poetry, 1589, says they were then commonly sung to the harp at Christmas 
dinners and bride-ales, for the recreation of the lower classes. And in Dr. King's 
Dialogues of the Dead, " It is the negligence of our ballad singers that makes us to 
be talked of less than others : for who, almost, besides St. Greorge, King Arthur, 
Bevis, Guy, and Hickathrift, are in the chronicles." (Vol. i., p. 153.) 

This tune is from the ballad-opera of Robin Hood, 1730, called Sir G-uy. 


Was ever knight for la-dy 's sake So toss'd in love as I, Sir Guy ! For Phillis 


fair, that la-dy bright As e - ver man be - held with eye 

She gave me 


leave my 

- self to try The va-liant knight with shield and spear, Ere that her 

love she would grant me, Which made me ven - ture far and near 




Tune from Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, where it is arranged by Giles 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit at several Weapons, act ii., sc. 2, Pompey 
makes his exit singing Loath to depart. In Middleton's The Old Law, act iv., 
sc. 1, " The old woman is loath to depart; she never sung other tune in her life." 
In the ballad of Arthur of Bradley, which exists in black-letter, and in the Anti- 
dote to Melancholy, 1661, are the following lines : 

" Then Will and his sweetheart 

Did call for Loth to depart" 
Also in Chapman's Widow's Tears, 1612 ; VoxBorealis, 1641; and many others. 

A Loth to depart was the common term for a song sung, or a tune played, on 
taking leave of friends. So in a Discourse on Marine Affairs (Harl. MSS., 
No. 1341) we find, "Being again returned into his barge, after that the trumpets 
have sounded a Loathe to departe, and the barge is fallen off a fit and fair birth 
and distance from the ship-side, he is to be saluted with so many guns, for an 
adieu, as the ship is able to give, provided that they be always of an odd 
number." (Quoted in a note to Teonge's Diary, p. 5.) In Tarlton's News out of 
Purgatory, (about 1589), "And so, with a Loath to depart, they took their 
leaves ; " and in the old play of Damon and Pithias, when Damon takes leave, 
saying, " Loth am I to depart," he adds, " Music, sound my doleful plaints 
when I am gone away," and the regals play " a mourning song." 

The following are the words of a round in Deuteromelia, 1609 : 
" Sing with thy mouth, sing with thy heart, 
Like faithful friends, sing Loath to depart; 
Though friends together may not always remain, 
Yet Loath to depart sing once again." 

The four lines here printed to the tune, are part of a song called " Loth to 
depart," in Wif s Interpreter, 1671. It is also in The Loyal G-arland ; and, with 
some alteration, in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv., 80. It is there attributed to 
Mr. J. Donne. 



Lie near my dear! why dost thourise? The light that shines, comes from thine eyes, 


Tis not the day breaks, but my heart, To think that thou and I must part. 





This is the traditional tune to the ballad which is printed in Percy's Reliques 
of Ancient Poetry (No. 8, series ii., book 2). A copy is in the Bagford Collection, 
i. 26, to be sung to "a pleasant new tune." 

Moderate time. ^ 

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, And a-fraid that she should die, 

Queen Eleanor was a sick woman 





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sent for two friars out 

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To speak with her spee - di - ly. 

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This air is contained in Elizabeth Rogers' MS. Virginal Book (Brit. Mus.) ; 
and in a transcript of virginal music made by Sir John Hawkins, now in the pos- 
session of Dr. Rimbault. In the former it is entitled Essex's last Cf-ood-night, and 
there are but eight bars in the tune ; the latter is called Wett-a-day, and consists 
of sixteen bars. 

The ballad of Essex's last Good-night is in the Pepys Collection, i. 106 ; and 
Roxburghe, i. 101, and 185. In the Pepys Collection it is called "A lamentable 
new ballad upon the Earl of Essex his death ; to the tune of The King's last 
Grood-night" In the Roxburghe, i. 101, to the tune of ^Essex's last G-ood-night. 
It is printed in Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 167 (1810) ; but, as usual, without the 
name of the tune. The first verse of the Pepys copy is as follows : 
" All you that cry O hone, hone ! [alas], 

Come now and sing Lord with me ; 
For why our jewel is from us gone, 

The valiant knight of chivalry. 
Of rich and poor belov'd was he ; 
In time an honorable knight ; 
When by our laws condemn'd was he, 

And lately took his last Good-night." 

This is on the death of Walter Devereux, Earl of Essex (father of Queen Eliza- 
beth's favorite), who died in Dublin, in 1576. Another on the same subject, and 
in the same metre, has been printed by Mr. Payne Collier, in his Extracts from 
the Registers of the Stationers' Company, ii. 35 ; beginning thus : 


" Lament, lament, for he is dead 

Who serv'd his prince most faithfully ; 
Lament, each subject, and the head 

Of this our realm of Brittany. 
Our Queen has lost a soldier true ; 
Her subjects lost a noble friend : 
Oft for his queen his sword he drew, 

And for her subjects blood did spend," &c. 

The ballad of Well-a-day is entitled " A lamentable dittie composed upon the 
death of Robert Lord Devereux, late Earle of Essex, who was beheaded in the 
Tower of London, upon Ash. Wednesday, in the morning, 1601. To the tune of 
Well-a-day. Imprinted at London for Margret Allde, &c., 1603. Reprinted in 
Payne Collier's Old Ballads, 124, 8vo., 1840 ; and in Evans', iii. 158. Copies 
are also in the Bagford and Roxburghe Collections (i. 184) ; and Harl. MSS., 
293. The first verse is here given with the tune. 

The ballads to the tune of Essex's last Good-night are in quite a different metre 
to those which were to be sung to Well-a-day ; and either the melody consisted 
originally of but eight bars, and those bars were repeated for the last four lines 
of each stanza, or else the second part differed from my copy. 

Well-a-day seems to be older than the date of the death of either Earl, because, 
in 1566-7, Mr. Wally had a license to print "the second Well-a-day" (Ex. Reg. 
Stat., i. 151.) ; and, in 1569-70, Thomas Colwell, to print " A new Well-a-day, 
As plain, Mr. Papist, as Dunstable way." 

To " sing well-away " was proverbial even in Chaucer's time ; for in the pro- 
logue to the Wife of Bath's Tale, speaking of her husbands, she says (lines 
5597-600) " I sette [tjhem so on werke, by my fay ! 

That many a night thay songen rveylaway. 
The bacoun was nought fet for hem, I trowe, 
That som men fecche in Essex at Dunmowe." a 

And in the Shipman's Tale, " For I may synge alias and waylaway that I was 
born." So in the Owl and the Nightingale, one of our earliest original poems, the 
owl says to the nightingale 

" Thu singest a night, and noght a dai, 

And al thi song is wail awai." 

' In the sixteenth century we find a similar passage in Nicholas Breton's Farewell 
to town " I must, ah me ! wretch, as I may, 

Go sing the song of Welaway." 

The ballads sung to one or other of these tunes are very numerous. Among 
them are 

" Sir Walter Rauleigh his Lamentation," &c., " to the tune of Well-a-day. 
Pepys Collection, i. Ill, b. 1. 

" The arraignment of the Devil for stealing away President Bradshaw." Tune, 
Well-a-day, weU-a-day. (King's Pamphlets, vol. 15, or Wright's Political 
Ballads, 139.) 

. The claiming the Flitch of Bacon at Dunmow was fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. See also a song in 
a custom to which frequent allusions are made in the Reliquice Antiijute, ii. 29. 



" The story of HI May-day, &c., and how Queen Catherine begged the lives of 
2,000 London apprentices." Tune Essex's Grood-night. (Grown Crarland of 
Gf-olden Roses, or Evans, iii. 76.) 

"The doleful death of Queen Jane, wife of Henry VIII.," &c. "Tune, 
The Lamentation of the Lord of Essex" (Crown Grarland, or Evans, iii. 92.) 

A Carol, to the tune of Essex's last Grood-night, dated 1661. (Wright's 
Carols.) " All you that in this house be here, 

Remember Christ that for us died ; 
And spend away with modest cheer, 

In loving sort this Christmas-tide," dec. 

Several other tunes were named after the Earl of Essex. In Dr. Camphuysen's 
Stichtelycke Hymen (4to., Amsterdam, 1647) is one called Essex's Gralliard, and 
another Essex's Lamentation. The last is the same air as What if a day, or a 
month, or a year. 

In The World's Folly (B.L.) a widow "would sing The Lamentation of a Sinner, 
to the tune of Well-a-daye." 

Sweet England's prize is gone ! Well -a- day, well - a-day ; 

ma k es i ier 

J.j jy J*j JIJT: 

sigh and groan E-ver - more still. He did her fame advance 

r v 

vance, In Ireland, Spain, 





And by a sad mis-chance, Is from us ta'en. 



This song is quoted by Valentine in Beaumont and Fletcher's Wit without 
money, act v., sc. 4., where a verse is printed. 

One of my friends recollects his nurse singing a ballad with the burden 
" I must and will get married, 
The fit's upon me now." 



The tune is from the seventh edition of The Dancing Master. In some later 
editions it is called The Bishop of Chester's Jig, or Thefifs come on me now. 

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This favorite old dance tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in Morley's 
Consort Lessons, 1599 and 1611 ; in Rossiter's Consort Lessons, 1609 ; in Vallet's 
TaUature de Luth, intitule Le Secret des Muses, book i., 4to., Amsterdam, 1615, 
entitled " Bal Anglois, Mai Simmes ;" also in the second book of the same work, 
1616 ; in Nederlandtsche Credenck-Clank, 1626 ; in Camphuysen's Stichtetycke 
Eymen, 164:7 (called "The English Echo, or Malsims"); in the Skene MS., &c. 

It is most likely one of the old harpers' tunes, as it has quite the character of 
harp music. In Rossiter's Consort Lessons, 1609, in which the names of the com- 
posers are given to every other air, this is marked Incertus : and if unknown 
then, it is probably much older than the date of the book. 

In Wit Restored, 1658, is the ballad of " The Miller and the King's Daughters," 
written by Dr. James Smith, in which this tune is mentioned : 
" What did he doe with her two shinnes ? 
Unto the violl they danc't Moll Syms." 


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This tune is found in one of the Dutch collections, Friesche, by Jan 
Jansz Starter, the edition printed at Amsterdam in 1634. It is called " 'Twas a 
youthful Knight, which loved a galjant Lady," which is the first line of the 
ballad of " Constance of Cleveland: to the tune of Crimson Velvet" The 
ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, iii. 94, and in Collier's Roxburghe 
Ballads, p. 163. 

The tune of Crimson Velvet was, as Mr. Collier remarks, " highly popular in 
the reigns of Elizabeth and her successor." Among the ballads that were sung 
to it, are " The lamentable complaint of Queen Mary, for the unkind departure of 
King Philip, in whose absence she fell sick and died ; " beginning 

" Mary doth complain, 
Ladies, be you moved 
With my lamentations 
And my bitter groans," &c. 

A copy in the Grown G-arland of Gf-olden Roses (reprint of edit, of 1659, p. 09). 
"An excellent ballad of a prince of England's courtship to the King of 



France's daughter, and how the prince was disasterously slain; and how the 
aforesaid princess was afterwards married to a forrester; " commencing 
" In the days of old, 

When fair France did flourish," &c. 

Copies in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 102, the Bagford, the Pepys, Deloney's 
G-arland of good-will, and Percy's Reliques, series iii., book 2, 16. 
The following is the ballad of " Constance of Cleveland." 


ffi^ i r^ r^g-i rr^ ^nsrfl F n 

It was a youth-ful knight Lov'd a gal-lant la-dy, Fair she was and bright, 
Her-self she did be - have, So courteously as maybe, Wedded they were, brave; 

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And of vir - tues rare. Joy with -out com - pare. Here be - gan the grief, 
Wo - men lewd of mind, 

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Pain with - out re - lief; Her husband soon her love for - sook, To 
Be - ing bad in-clin'd, He on - ly lent a plea - sant look, The $0 


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^"J My love, be-lieve not, Come to me, and grieve not; Wantons will thee o- ver-throw. 

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His fair lady's words 

Nothing he regarded ; 
Wantonness affords, 

To some, delightful sport ; 
While they dance and sing, 

With great mirth prepared, 
She her hands did wring 
In most grievous sort. 

Oh ! what hap had I, 

Thus to wail and cry, 
Unrespected every day. 

Living in disdain, 

While that others gain 
All the right I should enjoy ! 

I am left forsaken, 

Others they are taken ; 
Ah ! my love why dost thou so ? 

Her flatteries believe not, 

Come to me and grieve not ; 
Wantons will thee overthrow. 

The knight, with his fair piece, 

At length the lady spied, 
Who did him daily fleece 

Of his wealth and store ; 
Secretly she stood, 

While she her fashions tryed 
With a patient mind ; 

While deep the strumpet swore 
" O sir knight," quoth she, 
" So dearly I love thee, 
My life doth rest at thy dispose. 

By day, and eke by night, 

For thy sweet delight 
Thou shalt me in thy arms enclose ; 

I am thine for ever, 

Still I will persever, 
True to thee where'er I go." 

Her flatteries believe not, 

Come to me and grieve not ; 
Wantons will thee overthrow. 

The virtuous lady mild 

Enters then among them, 
Being big with child 

As ever she might be ; 
With distilling tears 

She looked then upon them, 
Filled full of fears, 

Thus replyed she : 
" Ah, my love and dear, 
Wherefore stay you here, 

Refusing me, your loving wife, 
For an harlot's sake, 
Which each one will take ; 

Whose vile deeds provoke much strife. 
Many can accuse her, 
O, my love, refuse her, 

With thy lady home return ; 
Her flatteries believe not, 
Come to me and grieve not ; 

Wantons will thee overthrow." 

All in a fury then 

The angry knight upstarted, 
Very furious when 

He heard his lady's speech ; 
With many bitter terms 

His wife he ever thwarted, 
Using hard extremes 

While she did him beseech. 

From her neck so white 

He took away in spite 
Her curious chain of purest gold : 

Her jewels and her rings, 

And all such costly things, 
As he about her did behold ; 

The harlot, in her presence, 

He did gently reverence, 
And to her he gave them all. 

He sent away his lady, 

Full of woe as may be, 
Who in a swound with grief did fall. 

At the lady's wrong 

The harlot fleer'd and laughed ; 
Enticements are so strong, 

They overcome the wise : 
The knight nothing regarded 

To see the lady scoffed ; 
Thus she was rewarded 
For her enterprise. 

The harlot all this space 

Did him oft embrace ; 
She flatters him, and thus doth say : 
" For thee I'll die and live, 

For thee my faith I'll give, 
No woe shall work my love's decay ; 

Thou shalt be my treasure, 

Thou shalt be my pleasure, 
Thou shalt be my heart's delight ; 

I will be thy darling, 

I will be thy worldling, 
In despite of fortune's spite." 



Thus did he remain 

In wasteful great expences, 
Till it bred his pain, 

And consum'd him quite. 
When his lands were spent, 

Troubled in his senses, 
Then he did repent 
Of his late lewd life ; 

For relief he hies, 

For relief he flies 
To them on whom he spent his gold ; 

They do him deny, 

They do him defy, 
They will not once his face behold. 

Being thus distressed, 

Being thus oppressed, 
In the fields that night he lay ; 

Which the harlot knowing, 

Through her malice growing, 
Sought to take his life away. 

A young and proper lad 

They had slain in secret 
For the gold he had ; 

Whom they did convey, 
By a ruflian lewd, 

To that place directly, 
Where the youthful knight 
Fast a sleeping lay ; 

The bloody dagger, then, 

Wherewith they kill'd the man, 
Hard by the knight he likewise laid ; 

Sprinkling him with blood, 

As he thought it good, 
And then no longer there he stay'd. 

The knight, being so abused, 

Was forthwith accused 
For this murder which was done ; 

And he was condemned 

That had not offended, 
Shameful death he might not shun. 

When the lady bright 

Understood the matter, 
That her wedded knight 

Was condemned to die, 
To the king she went 

With all the speed that might be, 
Where she did lament 
Her hard destiny. 
" Noble king," quoth she, 
" Pity take on me, 

And pardon my poor husband's life ; 

Else I am undone, 

With my little son, 
Let mercy mitigate this grief." 
" Lady fair, content thee, 

Soon thou wouldst repent thee 
If he should be saved so ; 

Sore he hath abus'd thee, 

Sore he hath misus'd thee, 
Therefore, lady, let him go." 

" O, my liege," quoth she, 
" Grant your gracious favour; 
Dear he is to me, 

Though he did me wrong." 
The king replied again, 

With a stern behaviour, 
" A subject he hath slain, 

Die, he shall, ere long : 

Except thou canst find 

Any one so kind 
That will die and set him free." 
" Noble king," she said, 
" Glad am I apaid, 
That same person will I be. 

I will suffer duly, 

I will suffer truly, 
For my love and husband's sake." 

The king thereat amazed, 

Though he her beauty praised, [take. 
He bade from thence they should her 

It was the king's command, 

On the morrow after, 
She should out of hand 
To the scaffold go ; 
Her husband was 

To bear the sword before her ; 
He must, eke alas ! 

Give the deadly blow. 

He refus'd the deed, 

She bade him to proceed 
With a thousand kisses sweet. 

In this woeful case 

They did both embrace ; 
Which mov'd the ruffians in that place 

Straight for to discover 

This concealed murder ; 
Whereby the lady saved was. 

The harlot then was hanged, 

As she well deserved : 
This did virtue bring to pass. 




The tune from Robinson's Schoole of Musicke, 1603, called Walking in a 
country town. In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 412, is a ballad beginning 
" Walking in a meadow green," and, from the similarity of the lines, and the 
measure of the verse so exactly suiting the air, I infer this to be the tune of both. 
The latter was printed by John Trundle, at the sign of the Nobody in Barbican, 
rendered famous by Ben Jonson, who in his Every man in his Humour, makes 
Knowell say, " Well, if he read this with patience, I'll ' go,' and troll ballads for 
Master John Trundle yonder, the rest of my mortality.'' 

It is entitled " The two Leicestershire Lovers : to the tune of And yet methinks 
I love thee" The first stanza is here printed to the music. 

The last line of the verse is, "Upon the meadow brow," and The meadow brow 
is often quoted as a tune. So in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 92, or Colliers's 
Roxburghe Ballads, p. 1, is " Death's Dance" (beginning, "If Death would come 
and shew his face"), " to be sung to a pleasant new tune called no, no, no, not 
yet, or The meadow broiv." And Bishop Corbet's song, " Farewell, rewards and 
fairies," is " to be sung or whistled to the tune The meddow brow by the learned : 
by the unlearned, to the tune of Fortune" (Percy, series iii, book 2.) All 
might be sung to this tune. 


meadow green, For reere-a-tion's sake, To drive a-way some 

sad thoughts That sorrow-ful did me make, I spied two love, ly lo-vers, Did 

hear each o - ther's woe, To 'point a place of meet - ing Up - on the meadow brow. 

J^^N \?= 


In The Crown Garland of Golden Hoses, 1612, is "A short and sweet sonnet 
made by one of the Maides of Honor upon the death of Queene Elizabeth, which 
she sowed upon a sampler, in red silke : to a new tune, or Phillida flouts me; " 
beginning " Gone is Elizabeth, 

Whom we have lov'd so dear," &c. 



Patrick Carey also wrote a ballad to the tune of Phillida flouts me ; beginning 

" Ned ! she that likes thee now, 

Next week will leave thee-! " 

It is contained in his " Trivial Poems and Triolets, written in obedience to 
Mrs. Tomkin's commands, 20th August, 1651." In Walton's Angler, 1653, the 
Milkwoman asks, " What song was it, I pray ? Was it Come, shepherds, deck 
your heads, or As at noon Dulcina rested, or Phillida flouts me ?" 

The ballad of Phillida flouts me is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 142, and in 
the same volume, p. 24, "The Bashful Virgin, or The Secret Lover: tune of 
I am so deep in love, or Little boy, &c." It begins 

" what a plague it is 

To be a lover; 
Being denied the bliss 
For to discover," &c. 

This appears to be also to the air of Phillida flouts me, although the first line of 
that ballad is " Oh ! what a plague is love," not " I am so deep in love." 

The words and music are in Watts' Musical Miscellany, ii. 132 (1729), and an 
answer, beginning, " where's the plague in love." The tune is also in many of 
the ballad-operas, such as The Quaker's Opera, 1728 ; Love in a Eiddle, 1729 ; 
Damon and Phillida, 1734, &c. 

Ritson printed the words in his Ancient Songs, from a copy in The Theatre of 
Compliments, or New Academy, 1689, but did not discover the tune. 
Slowly and gracefully. 

O what a plague is love ! 
She will in - constant prove 

I can - not bear it ; 
I great -ly fear it: 

It so tor - 

She wa-vers 



mentsmymind,Thatmyheart fail - ell,. I may, She loves still 

with the wind As a shin sail - etn.KJ " 

with the wind As a ship sail - eth. 




to gain-say, A-lack, and well - a-day ! Phil - Ii - da flouts 



At the fair t'other day, 

As she pass'd by me, 
She look'd another way, 

And would not spy me. 
I woo'd her for to dine, 

But could not get her ; 
Dick had her to the Vine, 

He might intreat her. 
With Daniel she did dance, 
On me she would not glance ; 
Oh, thrice unhappy chance ! 
Phillida flouts me. 

Fair maid, be not so coy, 

Do not disdain me ; 
I am my mother's joy ; 

Sweet, entertain me. 
I shall have, when she dies, 

All things that's fitting ; 
Her poultry and her bees, 

And her goose sitting ; 
A pair of mattrass beds, 
A barrel full of shreds : 
And yet, for all these goods, 

Phillida flouts me. 

I often heard her say, 

That she lov'd posies ; 
In the last month of May 

I gave her roses, 
Cowslips and gilly-flowers, 

And the sweet lily, 
I got to deck the bow'rs 

Of my dear Philly. 
She did them all disdain, 
And threw them back again ; 
Therefore 'tis flat and plain 

Phillida flouts me. 

Thou shall eat curds ond cream 

All the year lasting, 
And drink the crystal stream, 

Pleasant in tasting : 
Swig whey until you burst, 

Eat bramble-berries, 

Pye-lid, and pastry-crust, 

Pears, plums, and cherries ; 
Thy garments shall be thin, 
Made of a wether's skin ; 
Yet all's not worth a pin : 

Phillida flouts me. 

Which way soe'er I go, 

She still torments me ; 
And, whatsoe'er I do, 

Nothing contents me : 
I fade, and pine away 

With grief and sorrow ; 
I fall quite to decay, 

Like any shadow ; 
I shall be dead, I fear, 
Within a thousand year, 
And all because my dear 

Phillida flouts me. 

Fair maiden, have a care, 

And in time take me ; 
I can have those as fair, 

If you forsake me ; 
There's Doll, the dairy-maid, 

Smil'd on me lately, 
And wanton Winifred 

Favours me greatly ; 
One throws milk on my clothes, 
T'other plays with my nose ; 
What pretty toys are those ! 
Phillida flouts me. 

She has a cloth of mine, 

Wrought with blue Coventry, 
Which she keeps as a sign 

Of my fidelity : 
But if she frowns on me, 

She shall ne'er wear it; 
I'll give it my maid Joan, 

And she shall tear it. 
Since 'twill no better be, 
I'll bear it patiently ; 
Yet, all the world may see, 

Phillida flouts me. 


This ballad is entitled " The longing Shepherdess, or Lady " [Laddy] " lie 
near me." Copies are in the Pepys Collection, iii., 59, and Douce, p. 119, &c. 
It is also in the list of ballads that were printed by W. Thackeray, at the Angel, 
in Duck Lane. 

The tune (which bears a strong resemblance to Phillida flouts me) is in The 
Dancing Master, from the first edition in 1650, to the eighth in 1690. 



In Ritson's North Country Chorister there is another ballad, called " Laddy, lie 
near me" (beginning, "As I walked over hills, dales, and high mountains"); and 
in 1793 Mr. George Thomson gave Burns a tune of that name, to write words to, 
which is now included in Scotch Collections. It differs wholly from this. 

Slowly and gracefully. 

All in the month of May, When all things bios - som, As in my 




bed I lay, Sleep it grew loath - some. Up I rose, and did walk O - ver yon 

mountains Through meadows and through dales, Over rocks and foun-tains; I heard a 

-r IIT 

voice to sing, Sweetheart, come cheer me, Thou hast been long away, Lady, lie near me. 




In the collection of ballads and proclamations in the library of the Society of 
Antiquaries is one by W. Elderton, entitled " A new ballad, declaring the great 
treason conspired against the young King of Scots, and how one Andrew Browne, 
an Englishman, which was the King's Chamberlaine, prevented the same. To the 
tune of Milfield, or els to Crreene sleeves" It was printed by " Yarathe James," 
to whom it was licensed on 30th May, 1581. 

The tune is in The Dancing Master from 1650 to 1658. The ballad in Percy's 
Reliques, series ii., book 2, No. 16. The first stanza is here with the music. 

-p-it' r hj 1 hP>^ 1 J rd -h 

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Out, a - las! what grief is this, That princes' subjects cannot be true ; But 



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still the Devil hath some of his Will 

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play their parts what - e'er en - sue. 

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sor - row - ful heigh ho ! 



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Dr. Percy says, " this beautiful old ballad most probably took its rise from one 
of those descents made on the Spanish coasts in the time of Queen Elizabeth : 
and, in all likelihood, from the taking of the city of Cadiz (called by our sailors, 
corruptly, Gales), on June 21, 1596, under the command of the Lord Howard, 
admiral, and of the Earl of Essex, general." 

The question as to who was the favored lover, has been fully discussed; it may 
therefore be sufficient here to refer the reader to The Edinburgh Review for April, 
1846 ; The Times newspapers of April 30, and May 1, 1846 ; and The Quarterly 
Review for October, 1846. 

The ballad is quoted in OttpuTs Wliirligig, 1616, and parodied in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight, 1633. In the Douce Collection, ii. 210 and 212, there 
are two copies, the one " to a pleasant new tune ; " the other (which is of later 
date) to the tune of Flying Fame; but could not be sung to that air. In the 
same volume, p. 254, is " The Westminster "Wedding, or Carlton's Epithalamium," 
(dated 1663) : to the tune of The Spanish Lady. It commences thus : 
" Will you hear a German Princess, 
How she chous'd an English Lord," &c. 



The tune is contained in the Skene MS., and in several of the ballad-operas, 
such as The Quaker's Opera, 1728 ; The Jovial Crew, 1731, &c. 

The words are found in The Garland of Good-will, and in several of the cele- 
brated collections of ballads; also in Percy's Reliques, series ii., book 2. 

Will you hear a Span-ish la - dy, How she wooed an English 


man? Garments gay, and rich as may be, Deck'd with Jew -els she had 

on. Ofacome-ly countenance and grace was she, And by birth and pa-rentage of high de-gree. 



On the 26th Oct., 1594, John Danter entered on the books of the Stationers' 
Company, " for his copie, a ballet intituled Jone's ale is newe ; " and on the 
15th Nov., of the same year, Edward White one called " The unthrifte's adieu 
to Jone's ale is newe." 

In Ben Jonson's Tale of a tub, " old father Rosin, chief minstrel of Highgate, 
and his two boys" play the dances called for by the company, which are " Tom 
Tiler; The jolly Joiner ; and The jovial Tinker." The burden of the song called 
"The jovial Tinker" is "Joan's ale is new." ("Tom Tiler" is one of the 
country dances mentioned in Hey wood's A woman kill'd with kindness.) In the 
Mad Pranks and merry Jests of Robin Groodfellow, 1628, there is a song to the 
tune of The jovial Tinker, which has a burden or chorus of four lines, unsuited to 
this air, although the song itself could be sung to it. As tinkers were so famous 
in song, there was probably another tune called The jovial Tinker. " He that a 
tinker, a tinker will be," is one of the catches in the Antidote to Melancholy, 1661; 
" Tom Tinker lives a merry life," is in Davenant's play, The Benefice ; " Have 
you any work for a tinker," in Wit and Drollery, 1661 ; and Ben Jonson says, 
in Paris' Anniversary, " Here comes the tinker I told you of, with his kettle- 
drum before and after, a master of music.'''' 



The song of Joan's ale is new is in the Douce Collection, p. 110. It is in the 
list of those printed by W. Thackeray, at the Angel in Duck Lane, in the reign 
of Charles II. ; and is in both editions of Pills to purge Melancholy, with the 
tune. (Ed. of 1707, iii. 133 ; or ed. of 1719, v. 61.) 

The copy in the Douce Collection consists of thirteen stanzas, and has the 
following lengthy title : " Joan's ale is new ; or a new merry medley, shewing 
the power, the strength, the operation, and the virtue that remains in good ale, 
which is accounted the mother-drink of England." 

" All you that do this merry ditty view, 

Taste of Joan's ale, for it is strong and new, &c." 
" To a pleasant new Northern tune." 

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was a jo - vial tin - ker, Who *^^ a good ale 

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- lieve me, this is true. 


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he came from the Weald of Kent, When all 


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him look like a 

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The tinker he did settle The cobbler and the broom-man 

Most like a man of mettle, Came up into the room, man, 

And vow'd to pawn his kettle ; And said they would drink for boon, man, 

Now mark what did ensue : Let each one take his due ! 

His neighbours they flock in apace, But when the liquor good they found, 

To see Tom Tinker's comely face, They cast their caps upon the ground, 

Where they drank soundly for a space, And so the tinker he drank round, 

Whilst Joan's ale, &c. Whilst Joan's ale, &c. 

In another volume in the Douce Collection, p. 180, is an answer to the 
above, to the same tune. It is the " The poet's new year's gift ; or a pleasant 
poem in praise of sack: setting forth its admirable virtues and qualities, and. how 
much it is to be preferred before all other sorts of liquors, &c. To the tune of 
The jovial Tinker, or Tom a Bedlam;" commencing 
" Come hither, learned sisters, 

And leave Parnassus mountain ; 
I will you tell where is a well 

Doth far exceed your fountain," &c. 


This is the same air as the preceding, but in a minor instead of a major key. 
It is in every edition of The Dancing Master, under the name of Under and over; 
but in a MS. volume of virginal music, formerly in the possession of Mr. Windsor, 
of Bath, it is entitled A man had three sons. 

The ballad of Under and over is in the Pepys Collection, i. 264, B.L., as "A new 
little Northern Song, called 

" Under and over, over and under, 

Or a pretty new jest and yet no wonder ; 
" Or a maiden mistaken, as many now be, 

View well this glass, and you may plainly see." 
" To a pretty new Northern tune." 

It is very long, full of typographical errors, and devoid of merit ; I have 
therefore only printed the first verse with the music. 

In the same volume are the following : " Rocke the babie, Joane : to the tune 
of Under and over" p. 396 ; beginning 

" A young man in our parish. 

His wife was somewhat currish," &c. 
And at p. 404, another, commencing 

(t There was a country gallant, 

That wasted had his talent," &c. 
In the Roxburghe, iii. 176, " Rock the cradle, John : 

Let no man at this strange story wonder, 
It goes to the tune of Over and under." 

And in the same Collection, i. 411, " The Times' Abuses; to the tune of Over and 
under; commencing 

" Attend, my masters, and give ear," &c. 
The last is also printed in Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 281. 



, Cheerfully. 

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As I abroad was 
As in a mea - dow 

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walk - ing, I heard two lo - vers 
turn - ing, Up - on a sum - mer's 

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talk - ing One to an - o - ther 
morn - ing, I heard these lo - vers 

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speaking, Of lo - vers' con - stan - cy. *> 
mourning 'Cause of love's cru - el - ty. ^ 

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This is one of the old and simple chaunt-like ditties, which seem to have been 
peculiarly suited to the lengthy narratives of the minstrels ; and I am strongly 
impressed with a belief that it was one of their tunes. It has very much the same 
character as $w* G-uy, which I met with in another of the ballad operas, and 
which the entry at Stationers' Hall proving to be earlier than 1592 may be 
fairly supposed to be the air tfsed, by the class of minstrel described by Puttenham, 
in singing the adventures of Sir Guy, at feasts. See page 172. 

I have seen no earlier copy of The Oxfordshire Tragedy, than an edition 
" printed and sold in Bow Church-Yard," in which the name of the tune is not 
mentioned. The ballad is in four parts, the third and fourth of which, being in 
a different metre, must have been sung to another air. 

" As I walk'd forth to take the air," is the second line of the first part, 
and a tune is often referred to under that title. As the measures agree, it may 
be a second name for this air. 

In the Douce Collection, 44, is a black-letter ballad of " Cupid's Conquest, or 



Will the Shepherd and fair Kate of the Green, both united together in pure love : 
to the tune, As I went forth to take the air ;" commencing, 
" Now am I tost on waves of love ; 

Here like a ship that's under sail," &c. 

and in the Roxburge, ii. 149, " The faithful lovers of the West : tune, Aslwalkt 
forth to take the air." 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Collection, is " The unfortunate Sailor's Garland, with 
an account how his parents murdered him for love of his gold." It is in two 
parts, and both to the tune of The Oxfordshire Tragedy. After four lines of 
exordium, it begins thus : 

" Near Bristol liv'd a man of fame, 
But I'll forbear to tell his name ; 
He had one son and daughter bright, 
In whom he took a great delight," &c. 

Another Garland, called " The cruel parents, or the two faithful lovers," is to 
the tune of The Oxfordshire Lady, and in the same metre. 

The tune of The Oxfordshire Tragedy is in The Cobblers' Opera, 1729, The 
Village Opera, 1729, and Sylvia, or The Country Burial, 1731. 

Near Woodstock town, in Ox-ford-shire, As I walk'd forth to take the air 

To view the fields and meadows round, Methoughtl heard a dreadful sound 

Down ty a crystal river side, 

A gallant bower I espied, 

Where a fair lady made great moan, 

With many a bitter sigh and groan. 

Alas ! quoth she, my love's unkind, 
My sighs and tears he will not mind ; 
But he is cruel unto me, 
Which causes all my misery. 

My father is a worthy knight, 
My mother is a lady bright, 
And I their only child and heir ; 
Yet love has brought me to despair. 

A wealthy squire lived nigh, 
Who on my beauty cast an eye ; 
He courted me, both day and night, 
To be his jewel and delight. 

To me these words he often said : 
Fair, beauteous, handsome, comely maid, 
Oh ! pity me, I do implore, 
For it is you I do adore. 

He still did beg me to be kind, 
And ease his love-tormented mind ; 
For if, said he, you should deny, 
For love of you I soon shall die. 

These words did pierce my tender heart, 
I soon did yield, to ease his smart ; 
And unto him made this reply, 
For love of me you shall not die. 

With that he flew into my arms, 
And swore I had a thousand charms ; 
He call'd me angel, saint, and he 
Did swear, for ever true to be. 



Soon after he had gain'd my heart, 
He cruelly did from me part ; 
Another maid he does pursue, 
And to his vows he bids adieu. 

Tis he that makes my heart lament, 
He causes all my discontent ; 
He hath caus'd my sad despair, 
And now occasions this my care. 

The lady round the meadow run, 
And gather'd flowers as they sprung ; 
Of every sort she there did pull, 
Until she got her apron full. 

Now, there's a flower, she did say, 
Is named heart's-ease ; night and day, 
I wish I could that flower find, 
For to ease my love-sick mind. 

But oh ! alas ! 'tis all in vain 
For me to sigh, and to complain ; 
There's nothing that can ease my smart, 
For his disdain will break my heart. 

The green ground served as a bed, 
And flow'rs a pillow for her head ; 
She laid her down and nothing spoke, 
Alas ! for love her heart was broke. 

But when I found her body cold, 
I went to her false love, and told . 
What unto her had just befel ; 
I'm glad, said he, she is so well. 

Did she think I so fond could be, 
That I could fancy none but she ? 
Man was not made for one alone ; 
I take delight to hear her moan. 

Oh ! wicked man I find thou art, 
Thus to break a lady's heart ; 
In Abraham's bosom may she sleep, 
While thy wicked soul doth weep ! 


A second part, I bring you here, 
Of the fair maid of Oxfordshire, 
Who lately broke her heart for love 
Of one, that did inconstant prove. 

A youthful squire, most unjust, 
When he beheld this lass at first, 
A thousand solemn vows he made, 
And so her yielding heart betray 'd. 

She mourning, broke her heart, and died, 
Feeling the shades on every side ; 

The third and fourth parts present 
it is the lady's cruelty which causes the 

With dying groans and grievous cries, 
As tears were flowing through her eyes. 

The beauty which did once appear, 
On her sweet cheeks, so fair and clear, 
Was waxed pale, her life was fled ; 
He heard, at length, that she was dead. 

He was not sorry in the least, 
But cheerfully resolv'd to feast; 
And quite forgot her beauty bright, 
Whom he so basely ruin'd quite. 

Now, when, alas ! this youthful maid, 
Within her silent tomb was laid, 
The squire thought that all was well, 
He should in peace and quiet dwell. 

Soon after this he was possest 
With various thoughts, that broke his rest ; 
Sometimes he thought her groans he heard, 
Sometimes her ghastly ghost appear'd 

With a sad visage, pale and grim, 
And ghastly looks she cast on him ; 
He often started back and cried, 
Where shall I go myself to hide ? 

Here I am haunted, night and day, 
Sometimes methinks I hear her say, 
Perfidous man ! false and unkind, 
Henceforth you shall no comfort find. 

If through the fields I chance to go, 
Where she receiv'd her overthrow, 
Methinks I see her in despair ; 
And, if at home, I meet her there. 

No place is free of torment now ; 
Alas ! I broke a solemn vow 
Which once I made ; but now, at last, 
It does my worldly glory blast. 

Since my unkindness did destroy 
My dearest love and only joy, 
My wretched life must ended be, 
Now must I die and come to thee. 

His rapier from his side he drew, 
And pierced his body thro' and thro' ; 
So he dropt down in purple gore 
Just where she did some time before. 

He buried was within the grave 
Of his true love. And thus you have 
A sad account of his hard fate, 
Who died in Oxfordshire of late. 

a similar story, in different metre ; but 
first suicide. 




This is mentioned as a country dance tune in Heywood's A Woman kill'd with 
Kindness, act i., sc. 2 ; and alluded to in Fletcher's Love's Cure, act ii., sc. 2. 
It is contained in the fourth, fifth, and later editions of The Dancing Master. 
Moderate time. 

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This is the burden of a song in praise of Christmas, copies of which are in the 
Pepys (i. 186) and Roxburghe (i. 24) Collections. It is entitled " A pleasant 
countrey new ditty: merrily shewing how to drive the cold winter away. To 
the tune of Wtten Phoebus did rest" a &c. ; black-letter, printed by H[enry] 
G[osson]. It is one of those parodied in Andro Hart's Compendium of Gf-odly 
Songs. " The wind blawis cald, furious and bald, 

This lang and mony a day ; 
But, Christ's mercy, we mon all die, 

Or keep the cald wind away. 
This wind sa keine, that I of meine, 

It is the vyce of auld ; 
Our faith is inclusit, and plainely abusit, 
This wind he's blawin too cald," &c. 

Scottish Poems ofl&th Century, ii. 177, 8vo., 1801. 

The tune is in every edition of The Dancing Master ; in Musick's Delight on 
the Cithren, 1666; and in Walsh's Dancing Master: also in both editions of 
Pills to purge Melancholy, with an abbreviated copy of the words. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 518, is a ballad entitled " Hang pinching ; or 
The good fellow's observation 'mongst a jovial crew, of them that hate flinch- 
ing, but are always true blue. To the tune of Drive the cold winter away ;" 
commencing " All you that lay claim to a good fellow's name, 

And yet do not prove yourselves so, 
Give ear to this thing, the which I will sing, 
Wherein I most plainly will shew 

A song beginning "When Phoebus addrett his course 
to the West," will be found in Merry Drollery Complete, 
Part ii., 1661 ; also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems. 
The burden is, " O do not, do not kill me yet, for I am 

not prepared to die." By that name it is quoted in J. 
Starter's Boertigheden, quarto, Amsterdam, 1634, where 
the tune is also printed. 



With proof and good ground, those fellows profound, 

That unto the alewives are true, 
In drinking their drink, and paying their chink, 

O such a good fellow's true blue" 

Sometimes a tune named True, Hue is quoted, and perhaps from this ballad. It is 
subscribed W. B., and printed for Thomas Lambert, at the sign of the Horse 
Shoe, in Smithfield. Lambert was a printer of the reigns of James and Charles I. 
In the Pepys Collection, i. 362, is another black-letter ballad, entitled " The 
father hath beguil'd the son : Or a wonderful tragedy which lately befell in Wilt- 
shire, as many men know full well ; to the tune of Drive the cold winter away ; " 
beginning " I often have known, and experience hath shown, 

That a spokesman hath wooed for himself, 
And that one rich neighbour will, underhand, labour 

To overthrow another with pelf," &c. 

Other ballads to the tune will be found in the Roxburghe Collection (i. 150 and 
160, &c.) ; in the King's Pamphlets, and the Collection of Songs against the 
Rump Parliament; in Wright's Political Songs; in Mock Songs, 1675 ; in Evans' 
Collection, i. 349, &c. 

Boldly and not too fast. , SONG IN PRAISE OF CHRISTMAS. 




All hail to the days that me-rit more praise Than all the rest of the year, And 



welcome the nights that dou-ble delights, As well for the poor as the peer ! 



Good fortune attend each merry man's friend, That doth but tbe best that he may ; For 


-get- ting old wrongs, with ca - rols and songs, To drive the cold win-ter a- way. 







Let Misery pack, with a whip at his back, 

To the deep Tantalian flood ; 
In Lethe profound, let envy be drown 'd, 

That pines at another man's good ; 
Let Sorrow's expanse be banded from hence, 

All payments of grief delay, 
And wholly consort with mirth and with sport 

To drive the cold winter away. 

'Tis ill for a mind to anger inclin'd 

To think of old injuries now ; 
If wrath be to seek, do not lend her thy cheek, 

Nor let her inhabit thy brow. 
Cross out of thy books malevolent looks, 

Both beauty and youth's decay, 
And spend the long nights in honest delights, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

The court in all state now opens her gate, 

And bids a free welcome to most; 
The city likewise, tho' somewhat precise, 

Doth willingly part with her cost: 
And yet by report, from city and court, 

The country will gain the day ; 
More liquor is spent, and with better content, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Our good gentry there, for cost do not spare, 

The yeomanry fast not till Lent ; 
The farmers, and such, think nothing too much, 

If they keep but to pay for their rent. 
The poorest of all do merrily call, 

When at a fit place they can stay, 
For a song or a tale, or a pot of good ale, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Thus none will allow of solitude now, 

But merrily greets the time, 
To make it appear, of all the whole year, 

That this is accounted the prime : 
December is seen apparel'd in green, 

And January, fresh as May, 
Comes dancing along, with a cup and a song, 

To drive the cold winter away. 


This time of the year is spent in good cheer, 
And neighbours together do meet, 

To sit by the fire, with friendly desire, 
Each other in love to greet; 

" For the support and encouragement of the fishing 
towns, in the time of Elizabeth, Wednesdays and Fridays 
were constantly observed as fast days, or days of absti- 
nence from flesh. This was by the advice of her minister, 
Cecil; and by the vulgar it was generally called Cecil's 
Fast. See Warburton's and Blakeway's notes in Boswell's 
cdiiion of Shakespeare, x. 49 and 50. 

Old grudges forgot, are put in the pot, 

All sorrows aside they lay, 
The old and the young doth carol his song, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

Sisley and Nanny, more jocund than any, 

As blithe as the month of June, 
Do carol and sing, like birds of the Spring, 

(No nightingale sweeter in tune) 
To bring in content, when summer is spent, 

In pleasant delight and play, [year, 

With mirth and good cheer, to end the old 

And drive the cold winter away. 

The shepherd and swain do highly disdain 

To waste out their time in care, 
And Clim of the Clough b hath plenty enough 

If he but a penny can spare, 
To spend at the night in joy and delight, 

Now after his labours all day, 
For better than lands is the help of his hands, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

To mask and to mum kind neighbours will 

With wassails of nut-brown ale, [come 
To drink and carouse to all in the house, 

As merry as bucks in the dale ; 
Where cake, bread and cheese, is brought for 

To make you the longer stay ; [your fees, 
At the fire to warm will do you no harm, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

When Christmas's tide comes in like a bride, 

With holly and ivy clad, 
Twelve days in the year, much mirth and 

In every household is had ; [good cheer, 
The country guise is then to devise 

Some gambols of Christmas play, 
Whereat the young men do best that they can, 

To drive the cold winter away. 

When white-bearded frost hath threatened his 

And fallen from branch and brier, [worst, 
Then time away calls, from husbandry halls 

And from the good countryman's fire, 
Together to go to plough and to sow, 

To get us both food and array ; 
And thus with content the time we have spent 

To drive the cold winter away. 

b Clim of the Clough means Clement of the Cleft. The 
name is derived from a noted archer, once famous in the 
north of England. See the old ballad, Adam Bell, Clim of 
theClough,and William of Cloudesly, printed by Bp. Percy. 
A Clough is a sloping valley, breach, or Cleft, from the 
side of a hill, where trees or furze usually grow. 




This tune is in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, and in TJie Dancing Master 
from 1650 to 1690. It is alluded to in Sharpham's Fleire, 1610: " She every 
day sings John for the King, and at Up, tails all, she's perfect." Also in Ben 
Jonson's Every man out of his humour; in Beaumont and Fletcher's Coxcomb; 
Vanbrugh's Provoked Wife, &c. 

There are several political songs of the Cavaliers to this air, in the King's 
Pamphlets (Brit. Mus.) ; in the Collection of Songs written against the Rump 
Parliament ; in Rats rhimed to Death, 1660 ; and one in Merry Drollery complete, 
1670 : but party feeling was then so often expressed with more virulence than wit, 
that few of them will bear republication. In both the editions of Pills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707 and 1719, the song of Up, tails all, beginning " Fly, merry 
news," is printed by mistake with the title and tune of The Friar and the Nun. 
Moderate time and lightly. 

Fly, mer - ry news, a - mong the crews, That love to hear of 

J U 


jests, &c. 

Up tails all ! 



The tune of In Pescod Time (i.e., peas-cod time, when the field peas are 
gathered) , was extremely popular towards the end of the sixteenth century. It is 
contained in Queen Elizabeth's and Lady Neville's Virginal Books ; in Anthony 
Holborne's Citharn Schoole (1597) ; and in Sir John Hawkins' transcripts ; but 
so disguised by point, augmentation, and other learned contrivances, that it was 
only by scanning the whole arrangement (by Orlando Gibbons) that this simple 
air could be extracted. In Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, the same air is 
called The Hunt's up, in another part of the book. 

The words are in England's Helicon, 1600 (or reprint in 1812, p. 206) ; in 
Miss Cooper's The Muses' Library, 8vo, p. 281 ; and in Evans' Old Ballads, 
i. 332 (ed. of 1810). 

Two very important and popular ballads were sung to the tune : Chevy Chace, 
and The Lady's Fall. 

Chevy Chace had also a separate air (see page 199) ; but the earlier printed 
copies of the ballad direct it to be sung to "In Pescod Time." 


The " Lamentable ballad of the Lady's Fall, to the tune of In Pescod Time" 
will be found in the Douce, Pepys, and Bagford Collections, and has been reprinted 
by Percy and Ritson. It commences thus : 

" Mark well my heavy dolefull tale, 

You loyal lovers all ; 
And heedfully bear in yonr breast 

A gallant lady's fall." 

Among the ballads to the tune of The Lady's Fall are The Brides Burial, 
and The Lady Isabella's Tragedy ; both in Percy's Reliques. The life and death 
of Queen JElizabeth, in the Grown Q-arland of G-olden Roses, 1612 (page 39 of the 
reprint), and in Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 171. The Wandering Jew, or the Shoe- 
maker of Jerusalem, who lived when our Saviour Christ was crucified, and appointed 
to live until his coming again ; two copies in the British Museum, and one in 
Mr. Halliwell's Collection ; also reprinted by Washbourne. It has the burden, 
" Repent, therefore, England," and is, perhaps, the ballad by Deloney, to which 
Nashe refers in Have with you to Saffron- Walden (ante page 107). The Cruel 
Black see Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 232. A Warning for Maidens, or young 
Bateman; Roxburghe Collection, i. 501. It begins, "You dainty dames so finely 
framed." And You dainty dames is sometimes quoted as a tune ; also Bateman, 
as in a ballad entitled " A. Warning for Married Women, to a West-country tune 
called The Fair Maid of Bristol, or Bateman, or John True; Roxburghe, i. 502. 
The following Carol is from a Collection, printed in 1642, a copy of which is in 
Wood's Library, Oxford. I have not seen it elsewhere. 

" A Carol for Twelfth Day, to the tune of The Lady's Fall" 

Mark well my heavy doleful tale, Come, butler, fill a brimmer full, 

For Twelfth Day now is come, To cheer my fainting heart, 

And now I must no longer stay, That to old Christmas I may drink 

And say no word but mum. Before he does depart. 

For I perforce must take my leave And let each one that's in the room 

Of all my dainty cheer With me likewise condole, 

Plum porridge, roast beef, and minc'd pies, And now, to cheer their spirits sad, 

My strong ale and my beer. Let each one drink a bowl. 

Kind-hearted Christmas, now adieu, And when the same it hath gone round, 

For J with thee must part ; Then fall unto your cheer ; 

But oh ! to take my leave of thee For you well know that Christmas time 

Doth grieve me at the heart. It comes but once a year. 

Thou wert an ancient housekeeper, But this good draught which I have drank 

And mirth with meat didst keep ; Hath comforted my heart ; 

But thou art going out of town, For I was very fearful that 

Which causes me to weep. My stomach would depart. 

God knoweth whether I again Thanks to my master and my dame, 

Thy merry face shall see ; That do such cheer afford ; 

Which to good fellows and the poor God bless them, that, each Christmas, they 

Was always frank and free. May furnish so their board. 

Thou lovest pastime with thy heart, My stomach being come to me, 

And eke good company ; I mean to have a bout ; 
Pray hold me up for fear I swound [swoon], And now to eat most heartily, 

For I am like to die. Good friends, I do not flout. 


Rather slow and smoothly. 

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In Peas - cod time, 

when hound 

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to horn Gives ear, till buck be 

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kill'd: And lit - tie lads, with pipes of corn, Sat keep-ing beasts a - 

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Although sometimes sung to the tunes of Pescod Time and The Children in the 
Wood, this is the air usually entitled Chevy Chace. It bears that name in all the 
editions of Pills to purge Melancholy, and in the ballad operas, such as The 
Beggars' Opera, 1728, Trick for Trick, 1735, &c. Another name, and probably 
an older, is Flying Fame, or When flying Fame, to which a large number of 
ballads have been written. In Pills to purge Melancholy, " King Alfred and the 
Shepherd's Wife," which the old copies direct to be sung to the tune of Flying 
Fame, is printed to this air. 

Much has been written on the subject of Chevy Chace ; but as both the ballads 
are printed in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry (and in many other collec- 
tions), it may be sufficient here to refer the reader to that work, and to The 
British Bibliographer (iv. 97). The latter contains an account of Richard Sheale, 
the minstrel to whom we are indebted for the preservation of the more ancient 
ballad, and of his productions. The manuscript containing them is in the Ash- 
molean Library, Oxford (No. 48, 4to). His verses on being robbed on Duns- 
more Heath have been already quoted (pages 45 to 47). 

The ballad of Chevy Chace, in Latin Rhymes, by Henry Bold, will be found in 
Dryden's Miscellany Poems, ii. 288. The translation was made at the request of 
Dr. Compton, Bishop of London. 

Bishop Corbet, in his Journey into Fraunce, speaks of having sung Chevy 
Chace in his youth ; the antiquated beau in Davenant's play of The Wits, also 
prides himself on being able to sing it ; and, in Wit's Interpreter, 1671, a man, 
enumerating the good qualities of his wife, cites, after the beauties of her mind 
and her patience, " her curious voice, wherewith she useth to sing Chevy Chace." 
From these, and many similar allusions, it is evident that it was much sung in 
the seventeenth century, despite its length. 

Among the many ballads to the tune (either as Flijing Fame or Chevy Chare), 
the following require particular notice. 



" A lamentable song of the Death of King Lear and his three Daughters : to 
the tune of Wien flying Fame" See Percy's Reliques, series i., book 2. 

" A mournefull dittie on the death of Faire Rosamond; tune of Flying Fame : " 
beginning, " When as King Henry rul'd this land ; " and quoted in Rowley's 
A Match at Midnight. See Strange Histories, 1607 ; The Garland of Good- 
will; and Percy, series ii., book 2. 

" The noble acts of Arthur of the Hound Table, and of Sir Launcelot du Lake : 
tune of Flying Fame." See The Garland of Good-will, 1678, and Percy, series i., 
book 2. The first line of this ballad (" When Arthur first in court began") is 
sung byFalstaff in Part II. of Shakespeare's JBTwy JJmry IV.; also in Marston's 
The Malcontent, 1604, and in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Little French Lawyer. 

" King Alfred and the Shepherd's Wife : to the tune of Flying Fame." See 
Old Ballads, 1727, i. 43 ; Pills to purge Melancholy, 1719, v. 289 ; and Evans' 
Old Ballads, 1810, ii. 11. 

" The Union of the Red Rose and the White, by a marriage between King 
Henry VII. and Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter of Edward IV : to the tune of 
When flying Fame." See Grown Garland, 1612, and Evans, iii. 35. 

" The Battle of Agincourt, between the Englishmen and the Frenchmen : tune r 
Flying Fame." (Commencing, " A council grave our King did hold.") See 
Crown Garland, 1659, and Evans, ii. 351. 

" The King and the Bishop : tune of Chevy Chace." Roxburghe, iii. 170. 

" Strange and true newes of an Ocean of Flies dropping out a cloud, upon the 
town of Bodnam [Bodmin?] in Cornwall: tune of Chevy Chace" (dated 1647). 
See King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus., vol. v;, and Wright's Political Ballads. 

" The Fire on London Bridge " (from which the nursery rhyme, " Three 
children sliding on the ice," has been extracted), " to the tune of Chevy Chace." 
Merry Drollery complete, 1670, Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 6, 1707, and 
Rimbault's Little Book of Songs and Ballads, 12mo., 1851. Dr. Rimbault quotes 
other copies of the ballad, and especially one in the Pepys Collection (ii. 146), 
to the tune of The Lady's Fall ; further proving the difficulty of distinguishing 
between this tune and In Pescod Time. 

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ble king, Our lives 


safe - ties 





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A woe - ful hunting once there did In Che-vy-Chace be 



In the Registers of the Stationers' Company, under the date of 15th October, 
1595, we find, " Thomas Millington entred for his copie under t'handes of bothe 
the "Wardens, a ballad intitutled ' The Norfolk Gentleman, his Will and Testament, 
and howe he commytted the keeping of his children to his owne brother, whoe delte 
moste wickedly with them, and howe God plagued him for it." This entry agrees, 
almost verbatim, with the title of the ballad in the Pepys Collection (i. 518), 
but which is of later date. Copies will also be found in the Roxburghe (i. 284), 
and other Collections ; in Old Ballads, 1726, i. 222 ; and in Percy's Reliques, 
series iii., book 2. 

Sharon Turner says, " I have sometimes fancied that the popular ballad of 
The Children in the Wood may have been written at this time, on Richard [III.] 
and his nephews, before it was quite safe to stigmatize him more openly." 
(Hist. Eng., iii. 487, 4to). This theory has been ably advocated by Miss 
Halsted, hi the Appendix to her Richard III. as Duke of Gloucester and King of 
England. Her argument is based chiefly upon internal evidence, there being no 
direct proof that the ballad is older than the date of the entry at Stationers' Hall. 

In Wager's interlude, The longer thou livest the more fool thou art, Moros says, 
" I can sing a song of Robin Redbreast ; " and in Webster's The White Devil, 
Cornelia says, " I'll give you a saying which my grandmother was wont, when 
she heard the bell toll, to sing unto her lute : 

Call for the robin-redbreast and the wren, 
Since o'er the shady groves they hover, 
And with leaves and flowers do cover 
The friendless bodies of unburied men," &c. 

Dodsletfs Old Plays, vi. 312, 1825. 
These may be in allusion to the ballad. 

In Anthony a Wood's Collection, at Oxford, there is a ballad to the tune of 
The two Children in the Wood, entitled " The Devil's Cruelty to Mankind," &c. 

The history of the tune is somewhat perplexing. In the ballad-operas of 
The Jovial Grew, The Lottery, An old man taught wisdom, and The Beggars' 
Opera, it is printed under the title of Now ponder well, which are the first words 
of " The Children in the Wood." 

The broadsides of Chevy Chace, which were printed with music about the com- 
mencement of the last century, are also to this tune ; and in the ballad-opera of 
Penelope, 1728, a parody on Chevy Chace to the same. 

In Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707 and 1719, the ballads of " Henry V. at the 
battle of Agincourt," " The Lady Isabella's Tragedy," and a song by Sir John 
Birkenhead, are printed to it. The last seems to be a parody on " Some Christian 
people all give ear," or " The Fire on London Bridge." 

According to the old -ballads, The Battle of Agincourt should be to the tune of 
Flying Fame, The Lady Isabella's Tragedy to In Pescod Time, and The Fire on 
London Bridge to Chevy Chace. I suppose the confusion to have arisen from 
Chevy Chace being sung to all the three tunes. 

The traditions of the stage also give this as the air of the Gravedigger's Song 
in Hamlet, " A pick-axe and a spade." 



Slowly and smoothly. 

Now pon-der well, You parents dear, These words which I shall 

, In time brought forth to light. 

you shall hear 


The four first stanzas of this song were found among the Howard papers in 
the Heralds' College, in the handwriting of Anne, Countess of Arundel, widow of 
the Earl who died in confinement in the Tower of London in 1595. They were 
written on the cover of a letter. Lodge, who printed them in his Illustrations of 
British History (iii. 241, 8vo., 1838), thought they " were probably composed" 
by the Countess ; and that " the melancholy exit of her lord was not unlikely to 
have produced these pathetic effusions." She could not, however, have been the 
author of verses, in her transcript of which the rhymes between the first and third 
lines of every stanza have been overlooked.* They were evidently written from 
memory, and rendered more applicable to her case by a few trifling alterations, 
such as " Not I, poor I, alone," instead of " Now, a poor lad alone," at the 
commencement of the fourth stanza. 

The tune is contained in a MS. volume of virginal music, transcribed by Sir 
John Hawkins ; the words in the Crown G-arland of Golden Hoses, edition of 
1659 (Percy Society reprint, p. 6.). It is there entitled " The good Shepherd's 
sorrow for the loss of his beloved son." 

Among the ballads to the tune of In sad and ashy weeds, are " A servant's 
sorrow for the loss of his late royal mistress, Queen Anne" (wife to James I.), 
" who died at Hampton Court" (May 2, 1618), beginning 
" In dole and deep distress, 

Poor soul, I, sighing, make my moan." 

It will be found in the same edition of the Crown G-arland ; as well as an answer 
to In sad and ashy weeds, entitled " Coridon's Comfort : the second part of the 
good Shepherd ;" commencing, " Peace, Shepherd, cease to moan." 

The tune is quoted under the title of " In sadness, or Who can blame my woe," 
as one for the Psalmes or Songs of Sion, &c., 1642. 

In the Countess's transcript, as printed by Lodge, 
the first four lines stand thus 

"In sad and ashy weeds I sigh, 

I groan, I pine, I mourn ; 
My oaten yellow reeds 
I all to jet and ebon turn ; '' 

instead of 

" In sad and ashy weeds 

I sigh, I groan, I pine, I mourn;" 

as " weeds " should rhyme with " reeds" in the third line, 
and so in each verse. 


Slowly and smoothly. 

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In sad and ash - y weeds I sigh 


I groan, I 

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pine, I mourn; My oat - en yel - low reeds I all to jet and e-bon turn. 

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My wa - t'ry eyes, Like winter's skies, My furrow'd cheeks 

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o'er - flow : All 

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heav'n know why, Men mourn as I ! And who can blame my woe ? 

i r P p ' c r i 

1 : 1 

In sable robes of night 

My days of joy consumed be, 
My sorrow sees no light, 

My lights through sorrow nothing see. 
For now my sun 
His course hath run, 
And from my sphere doth go, 
To endless bed 
Of folded lead ; 
And who can blame my woe ? 
My flocks I now forsake, 

That so my sheep my grief may know, 
The lilies loathe to take, 

That since his death presum'd to grow. 
I envy air, 

Still breathe, and he not so; 

Hate earth, that doth 

Entomb his youth ; 
And who can blame my woe ? 

Not I, poor I, alone, 

(Alone, how can this sorrow be ?) 
Not only men make moan, 

But more than men make moan with me : 

The gods of greens, 

The mountain queens, 
The fairy-circled row, 

The muses nine, 

And powers divine, 
Do all condole my woe. 

Because it dare 

In the above lines I have chiefly followed the Countess of Arundel's transcript. 
There are three more verses in the Grown Garland of Golden Roses, besides seven 
in the second part. 




Copies of this ballad are in the Roxburghe, Pepys, and Douce Collections ; it is 
printed by Ritson among the ancient ballads in his English Songs, and by Percy 
(ReUqueSj series iii., book 2, No. 8). 

In the Roxburghe, ii. 457, and Douce, 230, it is entitled " True love requited, 
or The Bailiff's Daughter of Islington : to a North-country tune, or I have a good 
old mother at home." In other copies it is to "I have a good old woman at home," 
and " I have a good wife at home." 

In the Douce, 32, is a ballad called " Crums of comfort for the youngest sister, 
&c., to a pleasant new West-country tune;" beginning 
" I have a good old father at home, 

An ancient man is he : 
But he has a mind that ere he dies 

That I should married be." 

Dr. Rimbault found the first tune in a lute MS., formerly in the possession of 
the Rev. Mr. Gostling, of Canterbury, under the name of The jolly Finder. It is 
in the ballad-opera of The Jovial Crew, 1731, called "The Baily's Daughter of 

The second is the traditional tune to which it is commonly sung throughout the 

Mather slow. FIRST TUNE. 

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There was a youth, and a well-belov'd youth, And he was a Squire's 

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son ; He lov - ed the hai - Tiff's daughter dear, That liv - ed 

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in Is-ling - ton. 





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Yet she was coy, and would not believe 

That he did love her so, 
No, nor at any time would she 

Any countenance to him show. 

But when his friends did understand 

His fond and foolish mind, 
They sent him up to fair London, 

An apprentice for to bind. 

And when he had been seven long years, 
And never his love could see : 

Many a tear have I shed for her sake, 
When she little thought of me. 

Then all the maids of Islington 
Went forth to sport and play, 

All but the bailiff's daughter dear ; 
She secretly stole away. 

She pulled off her gown of green, 
And put on ragged attire, 

And to fair London she would go, 
Her true love to enquire. 

And as she went along the high road, 
The weather being hot and dry, 

She sat her down upon a green bank, 
And her true love came riding by. 



She started up with a colour so red, 
Catching hold of his bridle-rein ; 

One penny, one penny, kind sir, she said, 
Will ease me of much pain. 

Before I give you one penny, sweet-heart, 
Pray tell me where you were born : 

At Islington, kind Sir, said she, 
Where I have had many a scorn. 

I prythee, sweet-heart, tell to me, 

O tell me whether you know 
The bailiff's daughter of Islington ? 

She is dead, Sir, long ago. 

Rather slowly and very smoothly. 


If she be dead, then take my horse, 

My saddle and bridle also ; 
For I will into some far country, 

Where no man shall me know. 

O stay, O stay, thou goodly youth, 

She standeth by thy side ; 
She is here alive, she is not dead, 

And ready to be thy bride. 

O farewell grief, and welcome joy, 

Ten thousand times therefore ; 
For now I have found mine own true love, 

Whom I thought I should never see more 


There was a youth, and a well - be-lov - ed youth, And he was a squi-er's 





son; He lov-edthe bai-liff's daughter dear, That liv - ed 

I sling - ton. 



From a quarto MS., which has successively passed through the hands of 
Mr. Cranston, Dr. John Leyden, and Mr. Heber; and is now in the Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh. It contains about thirty-four songs with words, a and sixteen 
song and dance tunes without. The latter part of the manuscript, which bears 
the name of a former proprietor, William Stirling, and the date of May, 1639, 
consists of Psalm Tunes, evidently in the same handwriting, and written about 
the same time as the earlier portion. This song is in the comedy of As you 
like it, the first edition of which was printed in 1623 ; and the inaccuracies in 
that copy, which have given much trouble to commentators on Shakespeare, are 
not to be found in this. In the printed copy, the last verse stands in the place of 
the second : this was first observed and remedied by Dr. Thirlby ; and the words 
" ring time," there rendered "rang time," and by commentators altered to "rank 
time," were first restored to the proper meaning by Steevens, who explains them 
as signifying the aptest season for marriage. The words are here printed from the 

Among these are Withers song, " Shall I, wasting 
in despair," and "Farewell, dear love," quoted in Twelfth 
Night, the music of which, by Robert Jones (twelfth from 
his first book, published in 1601) is reprinted in Musica 

Antigua : a Selection of Music from the commencement of 
the twelfth to the beginning of the eighteenth century, &c. 
edited by John Stafford Smith. 



manuscript in the Advocates' Library, (fol. 18), and other variations will be 
found on comparing them with the published copies of the play. 

Moderate time. _ . -^^ 

It was a lover and his lass, With a hey, with a ho, with a hey mm ne 



J> HJiJi 

That o er the green corn 

did pass, In Spring time, in Spring time, in Spring time ; The on-ly pretty 

ring time, When birds do sing, Hey ding a ding a ding, Hey ding a ding a ding, Hey 


ding a ding a ding, Sweet lov - ers love the Spring. 

Between the acres of the rye, 

With a hey, with a ho, with a hey, non ne no, 

And a hey non ne, no ni no. 

These pretty country fools did lie, 

In Spring time, in Spring time, 

The only pretty ring time, 

When birds do sing 

Hey ding, a ding, a ding, 

Sweet lovers love the Spring. 

This carol they began that hour, 

With a hey, &c. 
How that life was but a flow'r, 

In Spring time, &c. 

Then, pretty lovers, take the time, 

With a hey, &c., 
For teve is crowned with the prime, 

In Spring time, &c. 



The song of Oh ! willow, willow, which Desdemona sings in the fourth act of 
Othello, is contained in a MS. volume of songs, with accompaniment for the lute, 
in the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 15,117). Mr. Halliwell considers the 
transcript to have been made about the year 1633; Mr. Oliphant (who catalogued 
the musical MS.) dates it about 1600 ; but the manuscript undoubtedly contains 
songs of an earlier time, such as 

" death ! rock me asleep, 
Bring me to quiet rest," &c. 

attributed to Anne Boleyn, and which Sir John Hawkins found in a MS. of the 
reign of Henry VHI. 

The song of Willow, willow, is also in the Roxburghe Ballads, i. 54 ; and was 
printed by Percy from a copy in the Pepys Collection, entitled " A Lover's 
Complaint, being forsaken of his Love : to a pleasant tune." 

Willow, willow, was a favorite burden for songs in the sixteenth century. 
There is one by John Heywood, a favorite dramatist and court musician of the 
reigns of Henry VHI. and Queen Mary, beginning 

" Alas ! by what mean may I make ye to know 
The unkindness for kindness that to me doth grow ? " 

which has for the burden 

" All a green willow ; willow, willow, willow ; 
All a green willow, is my garland." 

It has been printed by Mr. Halliwell, with others by Heywood, Redford, &c., for 
the Shakespeare Society, in a volume containing the moral play of Wit and 

Another with the burden 

" Willow, willow, willow ; sing all of green willow ; 
Sing all of green willow, shall be my garland," 

will be found in A Gorgious Gallery of Gallant Inventions (1578). It commences 

" My love, what misliking in me do you find, 

Sing all of green willow ; 
That on such a sudden you alter your mind ? 

Sing willow, willow, willow. 
What cause doth compel you so fickle to be, 

Willow, willow, willow, willow ; 
In heart which you plighted most loyal to me ? 

Willow, willow, willow, willow." Heliconia, i. 32. 

In Fletcher's The two Noble Kinsmen, when the Jailer's daughter went mad 
for love, " She sung nothing but Willoiv, willow, willmv."Act iv., sc. 1. 

In the tragedy of Othello, Desdemona introduces the song " in tfcis pathetic 
and affecting manner : " 


" My mother had a maid call'd Barbara ; 
She was in love ; and he she lov'd prov'd mad, 
And did forsake her : she had a song of Willow , 
And old thing 'twas, but it express'd her fortune, 
And she died singing it. That song to-night 
Will not go from my mind ; I have much to do, 
But to go hang my head all at one side, 
And sing it like poor Barbara." 


y Rather slou 

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wil - low, willow, wil - low ! With his hand in his bo-som, and bis head up-on his 

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J * ^ ^ * * aJ ^ 

4i r ; 

* ^ *&- r ^ r -5- 

knee ; Oh ! willow, willow, willow, wil-low, Oh ! willow, willow, willow, wil- low, Shall 

m - - .i. ft*- m m m rs 


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lJ my gar - land : Sing all a green 

J J J J 

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ivil - low, 

wil - low, willow, 

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i 1* 

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\- =^v ' r ' ' * : * * 

wil - low. Ah me ! the green wil - low must 

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be my gar 

-i S 9 

- land. 

i ., . ,. 


'"i r 


He sigh'd in his singing, and made a great moan, Sing, &c. ; 
I am dead to all pleasure, my true love he is gone, &c. 

The mute bird sat by him was made tame by his moans, &c. ; 

The true tears fell from him would have melted the stones, Sing, &c. 

Come, all you forsaken, and mourn you with me, Sing, &c. ; 
Who speaks of a false love, mine's falser than she, &c. 

Let love no more boast her in palace nor bower, Sing, &c. ; 
It buds, but it blasteth ere it be a flower, &c. 

Though fair, and more false, I die with thy wound, Sing, &c. ; 
Thou hast lost the truest lover that goes upon the ground, &c. 

Let nobody chide her, her scorns I approve [though I prove] ; 
She was born to be false, and I to die for her love, &c. 

Take this for my farewell and latest adieu, Sing, &c. ; 
Write this on my tomb, that in love I was true, &c. 

The above copy of the words is from the same manuscript as the music. It 
differs from that in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry; and Shakespeare has 
somewhat varied it to apply to a female character. 


This is twice alluded to by Shakespeare, in act iv., sc. 3, of A Winter's Tale ; 
and by Ford, in act iii., sc. 3, of The Fancies chaste and noble, where Secco, 
applying it to Morosa, sings " Whoop ! do me no harm, good woman" 

The tune was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault, from a MS. volume of virginal 
music, in the possession of the late John Holmes, Esq., of Retford. A song with 
this burden will be found in Fry's Ancient Poetry, but it would not be desirable 
for republication. 


-r-"d f. J.JJ d. *^r- 

f* J r ' f T T7 

hoop ! do me no harm, good man. 

V N^ ^^ ^^ 





This tune is contained in both the editions of Morley's Consort Lessons, 1599 
and 1611. It is also in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, arranged by Byrd. 

As it is to be found in print in 1599, it proves either that Shakespeare's Twelfth 
Night was written in or before that year, or that, in accordance with the then pre- 
vailing custom, Mistress mine was an old song, introduced into the play. 

Mr. Payne Collier has proved Twelfth Night to have been an established 
favorite in February, 1602 (Annals of the Stage, i. 327), but we have no evidence 
of so early a date as 1599. 

In act ii., sc. 3., the Clown asks, "Would you have a love-song, or a song of 
good life?" 

Sir Toby. " A love-song, a love-song." 

Moderate time and very smoothly. 

mistress mine, where are you roaming? O mistress mine, where are you roaming ? 

r r h 


a tempo 

O stay and hear ; your true love's coming, That can sing both high and low : Trip no further, 

pretty sweet-ing, Jour - neys end in lovers' meeting, Ev' - ry wise man's son doth know 


"What is love? 'tis not hereafter ; 
Present mirth hath present laughter ; 

What's to come is still unsure : 
In delay there lies no plenty ; 
Then come kiss me, sweet-and-twenty, 

Youth's a stuff will not endure." 


The tune of HearC s-ease is contained in a MS. volume of lute music, of the 
sixteenth century, in the Public Library, Cambridge (D. d., ii. 11), as well as in 
The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1698. It belongs, in all probability, to an 
earlier reign than that of Elizabeth, as it was sufficiently popular about the year 
1560 to have a song written to it in the interlude of Misogonus. Shakespeare 
thus alludes to it in Romeo and Juliet, 1597 (act iv., sc, 5.) 



Peter. " Musicians, O musicians, Hearts-ease, hearts-ease : an you will have 
me live, play Hearts-ease. 

1st Mus. Why Hearts-ease? 

Peter. musicians, because my. heart itself plays My heart is full of woe:* 
play me some merry dump, b to comfort me." 

The following song is from Misogonus, by Thomas Rychardes ; and, as Mr. 
Payne Collier remarks, " recollecting that it was written about the year 1560, 
may be pronounced quite as good in its kind as the drinking song c in Crammer 
G-urton's Needle." 

v Moderate lime. ^^ 

3S3 r r= 

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a - way with spo 

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rt and play, Pas - 

a : L b" 

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time is all our 

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L k ! J/ 1 


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pleasure ; 

If well we fare, 

^=1^^ J*'j 3 3 " LC^-" 

For nought we care, In mirth con-sists our treasure. 

J s*~. - J -?- m ii 

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J ; F 

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Kf r- 

UgU^ p_ 

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k .1 

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1 1 j 3~~3 J 

3 J__J 

s -J 

!s -d J 

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r j 

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H I" 

i~:~2 1~ = 

y fl T \ r r ' " "' s """" J 

Let lun - gis lurk, And drudges work, We do de-fy their 
/. [lankies] 

F^]^ F * L 
slavery : He 

J f^ 

^ ^t~ 

_*^__!_-^t f 

, ^ J fa_ 

i . i . . 

is but a fool That goes to school, All we de - light in bravery 

8 This is the burden of "A pleasant new Ballad of two 
Lovers: to a pleasant new tune; " beginning 
" Complain my lute, complain on him 

That stays so long away; 
He promised to be here ere this, 

But still unkind doth stay. 
But now the proverb true I find, 
Once out of sight then out of mind. 
Hey, ho ! my heart is full of woe," Sic, 

It has been reprinted by Mr. Andrew Barton, in the first 
volume of the Shakespeare Society's Papers, 1844. 

b A dump was a slow dance. Queen Mary's Dump is 
one of the tunes in William Ballet's Lute Book, and My 
Lady Carey's Dompe is printed in Stafford Smith's Musica 
Antigua, ii. 470, from a manuscript in the British 
Museum, temp. Henry VIII. 
c " I cannot eat but little meat," see page 72. ' 



" What doth't avail far hence to sail, 

And lead our life in toiling ? 
Or to what end should we here spend 

Our days in irksome moiling ? [labour] 
It is the best to live at rest, 

And take't as God doth send it ; 
To haunt each wake, and mirth to make, 

And with good fellows spend it. 

Nothing is worse than a full purse 

To niggards and to pinchers ; 
They always spare, and live in care, 

There's no man loves such flinchers. 
The merry man, with cup and can, 

Lives longer than do twenty ; 
The miser's wealth doth hurt his health ; 

Examples we have plenty. 

'Tis a beastly thing to lie musing 

With pensiveness and sorrow ; 
For who can tell that he shall well 

Live here until the morrow? 
We will, therefore, for evermore, 

While this our life is lasting, 
Eat, drink, and sleep, and ' merry ' keep, 

'Tis Popery to use fasting. 

In cards and dice our comfort lies, 

In sporting and in dancing, 
Our minds to please and live at ease, 

And sometimes to use prancing. 
With Bess and Nell we love to dwell 

In kissing and in ' talking ; ' 
But whoop ! ho holly, with trolly lolly, 

To them we'll now be walking." 

Collier's History of Early Dramatic Poetry, ii. 470. 


This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1698, called Jog on; also in 
Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, under the name of Hanskin. The words of 
Jog on, of which the first verse is sung by Autolycus, in act iv., sc. 2, of 
Shakespeare's A Winter's Tale, are in The Antidote against Melancholy, 1661. 
Another name for the tune is Sir Francis Drake, or Eighty-eight. 

The following is the song from The Antidote against Melancholy : 
" Jog on, jog on the footpath way, Your paltry money-bags of gold, 

And merrily hent a the stile-a; What need have we to stare for, 

Your merry heart goes all the day ; When little or nothing soon is told, 

Your sad tires in a mile-a. And we have the less to care for. 

Cast care away, let sorrow cease, 

A fig for melancholy ; 
Let's laugh and sing, or, if you please, 

We'll frolic with sweet Dolly." 

In the Westminster Drollery, 3rd edit., 1672, is " An old song on the Spanish 
Armado," beginning, " Some years of late, in eighty-eight ; " and in MSS. Harl., 
791, fol. 59, and in Merry Drollery complete, 1661, a different version of the same, 
commencing, " In eighty-eight, ere I was born." Both have been reprinted for 
the Percy Society in Halli well's Naval Ballads of England. The former is also 
in Pills to purge Melancholy, 1707, ii. 37, and 1719, iv. 37, or Ritson's Ancient 
Songs, 1790, p. 271. 

In the Collection of Ballads in the Cheetham Library, Manchester, fol. 30, is 

To hent or hend is to hold or seize. At the head of 
one of the chapters of Sir Walter Scott's novels, this is 
misquoted "bend." 

"And in his hand a battle-axe he hent." Honor of the 
Garter, by George Peele. 

'Upon the sea, till Jhesu Crist him hente. "Chaucer, 

line 700. 
' Till they the reynes of his bridel henten." Chaucer, 

line 90(i. 
' Or reave it out of the hand that did it hend." Spenser's 

Faery Queen. 



" The Catholick Ballad, or an Invitation to Popery, upon considerable grounds and 
reasons, to the tune of Eighty-eight" It is in black-letter, with a bad copy of the 
tune, and another (No. 1103), dated 1674. It will also be found in Pills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707, ii. 32, or 1719, iv. 32. It commences thus : 
" Since Popery of late is so much in debate, 

And great strivings have been to restore it, 
I cannot forbear openly to declare 
That the ballad-makers are for it." 

This song attained some popularity, because others are found to the tune of 
The Catholic Ballad. 

The following are the two ballads on the Spanish Armada; the first (with the 
tune) as in the Harl. MS., and the second from Westminster Drollery. 

Moderate time. 


eighty-eight, ere I was born, As I can well re - mem-ber, In 


Au - gust was a fleet pre - par'd, The month be -_fore Sep - tern - ber 

Spain, with Biscay and Portugal, 

Toledo and Grenada ; 
All these did meet, and made a fleet, 

And call'd it the Armada. 

Where they had got provision, 
As mustard, pease, and bacon ; 

Some say two ships were full of whips, 
But I think they were mistaken. 

There was a little man of Spain 

That shot well in a gun-a, 
Don Pedro 3 hight, [called] as good a knight 

As the Knight of the Sun-a. 

King Philip made him admiral, 
And charg'd him not to stay-a, 

But to destroy both man and boy, 
And then to run away-a. 

The King of Spain did fret amain, 

And to do yet more harm-a ; 
He sent along, to make him strong, 

The famous Prince of Parma. 

When they had sail'd along the seas, 

And anchor'd upon Dover, 
Our Englishmen did board them then, 

And cast the Spaniards over. 

Our Queen was then at Tilbury, 
What could you more desire-a? 

For whose sweet sake Sir Francis Drake 
Did set them all on fire-a. 

But let them look about themselves, 

For if they come again-a, 
They shall be serv'd with that same sauce 

As they were, I know when-a. 

The person meant by Don Pedro was the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, commander of the Spanish fleet. His 

name was not Pedro, but Alonzo Perez di Guzman. 


" An old song on the Spanish Armado," called, also, in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly, " Sir Francis Drake : or Eighty-eight." To the same tune. (The words 
from Westminster Drollery, 1672.) 

Some years of late, in eighty-eight, Their men were young, munition strong, 

As I do well remember ; And to do us more harm-a, 

It was, some say, the nineteenth of May, They thought it meet to join their fleet, 

And some say in September. All with the Prince of Parma. 

The Spanish train, launch'd forth amain, They coasted round about our land, 

With many a fine bravado, And so came in to Dover ; 

Their (as they thought, but it proved not) But we had men, set on them then, 

Invincible Armado. And threw the rascals over. 

There was a little man that dwelt in Spain, The Queen was then at Tilbury, 

Who shot well in a gun-a, What could we more desire-a, 

Don Pedro hight, as black a wight And Sir Francis Drake, for her sweet sake, 

As the Knight of the Sun-a. Did set them all on fire-a. 

King Philip made him admiral, Then straight they fled by sea and land, 

And bid him not to stay-a, That one man kill'd three score-a; 

But to destroy both man and boy, And had not they all run away, 

And so to come away-a. In truth he had kill'd more-a. 

Their navy was well victualled Then let them neither brag nor boast, 
With biscuit, pease, and bacon ; But if they come again-a, 

They brought two ships well fraught with whips, Let them take heed they do not speed, 
But I think they were mistaken. As they did, you know when-a. 


This tune, which was discovered by Sir John Hawkins, " in a MS. as old as 
Shakespeare's time," and printed in Steevens' edition of Shakespeare, is also con- 
tained in " The Second Booke of Ayres, some to sing and play to the Base-Violl 
alone: others to be sung to the Lute and Base-Violl," &c., by W. Corkine, 
fol. 1612. 

In act iii., sc. 1, of The Merry Wives of Windsor, 1602, Sir Hugh Evans sings 
the following lines, which form part of the song : 
" To shallow rivers, to whose falls 

Melodious birds sing madrigals ; 

There will we make our beds of roses, 

And a thousand fragrant posies." 

In Marlow's tragedy, The Jew of Malta, written in or before 1591, he introduces 
the first lines of the song in the following manner : 

" Thou, in whose groves, by Dis above, 

Shall live with me and be my love." 

In England's Helicon, 1600, it is printed with the name " Chr. Marlow" as the 
author. It is also attributed to Marlow in the following passage from Walton's 
Angler, 1653 : " It was a handsome milkmaid, that had not attained so much 
age and wisdom as to load her mind with any fears of many things that will never 
be, as too many men often do; but she cast away all care and sung like a nightin- 
gale: her voice was good, and the ditty fitted for it: it was that smooth song 
which was made by Kit. Marlow, now at least fifty years ago." 


On the other hand, it was first printed by W. Jaggard in " The passionate 
Pilgrim and other sonnets by Mr. William Shakespeare," in 1599 ; but Jaggard 
is a very bad authority, for he included songs and sonnets by Griffin and Barnfield 
in the same collection, and subsequently others by Heywood. 

England? s Helicon contains, also, "The Nimph's reply to the Shepheard," 
beginning " If all the world and love were young, 

And truth in every shepherd's tongue;" 

which is there subscribed " Ignoto," but which Walton attributes to Sir Walter 
Raleigh, "in his younger days ;" and "Another of the same nature made since," 
commencing " Come, live with me, and be my deere, 

And we will revel all the yeere," 
with the same subscription. 

Dr. Donne's song, entitled " The Bait," beginning 
" Come, live with me, and be my love, 

And we will some new pleasures prove, 

Of golden sands and crystal brooks, 

With silken lines and silver hooks," &c. 

which, as Walton observes, he " made to shew the world that he could make soft 
and smooth verses, when he thought smoothness worth his labour," is also in 
The Complete Angler ; and the three above quoted from England's Helicon, are 
reprinted in Ritson's English Songs and Ancient Songs; and two in Percy's 
Reliques of Ancient Poetry, &c., &c. 

In Choice, Chance, and Change; or Conceits in their colours, 4to., 1606, 
Tidero, being invited to live with his friend, replies, " Why, how now ? do you 
take me for a woman, that you come upon me with a ballad of Come, live with me, 
and be my love f " 

Nicholas Breton, in his Poste with a packet of Mad Letters, 4to., 1637, says, 
" You shall hear the old song that you were wont to like well of, sung by the 
black brows with the cherry cheek, under the side of the pied cow, Come, live with 
me, and be my love, you know the rest." 

Sir Harris Nicholas, in his edition of Walton's Angler, quotes a song in imi- 
tation of Come, live with me, by Herrick, commencing 

" Live, live with me, and thou shalt see ; " 

and Steevens remarks that the ballad appears to have furnished Milton with the 
hint for the last lines of IS Allegro and Penseroso. 

From the following passage in The World's Folly, 1609, it appears that there 
may have been an older name for the tune : " But there sat he, hanging his 
head, lifting up the eyes, and with a deep sigh, singing the ballad of Come, live 
with me, and be my love, to the tune of Adew, my deere." a 

In Deloney's Strange Histories, 1607, is the ballad of " The Imprisonment of 
Queen Eleanor," &c., to the tune of Come, live with me, and be my love, but it has 

A song in Harl. MSS. 2252, of the early part of Henry It is reprinted in Ritson's Ancient Songs (p. 98), but the 

the Eighth's reign, "Upon the inconstancy of his mis- metre differs from that of Come, live with me, and with 

tress," begins thus : out repeating words, could not have been sung to the 

" Mornyng, momyng, thus may I sing, same air. 
Adew, my dere, adew." 



six lines in each stanza; and " The woefull lamentation of Jane Shore," beginning, 
" If Rosamond that was so fair " (copies of which are in the Pepys, Bagford, and 
Roxburghe Collections), "to the tune of Live with me," has four lines and a 
burden of two " Then maids and wives in time amend, 

For love and beauty will have end." 

From this it appears that either the half of the tune was repeated, or that there 
were two airs to which it was sung. In Westminster Drollery, 1671 and 1674, a 
parody on Gome, live with me, is to the tune of My freedom is all my joy. That 
has also six lines, and the last is repeated. 

Other ballads, like "A most sorrowful song, setting forth the miserable end of 
Banister, who betrayed the Duke of Buckingham, his lord and master : to the tune 
of Live with me ; " and the Life and Death of the great Duke of Buckingham, who 
came to an untimely end for consenting to the depositing of two gallant young 
princes," &c. : to the tune of Shore's Wife, have, like Come, live with me, only 
four lines in each stanza. (See Crown G-arland of Grolden Roses, 1612 ; and 
Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 18 and 23.) 

Rather slow. 

Come, live with me, and be my love, And we will all the plea-sures 


f tlf tlr i 



prove That hills and val-leys, dale and field, And all the crag-gy moun-tains yield 

R=Fr Jir c 

There will we sit upon the rocks, 
And see the shepherds feed their flocks, 
By shallow rivers, to whose falls 
Melodious birds sing madrigals. 

There will I make thee beds of roses, 
And twine a thousand fragrant posies ; 
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle, 
Embroider'd all with leaves of myrtle. 

A gown made of the finest wool, 
Which from our pretty lambs we pull ; 
Slippers lined choicely for the cold, 
With buckles of the purest gold. 

A belt of straw and ivy buds, 
With coral clasps and amber studs : 
And if these pleasures may thee move, 
Come, live with me, and be my love. 

The shepherd swains shall dance and sing, 
For thy delight, each May morning ; 
If these delights thy mind may move, 
Then live with me, and be my love. 

1 In Sir John Hawkins' copy, this note is written an 
octave lower, probably because taken from a lute arrange- 
ment, in which the note, being repeated, was to be played 
on a lower string. In the second bar of the melody, his 

copy, if transposed into this key, would be B A D, instead 
of B c D ; which latter seems right by the analogy of that 
and the other phrases, although the difference is not very 




This is quoted in the same passage in Tivelfth Night as Peg-a-Eamsey. The tune 
is contained in a MS. common-place book, in the handwriting of John Playford, 
the publisher of The Dancing Master, in the possession of the Hon. George 
O'Callaghan." The words are also in Peele's The Old Wives' Tale, 1595 (Dyce, 
i. 208), where it is sung instead of the song proposed, man in desperation. 

In the comedy of Laugh and He down, 1605, " He plaied such a song of the 
Three Merry Men." In Fletcher's The Bloody Brother, the Cook, who is about to 
be hung with two others, says : 

" Good Master Sheriff, your leave too ; 
This hasty work was ne'er done well : give us so much time 
As but to sing our own ballads, for we'll trust no man, 
Nor no tune but our own ; 'twas done in ale too, 
And therefore cannot be refus'd in justice : 
Your penny-pot poets are such pelting thieves, 
They ever hang men twice" 
Each then sings a song, and they join in the chorus of 

" Three merry boys, and three merry boys, 
And three merry boys are we, 
As ever did sing in a hempen string 
Under the gallow tree." Act Hi., sc. 2, Dyce, x. 428. 

" Three merry men be we " is also quoted in Westward Hoe, by Dekker and 
Webster, 1607 ; and in Ram Alky, 1611. 

Moderate time and gaily. 

-fob J Jj J PI 

H f3 1 

1 /^ /] j | 

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Three merry men and 


three merry men, And 

three merry m 

en be 

we a, 

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I in the wood, and thou 

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on the ground, And Jack sleeps 






u 1 EJ 









On the margin of a copy of the Earl of Surrey's poems, in the possession of 
Sir W. W. Wynne, some of the little airs to which his favorite songs were sung 
are written in characters of the times. Dr. Nott printed them from that copy in 
his edition of Surrey's Songs and Sonnets,* 4to., 1814. From this the first tune 
for " I loathe that I did love " is taken. The second is from a MS. containing 
songs to the lute, in the British Museum (Addit. 4900), but it is more like the 
regular composition of a musician than the former. 

The music was added after a portion of the edition had been circulated. 



Three stanzas from the poem are sung by the grave-digger in Hamlet ; but 
they are much corrupted, and in all probability designedly, to suit the character 
of an illiterate clown. On the stage the grave-digger now sings them to the tune 
of The Children in the Wood. 

In the Grorgious Gallery of Gallant Inventions, 1578, " the lover complaineth 
of his lady's inconstancy ; to the tune of Ilothe that I did love" therefore a tune 
was formerly known by that name, and probably one of the two here printed. 

The song will be found among the ballads that illustrate Shakespeare, in Percy's 
Reliques of Ancient Poetry. 



I loathe that I did love ! In youth that I thought sweet, (As 

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for my behove,) 

"^ : . 

Me - thinks it is not meet. 



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I loathe that I did love ! In youth that I thought 


sweet (As 

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time re - quires for my be - hove, for 

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my be - hove), Me - 

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-thinks it is not meet, Me - thinks, me - thinks, it is 

not meet. 

Q^ ' 


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. i 


In Twelfth Night, act ii., sc. 3, Sir Toby says, " Malvolio's a Peg -a- Ramsey, 
and Three merry men be we." There are two tunes under the name of Peg-a- 
Ramsey, and both as old as Shakespeare's time. The first is called Peg-a-Ramsey 
in William Ballet's Lute Book, and is given by Sir John Hawkins as the tune 
quoted in Twelfth Night. (See Steevens' edition of Shakespeare.) He says, 
" Peggy Ramsey is the name of some old song ; " but, as usual, does not cite his 
authority. It is mentioned as a dance tune by Nashe (see the passage quoted at 
p. 116), and in The Shepheard's Holiday 

" Bounce it Mall, I hope thou will, Spaniletto The Venetto ; 

For I know that thou hast skill ; John come hiss me Wilson's Fancy. 

And I am sure thou there shall find But of all there's none so sprightly 
Measures store to please thy mind. To my ear, as Touch me lightly" 

Koundelays Irish hayes ; WiCs Recreations, 1640. 

Cogs and Rongs, and Peggie Ramsy ; 

" Little Pegge of Ramsie " *is one of the tunes in a manuscript by Dr. Bull, which 
formed a part of Dr. Pepusch's, and afterwards of Dr. Kitchener's library. Ramsey, 
in Huntingdonshire, was formerly an important town, and called " Ramsey the 
rich," before the destruction of its abbey. 

Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says, " So long as we are wooers, we 
may kiss at our pleasure, nothing is so sweet, we are in heaven as we think ; but 
when we are once tied, and have lost our liberty, marriage is an hell. * Grive me 
my yellow hose again : ' a mouse in a trap lives as merrily." 
" Give me my yellow hose " is the burden of a ballad called 

" A merry jest of John Tomson, and Jackaman his wife, 
Whose jealousy was justly the cause of all their strife ;" 
to the tune of Pegge of Ramsey ; ^beginning thus 

" When I was a bachelor , I cannot do as I have done, 

I led a merry life, Because I live in fear ; 

But now I am a married man If I go but to Islington, 

And troubled with a wife, My wife is watching there. 

Give me my yellow again, 

Give me my yellow hose, 
For now my wife she watcheth me, 

See yonder where she goes." 
It has been reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 187 (1810.) 

In Wit and Mirth, or Pills to purge Melancholy (1707, iii. 219, or 1719, 
v. 139), there is a song called "Bonny Peggy Ramsey," to the second tune, 
which in earlier copies is called London is a fine town, and Watton Town's Mid. 
The original song, " Oh ! London is a fine town," is probably no longer extant. 
A ballad to be sung to the tune was written on the occasion of James the First's 
visit to Cambridge, in March, 1614 


" Cambridge is a merry town, 

And Oxford is another, 
The King was welcome to the one, 
And fared well at the other," &c. 

See Hawkins' Ignoramus, xxxvi. 
A second with the burden 

" London is a fine town, 

Yet I their cases pity ; 
The Mayor and some few Aldermen 

Have clean undone the city," 

will be found in the King's Pamphlets, British Museum (fol. broadsides, vol. v.). 
It begins, " Why kept your train-bands such a stir," and is dated Aug. 13, 1647. 
(Reprinted in Wright's Political Ballads, for the Percy Society.) 
In Le Prince d> Amour, 12m., 1660, is a third, commencing thus : 
" London is a fine town, and a brave city, 
Governed with scarlet gowns ; give ear unto my ditty : 
And there is a Mayor, which Mayor he is a Lord, 
That governeth the city by righteous record. 
Upon Simon and Jude's day their sails then up they hoist, 
And then he goes to Westminster with all the galley foist. 

London is a fine town," &c. 

A fourth song beginning, " Oh ! London is a fine town," will be found in Pills to 
purge Melancholy, 1707, ii. 40, or 1719, iv. 40 ; and in the same volume another 
to the tune, beginning 

" As I came from Tottingham, Her journey was to London 

Upon a market day, With buttermilk and whey, 

There I met a bonny lass To come down, a down, 

Clothed all in gray. To come down, down, a down-a" 

The burden to this song suggests the possibility of its being the tune of a snatch 
sung by Ophelia in Hamlet 

" You must sing down, a down, 

An you call him a down-a." 

One of D'Urfey's " Scotch" Songs, called TJie G-owlin, in his play of Trick for 
Trick, was also sung to this tune. 

In The Dancing Master, 1665 and after, it is called Walton Town's End ; and 
in the second part of Robin G-oodfellow, 1628, there is a song " to the tune of 
Watton Town's End" beginning 

" It was a country lad, 

That fashions strange would see," &c. 

It is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, 1810, i. 200. Another entitled 
" The common cries of London town, 
Some go up street, some go down," 
is to the tune of Watton Townes End, black-letter, 1662. 

Many others will be found to these tunes, under their various names. 
The following is a verse from the ballad quoted in Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy. It consists of eighteen stanzas, each of eight lines, and a ditty of 
four (" Give me my yellow hose again," &c.). See Evans' Old Ballads. 


Moderate time. 


When I was a Bache-lor, I liv'd a mer-ry life, But now I am a 



mar-ried man, And troubled with a wife, I can - not do as I have done, Be - 

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wife is 





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There are slight differences in the copies of the tune called Watton Town's End 
in The Dancing Master, and Oh ! London is a fine town in Pills to purge Melan- 
choly, and in The Beggars' Opera. The following is The Beggars' Opera version : 

fl)" ff <' ' J / 

1 h- h- 

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Oh ! Lon - don is a fine town, 

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And a gal - lant ci - ty ; 'Tis 

ft iff (* I 2 ^ 

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1 1 1 1 

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govern'd by the scar- let gown, Come lis - ten 

to my dit - ty. This 

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ci - ty has a May - 


or, This May - or is a Lord, He 

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- zens All by 

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Light of Love is so frequently mentioned by writers of the sixteenth century, 
that it is much to be regretted that the words of the original song are still 
undiscovered. When played slowly and with expression the air is beautiful. In 
the collection of Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury, is " A very proper dittie : to 
the tune Lightie Love'," which was printed in 1570. The original may not have 
been quite so " proper," if " Light o'Love " was used in a sense in which it was 
occasionally employed, instead of its more poetical meaning : 

" One of your London Light o' Loves, a right one, 
Come over in thin pumps, and half a petticoat." 

Fletcher's Wild Goose Chase, act iv., sc. 2. 

Or in the passage quoted by Douce : " There be wealthy housewives and good 
housekeepers that use no starch, but fair water ; their linen is as white, and they 
look more Christian-like in small ruffs than Light of Love looks in her great 
starched ruffs, look she never so high, with her eye-lids awry." The Crlasse of 
Man's Follie, 1615. 

Shakespeare alludes twice to the tune. Firstly in TJie Two G-enilemen of Verona, 
act i., sc. 2 

" Julia. Some love of yours hath writ to you in rhime. 
Lucetta. That I might sing it, madam, to a tune : 
Owe me a note : your ladyship can set. 
Jul. As little by such toys as may be possible : 

Best sing it to the tune of Light o'Love. 
Luc. It is too heavy for so light a tune. 
Jul. Heavy ? belike it hath some burden then. 
Luc. Ay ; and melodious were it would you sing it. 
Jul. And why not you ? 
Luc. I cannot reach so high. 
Jul. Let's see your song : How now, minion ? 
Luc. Keep tune there still, so you will sing it out : 

And yet, methinks, I do not like this tune. 
Jul. You do not ? 
Luc. No, madam ; 'tis too sharp. 
Jul. You, minion, are too saucy. 
Luc. Nay, now you are too flat, 

And mar the concord with too harsh a descant : 
There wanteth but a mean to fill your song. 
Jul. The mean is drown'd with your unruly base." 

I have quoted this passage in extenso as bearing upon the state of music at the 
time, beyond the mere mention of the tune. Firstly, when Lucetta says, " Give 
me a note [to sing it to] : your ladyship can set" [a song to music,] it adds one 
more to the many proofs of the superior cultivation of the science in those days. 
We should not now readily attribute to ladies, even to those who are gene- 
rally considered to be well educated and accomplished, enough knowledge of 


harmony to enable them to set a song correctly to music, however agile their 
fingers may be. Secondly 

" It is too heavy for so light a tune, 
Heavy? belike it hath some burden then ! " 

The burden of a song, in the old acceptation of the word, was the base, foot, or 
under-song. It was sung throughout, and not merely at the end of the verse. 
Burden is derived from bourdoun, a drone base (French, bourdon.) 
" This Sompnour bare to him a stiff burdoun, 

Was never trompe of half so gret a soun." Chaucer. 

We find as early as 1250, that Somer is icumen in was sung with a foot, or burden, 
in two parts throughout ( " Sing cuckoo, sing cuckoo " ) ; and in the preceding 
century Giraldus had noticed the peculiarity of the English hi singing under-parts 
to their songs. 

That burden still bore the sense of an under-part or base, and not merely of a 
ditty , a see A Quest of Inquirie, &c., 4to., 1595, where it is compared to the music 
of a tabor : " Good people, beware of wooers' promises, they are like the musique 
of a tabor and pipe: the pipe says golde, giftes, and many gay things; but perform- 
ance is moralized in the tabor, which bears the burden of ' I doubt it, I doubt it.' 
(British Bibliographer, vol. i.) In Fletcher's Humorous Lieutenant, act v., sc. 2, 
" H 'as made a thousand rhymes, sir, and plays the burden to 'em on a Jew's- 
trump" (Jeugd-tromp, the Dutch for a child's horn). So in Much Ado about 
Nothing, in the scene between Hero, Beatrice, and Margaret, the last says, " Clap 
us into Light o^Love, that goes without a burden " [there being no man or men 
on the stage to sing one]. "Do you sing it and I'll dance it." Light o'Love 
was therefore strictly a ballet, to be sung and danced. 

In the interlude of The Four Elements, about 1510, Ignorance says 
" But if thou wilt have a song that is good, 
I have one of Kobin Hood, 
The best that ever was made. 
Humanity. Then i' fellowship, let us hear it. 

Ign. But there is a lordon, thou must bear it, 

Or else it mill not be. 
Hum. Then begin and care not to ... 

Downe, downe, downe, &c. 
Ign. Robin Hood in Barnsdale stood," &c. 

Here Humanity starts with the burden, giving the key for the other to sing in. 
So in old manuscripts, the burden is generally found at the head of the song, and 
not at the end of the first verse. 

Many of these burdens were short proverbial expressions, such as 

" 'Tis merry in hall when beards wag all ; " 

which is mentioned as the " under-song or holding " of one in The Serving-man's 
Comfort, 1598, and the line quoted by Adam Davy, in his Life of Alexander, as 
early as about 1312. Peele, in his Edward I., speaks of it as "the old 

" Ditties, they are the endt of old ballads." Rowley's A Mnlch at Midnight, act iii., sc. 1. 


English proverb ;" but he uses the word " proverb" also in the sense of song, for 
in his Old Wives' Tale, 1595, An tick says, " Let us rehearse the old proverb 
' Three merry men and three merry men, 
And three merry men be we,' " &c. 

Shakespeare puts the following four lines into the mouth of Justice Silence when 
in his cups : " Be merry, be merry, my wife has all, 

For women are shrews, both short and tall ; 
' Tis merry in hall, when beards wag all, 

And welcome merry Shrovetide." 
See also Ben Jonson, v. 235, and note; and vii. 273, Gilford's edit. 

Other burdens were mere nonsense words that went glibly off the tongue, giving 
the accent of the music, such as hey nonny, nonny no ; hey derry down, &c. The 
"foot" of the first song in The pleasant Comedy of Patient Cfrissil is 
" Work apace, apace, apace, apace, 
Honest labour bears a lovely face ; 
Then hey noney, noney ; hey noney, noney." 

I am aware that " Hey down, down, derry down," has been said to be " a modern 
version of ' Hai .down, ir deri danno,' the burden of an old song of the Druids, 
signifying, * Come, let us hasten to the oaken grove' (Jones' Welsh Sards, i. 128) ; 
but I believe this to be mere conjecture, and that it would now be impossible to 
prove that the Druids had such a song. 

The last comment I have to make upon the passage from Shakespeare is on the 
word mean. The mean in music was the intermediate part between the tenor and 
treble ; not the tenor itself, as explained by Steevens. Descant has already been 
explained at p. 15. 

Reverting to Light o'Love : it is also quoted as a tune by Fletcher in The Two 
Noble Kinsmen, The air was found by Sir J. Hawkins in an " ancient manu- 
script ; " it is also contained in "William Ballet's MS. Lute Book, and in Musictfs 
Delight on the Oithren, 1666. 

In the volume of transcripts made by Sir John Hawkins there is a tune entitled 
Fair Maid are you ivalking, the first four bars of which are identical with Light 
o'Love ; and in the Music School, Oxford, one of the manuscripts presented by 
Bishop Fell, with a date 1620, has Light o'Love under the name of Sicke and sicke 
and very sicke; but this must be a mistake, as that ballad could not be sung to it. 
See Captain Car in Ritson's Ancient Songs, 1790, p. 139. 

In A Grorgious G-allery of G-allant Inventions, 1578, the lover exhorteth his 
lady to be constant : to the tune of Attend thee, go play thee ; a and begins with 
the line, " Not Light o'Love, lady." The ballad, " The Banishment of Lord Mal- 
travers and Sir Thomas Gurney," in Deloney's Strange Histories, &c., 1607, and of 
" A song of the wooing of Queen Catherine by Owen Tudor, a young gentleman 
of Wales" are also to the tune of Light o'Love. See Old Ballads, 1727, iii. 32 ; 
or Evans, ii. 356. 

The following is the ballad by Leonard Gybson, a copy of which is in Mr. 
George Daniel's Collection. 

a " Attend thee, go play thee," is a song in A Handefull by Wantonness in the interlude of The Marriage of Wit 
of Pleasant Dfliles. 1584, and is also the tune of one sung and Wisdom. See Shakespeare Society's Reprint, p. 20. 




" Leave lightie love, ladies, for fear of yll name : 

And true love embrace ye, to purchase your fame." 
Very slow and smoothly. 

By force I am fix-ed my fan -cy to write, In- gra-titudewillethme not to re-frain 
Thenblameme not, ladies, although 1 in-dite What lighty love now amongstyou doth reign 

Your tra-ces in places, to outward allurements, Do move my en-deavour to be the more plain: 
Your nicings and 'ticings,with sundry procurements, To publish your lightie love do me constrain. 

r r c 


Deceit is not dainty, it comes at each dish ; 
Fraud goes a fishing with friendly looks ; 
Through friendship is spoiled, the silly poor 


That hover and shower upon your false hooks, 
With bait you lay wait, to catch here and there, 
Which causeth poor fishes their freedom to 

Then lout ye, and flout ye; whereby doth 

Your lighty love, ladies, still cloaked with 

glose. ' 

With Dian so chaste you seem'd to compare, 
When Helens you be, and hang on her train; 
Methinks faithful Thisbes be now very rare, 
But one Cleopatra, I doubt, doth remain. 
You wink, and you twink, until Cupid have 


And forceth through flames your lovers to sue : 
Your lighty love, ladies, too dear they have 

bought, [rue. 

When nothing will move you their causes to 

I speak not for spite, nor do I disdain 
Your beauty, fair ladies, in any respect ; 
But one's ingratitude doth me constrain, 
As child hurt with fire, the flame to neglect. 
For, proving in loving, I find by good trial, 
When Beauty had brought me unto her beck, 
She staying, not weighing, but making denial, 
And shewing her lighty love, gave me the 

* -r 

Thus fraud for friendship did lodge in her 

breast ; 

Such are most women, that when they espy 
Their lovers inflamed, with sorrows opprest, 
They stand then with Cupid against their reply. 
They taunt, and they vaunt, they smile when 

they view 

How Cupid hath caught them under his train ; 
But warned, discerned, the proof is most true, 
That lighty love, ladies, amongst you does 


Ye men that are subject to Cupid his stroke, 
And therein seem now to have your delight, 
Think, when you see bait, there is hidden a 

hook, [bite. 

Which surely will have you, if that you do 
Such wiles, and such guiles by women are 

wraught, [prevent ; 

That half of their mischiefs men cannot 
When they are most pleasant, unto your 

Then nothing but lighty love is their intent. 

Consider that poison doth lurk oftentime 
In shape of sugar, to put some to pain ; 
And fair wordes painted, as dames can define, 
The old proverb saith, doth make some fools 


Be wise and precise, take warning by me, 
Trust not the crocodile, lest you do rue ; 
To women's fair words do never agree, 
For all is but lighfy love; this is most true. 



I touch no such ladies as true love embrace, 

But such as to lighty love daily apply ; 

And none will be grieved, in this kind of 


Save such as are minded true love to deny. 
Yet friendly and kindly I shew you my mind : 
Fair ladies, I wish you to use it no more ; 
But say what you list, thus I have defin'd 
That lighty love, ladies, you ought to abhor. 

To trust women's words, in any respect, 
The danger by me right well it is seen ; 
And Love and his laws, who would not neglect, 
The trial whereof hath most perilous been ? 
Pretending, the ending, if I have offended, 
I crave of you, ladies, an answer again : 
Amend, and what's said shall soon be amended, 
If case that your light love no longer do reign. 


The Fool's song which forms the Epilogue to Twelfth Night is still sung on the 
stage to this tune. It has no other authority than theatrical tradition. A song 
of the same description, and with the same burden, is sung by the Fool in King 
Lear, act iii., sc. 2 

" He that has a little tiny wit, 

With a heigh ho ! the wind and the rain, 
Must make content with his fortunes fit, 

For the rain it raineth every day" 
The following is the song in Twelfth Night : 
In moderate time. 

When that I was a little tiny boy,With a heigh ho! the wind and the rain, A 



fool - ish thing was but a toy, For the rain it rain-eth ev' - ry day, With a. 

heigh ho ! the wind and the rain, And the rain it rain-eth ev' - ry day. 


But when I came to man's estate, But when I came unto my bed, 

With a heigh ho ! &c., With a heigh ho ! &c., 

'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gate, With toss-pots still I'd drunken head, 
For the rain, &c. For the rain, &c. 

But when I came, alas ! to wive, 

With a heigh ho ! &c., 

By swaggering I could never thrive, 
For the rain, &c. 

A great while ago the world begun, 

With a heigh ho ! the wind and the rain ; 

But that is all one, our play is done, 

And we'll strive to please you every day. 




This tune is contained in Anthony Holborne's Oittharn Schoole, 4to., 1597, and 
in one of the Lute MSS. in the Public Library, Cambridge. (D. d. iv. 23.) In 
Much Ado about Nothing, Hero says, " Why, how now ! do you speak in the sick 
tune ?" and Beatrice answers, " I am out of all other tune, methinks." In 
Nashe's Summer's last Will and Testament, Harvest says, " My mates and fellows, 
sing no more Merry, merry, but weep out a lamentable Hooky, hooky, and let your 

sickles cry 

Sick, sick, and very sick, 

And sick and for the time ; 
For Harvest, your master, is 

Abus'd without reason or rhyme." 

On 24th March, 1578, Richard Jones had licensed to him " a ballad intituled 
Sick, sick, &c., and on the following 19th June, " A new songe, intituled 
Sick, sick, in grave I would I mere, 

For grief to see this wicked world, that will not mend, I fear." 
This was probably a moralization of the former. 

In the Harleian Miscellany, 4to, 10. 272, is " A new ballad, declaring the 
dangerous shooting of the gun at the court (1578), to the tune of Sicke and sicke; 

About the river to and fro, 
As much as they could make. 
Weep, weep, still I weep, 
And shall do till I die, 
To think upon the gun was shot 
At court so dangerously." 

The ballad from which the tune derives its name is probably that printed in 
Ritson's Ancient Songs, (1793, p. 139) from a manuscript in the Cotton Library 
(Vespasian, A 25), and entitled Captain Car. The event which gave rise to it 
occurred in the year 1571. The first stanza is here printed to the tune : 

" The seventeenth day of July last, 
At evening toward night, 

Our noble Queen Elizabeth 
Took barge for her delight ; 

And had the watermen to row, 
Her pleasure she might take, 

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It be - fell at 
Sick, sick, and 

Mar - tin-mas, When 
ve - ry sick, And 


weather wax-ed 
sick and like to 

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Cap - tain Car said 
sick - est night that 




his men, We must go take a 
a - bode, Good Lord, have mercy on 




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This is one of Ophelia's songs in Hamlet. It is found in several of the ballad 
operas, such as The Cobblers' Opera (1729), The Quakers' Opera (1728), &c., 
under this name. In Pills to purge Melancholy (1707, ii. 44) it is printed to a 
song in Heywood's Rape of Lucrece, beginning, " Arise, arise, my juggy, my 
puggy." Other versions will be found under the names of " Who list to lead 
a soldier's life," and " Lord Thomas and Fair Ellinor." See pages 144 and 145. 

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Sleeves, or TTAicA nobody can deny, has been a favorite tune, from the 
time of Elizabeth to the present day ; and is still frequently to be heard in the 
streets of London to songs with the old burden, " Which nobody can deny." It 
will also be recognised as the air of Christmas comes but once a year, and many 
another merry ditty. 

"And set our credits to the tune of Greene Sleeves" The Loyal Subject, by 
Beaumont and Fletcher. 

Falstqff. " Let the sky rain potatoes ! let it thunder to the tune of Green Sleeves, 
hail kissing comfits, and snow eringoes, let there come a tempest of provocation, I will 
shelter me here." (Embracing her.) Merry Wives of Windsor, act v., sc. 5. 

" Mrs. Ford. " I shall think the worse of fat men, as long as I have an eye to 
make difference of men's liking. And yet he would not swear; praised women's 
modesty; and gave such orderly and well-behaved reproof to all uncomeliness, that 
I would have sworn his disposition would have gone to the truth of his words : but 
they do no more adhere and keep pace together, than the Hundredth Psalm to the 
tune of Green Sleeves" Merry Wives of Windsor, act ii., sc. 1. 

The earliest mention of the ballad of Green Sleeves in the Registers of the 
Stationers' Company is in September, 1580, when Richard Jones had licensed to 
him, " A new Northern Dittye of the Lady Greene Sleeves" The date of the 
entry, however, is not always the date of the ballad ; and this had evidently 
attained some popularity before that time, because on the same day Edward 


White had a license to print, "A ballad, being the Ladie Greene Sleeves Ansivere 
to Donkyn his frende." Also Edward Guilpin in his Skialethia, or a Shadow of 
Truth, 1598, says : " Yet like th' olde ballad of tbe Lord of Lome, 

Whose last line* in King Harries days was borne." 

As the ballad of TJie Lord of Lome and the False Steward, which was entered on 
the 6th October, 1580, was sung to the tune of Green Sleeves, it would appear that 
Gf-reen Sleeves must be a tune of Henry's reign. Copies of The Lord of Lome are in 
the Pepys Collection (i. 494), and the Roxburghe (i. 222). 

Within twelve days of the first entry of Green Sleeves it was converted to a 
pious use, and we have, " Greene Sieves moralised to the Scripture, declaring the 
manifold benefites and blessings of God bestowed on sinful man ; " and on the 
fifteenth day Edward White had " tollerated unto him by Mr. Watkins, a 
ballad intituled Greene Sleeves and Countenance, in Countenance is Greene 
Sleeves." By the expression " tolerated" instead of " licensed," we may infer 
it to have been of questionable propriety. 

Great, therefore, was the popularity of the ballad immediately after its publica- 
tion, and this may be attributed rather to the merry swing of the tune, than to the 
words, which are neither remarkable for novelty of subject, nor for its treatment. 

An attempt was speedily made to improve upon them, or to supply others of 
more attractive character, for in December of the same year, Jones, the original 
publisher, had " tolerated to him A merry newe Northern Songe of Greene 
Sleeves" beginning, The bonniest lass in all the land. This was probably the ballad 
that excited William Elderton to write his "Reprehension against Greene Sleeves" 
in the following February, for there appears nothing in the original song to have 
caused it. The seventh entry within the year was on the 24th of August, 1581, 
when Edward White had licensed " a ballad intituled 
" Greene Sleeves is worne awaie, 
Yellow Sleeves come to decaie. 
Blacke Sleeves I holde in despite, 
But White Sleeves is my delight." 

Nashe, speaking of Barnes' Divine Centurie of Sonets, says they are " such 
another device as the goodly ballet of John Careless, or the song of Green Sleeves 
Moralized." Fletcher says, " And, by my Lady Greensleeves, am I grown so 
tame after all my triumphs ? " and Dr. Rainoldes, in his Overthrow of Stage 
Plays, 1599, says, "Now if this were lawfully done because he did it, then 
William, Bishop of Ely, who, to save his honour and wealth, became a Green 
Sleeves, going in women's raiment from Dover Castle to the sea-side, did therein 
like a man ; although the women of Dover, when they found it out, by plucking 
down his muffler and seeing his new shaven beard, called him a monster for it." 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Collection, and in that of the Society of Antiquaries, 
are copies of " A Warning to false Traitors, by example of fourteen ; whereof six 
were executed in divers places neere about London, and two near Braintford, the 

The last lines of the Lord of Lome are For God may suffer for a time. 

" Let Rebels therefore warned be, But will disclose it at the end." 

How mischief once they do pretend ; Perhaps Guilpin may mean that this formed part of an 

older balled. 



28th day of August, 1588 ; also at Tyborne were executed the 30th day six ; 
viz., five men and one woman : to the tune of Gf-reen Sleeves" beginning 
" You traitors all that do devise 
To hurt our Qneen in treacherous wise, 
And in your hearts do still surmise 
Which way to hurt our England; 
Consider what the end will be 
Of traitors all in their degree : 
Hanging is still their destiny 

That trouble the peace of England." 

The conspirators were treated with very little consideration by the ballad- 
monger in having their exit chaunted to a merry tune, instead of the usual 
lamentation, to the hanging-tune of Fortune my foe. 

Elderton's ballad, The King of Scots and Andrew Brown, was to be sung to 
the tune of Mill-field, or else to Cf-reen Sleeves (see p. 185), but the measure suits 
the former and not the latter. However, his " New Yorkshire Song, intituled 
" Yorke, Yorke, for my monie, 
Of all the cities that ever I see, 
For merry pastime and companie, 

Except the cittie of London ; " 

which is dated " from Yorke, by W. E., and imprinted at London by Richard 
Jones," in 1584, goes so trippingly to Gf-reen Sleeves, that, although no tune is 
mentioned on the title, I feel but little doubt of its having been intended for that 
air. It was written during the height of its popularity, and not long after his 
own " Reprehension." 

The song of York for my money is on a match at archery between the York- 
shire and the Cumberland men, backed by the Earls of Essex and Cumberland, 
which Elderton went to see, and was delighted with the city and with his 
reception ; especially by the hospitality of Alderman Maltby of York. 

Copies will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 1, and Evans' Old Ballads, 
i. 20,. It begins, " As I come thorow the North countrey," and is refered to in 
Heywood's King Edward IV., 1600. 

In Mr. Payne Collier's Old Ballads, printed for the Percy Society, there is one 
of Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury Fort (written shortly anterior to the destruction of 
the Spanish Armada) to the tune of Triumph and Joy. The name of the air is 
probably derived from a ballad which was entered on the Stationers' books in 
1581, of " The Triumpe shewed before the Queene and the French Embassadors," 
who preceded the arrival of the Duke of Anjou, and for whose entertainment 
jousts and triumphs were held. The tune for this ballad is not named in the 
entry at Stationers' Hall, but if a copy should be found, I imagine it will prove 
also to have been written to Cf-reen Sleeves, from the metre, and the date 
coinciding with the period of its great popularity. 

Richard Jones, to whom Green Sleeves was first licensed, was also the printer 
of A Handefull of Pleasant D elites, 1584, in which a copy of the ballad will be 
found. Also in Ellis' Specimens, ii. 394, (1803). A few verses are subjoined, 



as affording an insight into the dress and manners of an age with which we cannot 
be too well acquainted. 

The tune is contained in several of Dowland's lute manuscripts ; in William 
Ballet's Lute Book ; in Sir John Hawkins' transcripts of virginal music ; in The 
Dancing Master ; The Beggar's Opera ; and in many other books. 

As the second part differs in the oldest copies, from others of later date, both 
versions are subjoined. 

The first is from William .Ballet's Lute Book compared with another in Sir 
John Hawkins' transcripts of virginal music ; both having the older second part. 

Smoothly and in moderate time. TUNE OF GREEN SLEEVES. OLDEST COPY. 


A - las ! my love, you do me wrong, To cast me off dis - 



-courteously, And I have lov - ed you so long, De - light-ing in your 




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Green - sleeves was all my joy, . 

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. . Green - sleeves was my delight, 

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J Green - sleeves was my heart of gold, And who but my La - dy 



I have been ready at your hand 

To grant whatever you would crave, 

I have both waged life and land, 
Your love and good-will for to have. 
Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 


I bought thee kerchers to thy head, 
That were wrought fine and gallantly, 

I kept thee booth at board and bed, 
Which cost my purse well favoredly. 
Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 


I bought thee petticoats of the best, Thy smock of silk, both fair and white, 

The cloth so fine as might be ; With gold embroidered gargeously ; 

I gave thee jewels for thy chest, Thy petticoat of sendal right, [thin silk] 

And all this cost I spent on thee. And these I bought thee gladly. 

Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 

He then describes her girdle of gold, her purse, the crimson stockings all of silk, 
the pumps as white as milk, the gown of grassy green, the satin sleeves, the 
gold-fringed garters ; all of which he gave her, together with his gayest gelding, 
and his men decked all in green to wait upon her : 

They set thee up, they took thee down, 

They serv'd thee with humility ; 
Thy foot might not once touch the ground, 
And yet thou wouldst not love me. 
Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 

She could desire no earthly thing without being gratified : 

Well I will pray to God on high, Greensleeves, now farewell ! adieu ! 

That thou my constancy mayst see, God I pray to prosper thee ! 

And that yet once before I die For I am still thy lover true, 

Thou wilt vouchsafe to love me. Come once again and love me. 

Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. Greensleeves was all my joy, &c. 

At the Revolution Gfreen Sleeves became one of the party tunes of the Cavaliers ; 
and in the " Collection of Loyal Songs written against the Rump Parliament," 
there are no less than fourteen to be sung to it. It is sometimes referred to under 
the name of The Blacksmith, from a song (in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 250) 
to the tune of Green Sleeves, beginning 

" Of all the trades that ever I see 
There is none with the blacksmith's compared may be, 
For with so many several tools works he, 

Which nobody can deny" 

Pepys, in his diary, 22nd April, 1660, says that, after playing at nine-pins, 
" my lord fell to singing a song upon the Rump, to the tune of The Blacksmith" 
It was also called The Brewer, or Old Noll, the Brewer of Huntingdon, from a 
satirical song about Oliver Cromwell, which is to be found in The Antidote to 
Melancholy, 1661, entitled "The Brewer, a ballad made in the year 1657, to the 
tune of The Blacksmith ; " also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 1661. 

In Tlie Dancing Master, 1686, the tune first appears under the name of Grreen 
Sleeves and Pudding Pies ; and in some of the latest editions it is called Grreen 
Sleeves and Yellow Lace. Percy says, " It is a received tradition in Scotland that 

%J V / 

G-reen Sleeves and Pudding Pies was designed to ridicule the Popish clergy," but 
the tradition most probably refers to a song of James the Second's time called 
At Rome there is a terrible rout,* which was sung to the tune, and attained some 
popularity, since in the ballad-opera of Silvia, or The Country Burial, 1731, 
it appears under that name. Boswell, in his Journal, 8vo., 785, p. 319, prints 
the following Jacobite song : 

a This is entitled " Father Peters' Policy discovered; or "In Rome there is a most fearful rout ; 

the Prince of Wales proved a Popish Perkin." London: And what do you think it is about ? 

printed for K. M., ten stanzas, of which the following is Because the birth of the babe's come out, 

the first : Sing Lullaby Baby, by, by, by." 


" Green Sleeves and Pudding Pies, May our affairs abroad succeed, 

Tell me where my mistress lies, And may our King come home with speed, 

And I'll be with her before she rise, And all Pretenders shake for speed, 

Fiddle and aw together. And let his health go round. 

To all our injured friends in need, 
This side and beyond the Tweed, 
Let all Pretenders shake for dread, 
And let his health go round." 

There is no apparent connection between the subject of the first and that of the 
remaining stanzas ; and although the first may have been the burden of an older 
song, it bears no indication of having refered to the clergy of any denomination. 

There is scarcely a collection of old English songs in which at least one may 
not be found to the tune of Crreen Sleeves. In the West of England it is still 
sung at harvest-homes to a song beginning, " A pie sat on a pear-tree top; " and 
at the Maypole still remaining at Ansty, near Blandford, the villagers still dance 
annually round it to this tune. 

The following " Carol for New Year's Day, to the tune of Green Sleeves" is 
from a black-letter collection printed in 1642, of which the only copy I have seen 
is in the Ashmolean Library, Oxford. 

The old year now away is fled, I thank m ? master and m ? dame ' 

The new year it is entered ; The which are founde of th same, 

Then let us now our sins down tread, To eat to drink now is no 8hame ~ 


And joyfully all appear. God 8eud us a merr y new 

Let's merry be this holiday, Come lads and lasses every one, 

And let us run with sport and play, Jack, Tom, Dick, Bess, Mary, and Joan, 

Hang sorrow, let's cast care away Let's cut the meat unto the bone, 

God send you a happy ne\v year. For welcome you need not fear. 

And here for good liquor we shall not lack, 

And now with new year's gifts each friend It win whet my brains and 8trengthen 
Unto each other they do send ; ^ack 

God grant we may our lives amend, This joll'y good cheer it must goto wrack- 

And that the truth may appear. God Bend w ft merry new year> 

Now like the snake cast off your skin 

Of evil thoughts and wicked sin, Come, give us more liquor when I do call, 

And to amend this new year begin I>U drink to each one in this hall > 

God send us a merry new year. I h P e that 80 loud J must not baw1 ' 

But unto me lend an ear. 

And now let all the company Good fortune to my master send, 

In friendly manner all agree, And to my dame which is our friend, 

For we are here welcome all may see God bless us all, and so I end 

Unto this jolly good cheer. And God send us a happy new year. 

The following version of the tune, from The Beggars' Opera, 1728, is that 
now best known. I have not found any lute or virginal copy which had this 
second part. The earliest authority for it is The Dancing Master, 1686, and it 
may have been altered to suit the violin, as the older second part is rather low, 
and less effective, for the instrument. 



I have selected a few lines from a political song called T/te Trimmer, to print 
with this copy, because it has the burden, " Which nobody can deny." It is one 
of the many songs to the tune in Pills to purge Melancholy. 


Pray lend me your ear, if you've a - ny to spare, You that love Common-wealth as you 

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hate Common Prayer,That can in a breath pray, dissemble and swear, "Which nobody can de - ^ 


I'm firston the wrong side, and then on the right, To-day I'm a Jack, and to - morrow a Mite, I for 

ei-ther will pray, but for nei-therwill fight, Which no - body can de - ny. 


This is contained in Anthony Holborne's Cittharn Schoole, 1597 ; in Queen 
Elizabeth's Virginal Book ; in William Ballet's Lute Book ; and in many other 
manuscripts and printed books. 

There are two copies in William Ballet's Lute Book, and the second is entitled 
" Robin Hood is to the greenwood gone;" it is, therefore, probably the tune of a 
ballad of Robin Hood, now lost. 

Ophelia sings a line of it in Hamlet 

" For bonny sweet Robin is all my joy ; " 

and in Fletcher's Two Noble Kinsmen, the jailer's daughter, being mad, says, 
" I can sing twenty more ... I can sing The Broom and Bonny Robin." In 
Robinson's Schoole of Musicke (1603), and in one of Dowland's Lute Manuscripts, 



(D. d., 2. 11, Cambridge), it is entitled, "Robin is to the greenwood gone; in 
Addit. MSS. 17,786 (Brit. Mus.), " My Robin," &c. 

A ballad of " A dolefull adieu to the last Erie of Darby, to the tune of Bonny 
sweet Robin" was entered at Stationers' Hall to John Danter on the 26th April, 
1593 ; and in the Crown Garland of Golden Roses is " A courtly new ballad of 
the princely wooing of the fair Maid of London by King Edward ; " as well as 
" The fair Maid of London's answer," to the same tune. The two last were also 
printed in black-letter by Henry Gosson, and are reprinted in Evans' Old 
Ballads, iii. 8. 

In " Good and true, fresh and new Christmas Carols," B.L., 1642, there is a 
" Carol for St. Stephen's day : tune of Bonny sweet Robin" beginning 
" Come, mad boys, be glad, boys, for Christmas is here, 
And we shall be feasted with, jolly good cheer," &c. 

-v dlowly and 

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In act iv., sc. 3, of Shakespeare's Winter's Tale, the servant says of Autolycus, 
" He hath songs for man or woman, of all sizes ; no milliner can so fit his 
customers with gloves: he has the prettiest love-songs for maids; . . . with such 
delicate burdens of dildos and. fadings " 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 12, there is a ballad by L. P. (Laurence Price?), 
entitled " The Batchelor's Feast ; or 

The difference betwixt a single life and a double ; 
Betwixt the batchelor's pleasure and the married man's trouble. 
To a pleasant new tune, called With a hie dildo dilL" It begins thus : 
" As I walkt forth of late, where grass and flowers spring, 
I heard a batchelor within an harbour sing. 
The tenor of his song contain'd much melodic : 
It is a gallant thing to live in liberty. 

With a hie, dildo, dill, 

Hie do, dil dur lie ; 

It is a delightful thing 

To live at liberty." 
There are six stanzas ; and six more in a second part (at p. 17 of the same 



volume), "printed at London for I. W." (either I. Wright or I. White, who were 
both ballad printers of the reigns of James I. and Charles I.) 

In Choice Drollery, 1656, p. 31, is another, which would require a different 
tune, commencing " A story strange I will you tell, 

But not so strange as true, 
Of a woman that danc'd upon the rope, 

And so did her husband too. 
With a dildo, dildo, dildo, 
With a dildo, dildo dee" 

In the Pepys Collection of Ballads, i. 224, is one by Robert Guy, printed for 
H. Gosson, and with the following title : 

" The Merry Forester. 

Young men and maids, in country or in city 
I crave your aids with me to tune this ditty ; 
Both new and true it is, no harm in this is, 
But is composed of the word call'd kisses ; 
Yet meant by none, abroad loves to be gadding : 
It goes unto the tune of With afadding." 
The first line is " Of late I chanc'd to be where I," &c. 

Another song, which has the burden " with a fading," will be found in 
Shirley's Bird in a Cage, act iv., sc. 1 (1633). A third in Sportive Wit, &c., 
1656, p. 58. The last is also printed in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 99 (1707), 
with the tune, of which there are other copies in the same work. 

There are also ballads to it, under the name of An Orange, and With a 
Pudding. See Roxburghe Collection, ii. 16 ; Pills to purge Melancholy, i. 90 
(1707), &c. 

The Fading is the name of an Irish dance, but With a fading (or /adding) 
seems to be used as a nonsense-burden, like Derry down, Hey nonny, nonny no, &c. 

-' trippingly ana in moaerate time. 

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The cour - tiers scorn us 

coun-try clowns ; We coun - try clowns do 

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scorn the court, For we are as mer-ry up - on the downs As you are at 

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your sport. With a 

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You hawk, you hunt, you lie upon pallets, 
You eat, you drink (t" e Lord knows how !) ; 

We sit upon hillocks, and pick up our sallets, 
And drink up a syllabub under a cow. 

With a fading. 

Your masks are made for knights and lords, 

And ladies that go fine and gay ; 
We dance to such music the bagpipe affords, 

And trick up our lasses as well as we may. 
With a fading. 

Your clothes are made of silk and satin, 
And ours are made of good sheep's gray; 

You mix your discourse with pieces of Latin, 
We speak our English as well as we may. 
With a fading. 

You dance Corants and the French Braul, 
We jig the Morris upon the green, 

And make as good sport in a country hall, 
As you do before the King and the Queen. 
With a fading. 


The late W. Linley (an accomplished amateur, and brother of the highly-gifted 
Mrs. Sheridan) collected and published " the wild and pathetic melodies of 
Ophelia, as he remembered them to have been exquisitely sung by Mrs. Forster, 
when she was Miss Field, and belonged to Drury Lane Theatre;" and he says, 
" the impression remained too strong on his mind to make him doubt the 
correctness of the airs, agreeably to her delivery of them." Dr. Arnold also 
noted them down from the singing of Mrs. Jordan, and Mr. Ayr ton has followed 
that version in his Annotations to Knight's Pictorial Edition of Shakespeare. 
The notes of this air are the same in both ; but in the former it is in | time, 
in the latter in common time. The melody is printed in common time in 
The Beggars' Opera (1728) to " You'll think, ere many days ensue," and in 
The Generous Freemason, 1731. 

Dr. Percy selected some of the fragments of ancient ballads which are 
dispersed through Shakespeare's plays, and especially those sung by Ophelia in 
Samlet, and connected them by a few supplemental stanzas into his charming 
ballad, The Friar of Orders Gray, the first line of which is taken from one, sung 
by Petruchio, in The Taming of the Shrew. 

The following is the tune; but in singing Ophelia's fragments, each line should 
begin on the first of the bar, and not with the note before it. In the ballad- 
operas it has the burden, Twang, lang, dildo dee at the end, with two additional 
bars of music, the same as to The Knight and Shepherd's Daughter. See p. 127. 

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And how should I your 
How should I 

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true - love know From 

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many an - o - ther 
From an - o - ther 

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his coc - kle 

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hat and staff, And by 

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He is dead and gone, lady, 
He is dead and gone ; 

At his head a green grass turf, 
At his heels a stone. 

White his shroud as mountain snow, 
Larded with sweet flowers, 

Which bewept to the grave did go 
With true love showers. 



A parody on this song seems to be intended in Rowley's A Match at Midnight, 
1633, where the Welshman sings 

" Did hur not see hur true love-a 

As hur come from London ? " &c. 


This fragment, sung by Ophelia, was also noted down by W. Linley. It 
appears to be a portion of the tune entitled The Merry Milkmaids in The Dancing 
Master, 1650, and The Milkmaids' Dumps in several ballads. The following lines 
in Eastward Roe, 1605, resemble, and are probably a parody on, Ophelia's song: 

" His head as white as milk, 

All flaxen was his hair ; 

But now he is dead, 

And lain in his bed, 

And never will come again." Dodsley, iv., 223. 
Very slowly and ad libitum. 

And will he not come a - gain, And will he not come a - gain? No, 

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His beard was white as snow, 
All flaxen was his hair, 

He is gone, he is gone, 

And we cast away moan ; 
God 'a mercy on his soul. 


In the second part of Shakespeare's King Henry IV., act ii., sc. 4, Pistol 
snatching up his sword, exclaims 

" What ! shall we have incision ? shall we imbrue ? 

Then death rock me asleep, abridge my doleful days ! " 

This is in allusion to the following song, which is supposed to have been written 
by Anne Boleyn. The words were printed by Sir John Hawkins in his History 
of Music, having been " communicated to him by a very judicious antiquary," 
then " lately deceased," whose opinion was that they were written either by, or in 
the person of, Anne Boleyn; "a conjecture," he adds, "which her unfortunate 
history renders very probable." On this Ritson remarks, " It is, however, but a 
conjecture: any other state prisoner of that period having an equal claim. 



George, Viscount Rochford, brother to the above lady, and who suffered on her 
account, ' hath the fame,' according to Wood, ' of being the author of several 
poems, songs, and sonnets, with other things of the like nature,' and to him he 
(Ritson) is willing to refer them." (Ancient Songs, 1790, p. 120.) 

The first stanza of the words, with the tune, is contained in a manuscript of 
the latter part of Henry's reign, formerly in the possession of Stafford Smith, 
and now in that of Dr. Rimbault. It is a single-voice part, in the diamond-headed 
note, and without accompaniment. Another copy, with an accompaniment for the 
lute, will be found in Addit. MSS. 4900, British Museum. 

Moderate time, and like recitative. 

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O Death ! O Death, rock me a - sleep ! Bring me to qui - et 

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rest : Let pass my wea-ry, guiltless life Out of my careful breast. 

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Toll on the pass - ing bell, Ring out my dole - ful knell, Let thy 

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sound my death tell. 

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is no re -me - dy, no re - me - dy, There is no re-me-dy 




My pains who can express ? 

Alas ! they are so strong ; 
My dolour will not suffer strength 

My life for to prolong. 
Toll on, &c. 

Alone in prison strong 

I wail my destiny ; 
Woe worth this cruel hap that I 

Should taste this misery. 
Toll on, &c. 

Farewell my pleasures past, 

Welcome my present pain ; 
I feel my torments so increase, 

That life cannot remain. 
Cease now the passing bell, 
Rung is my doleful knell, 
For the sound my death doth tell. 
Death doth draw nigh, 
Sound my end dolefully, 
For now I die. 


The following lines are sung by Rosaline and Boyet in act iv., sc. 1, of Love's 
Labour Lost. The tune was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault from one of the MSS. 
presented by Bishop Fell to the Music School at Oxford, and bearing a date of 
1620. Canst thou not hit it is mentioned as a dance in the play of Wily Beguiled, 
written in the reign of Elizabeth. In 1579, " a ballat intytuled There is better 
game, if you could hit it" was licensed to Hughe Jaxon. 
Trippingly and moderately fast. 

ROSALINE. Thou canst not hit it, hit it, hit it, Thou canst not hit it, my good man. 

* ^ *- t?~* 

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. can - not, can - not, An I 

can - not, an - o - ther can. 

The list of music illustrating Shakespeare might be largely increased, by 
including in it catches, part-music, and the works of known composers, which do 
not fall within the scope of the present collection. The admirers of Shakespeare 
will be gratified to know that a work is in progress which will include not only 
those, but also such of the original music to his dramas as can still be found.* 

The three following ballads, with which I close the reign of Elizabeth, were 
popular in the time of Shakespeare, but are not mentioned by the great poet. 

This work (to which Dr. Rimbault has devoted many 
years of zealous research) will be entitled " A Collection 
of Ancient Music, illustrating the plays and poems of 
Shakespeare." The first portion will contain all that now 
remains of the original music to his dramas, or which, if 
not composed for the first representation of them, was 
written during the life-time of the poet. The whole of 

the music of The Tempest will be included in this part. 
Another division will contain the old songs, ballads, 
catches, &c., inserted, or alluded to, by Shakespeare. The 
dances will form the third part. It was owing to re- 
searches on a subject so much akin to that of the present 
Collection, that Dr. Rimbault's aid lias been so peculiarly 
valuable in this work. 




In the instrumental arrangements of this tune it is usually entitled Bar a 
Faustus (or Barrow Foster's) Dream ; and when found as a song, it is generally 
as, " Come, sweet love, let sorrow cease." 

It will be found under the former name in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book 
(twice); in Rossiter's Lessons for Consort, 1609 ; and in Nederlandtsche Gedenck- 
Clanck, 1626, under the latter in "Airs and Sonnets," MS., Trin. Col., Dublin 
(F. v. 13) ; in the MS. containing "It was a lover and his lass," described at 
p. 204 ; and in Forbes' Cantus, 1682. 

Bara Faustus* Dreame was one of the tunes chosen for the Psalmes or Songs 
of Sion, &c., 1642. 

Smoothly, and with expression. 


Come sweet Love, let sor-row cease, Banish frowns, leave off dis-sen-tion. 

1 r\ i 




T i.i rr i- i- Sunshine follows 

Love s war makes the sweetest peace, Hearts u-ni-tmg by contention, . . 



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af-ter rain, Sor-rows ceas-ing, This is pleasing, All proves fair a - gain. 

cometh joy, Trust me, prove me, try me, love me, This will care an - noy. 


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Dekker, in his Knights Conjuring (1607) thus apostrophises his opponent : 
" Thou, most clear-throated singing man, with thy harp, to the twinkling of 
which inferior spirits skipp'd like goats over the Welsh mountains, hadst privilege 
(because thou wert a fiddler) to be saucy ? Inspire me with thy cunning, and 
guide me in true fingering, that I may strike those tunes which thou playd'st ! 
Lucifer himself danced a Lancashire Hornpipe whilst thou wert there. If I can 
but harp upon thy string, he shall now, for my pleasure, tickle up The Spanish 
Pavan" The tune of The Spanish Pavan was very popular in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James. One of the songs in Anthony Munday's Banquet of 



Daintie Conceits, 1588, is "to the note of The Spanish Pavin-," another in 
part ii. of Robin Gt-oodfellow, 1628 ; and there are many in the Pepys and Rox- 
burghe Collections of Ballads. 

It is mentioned as a dance in act iv., sc. 2, of Middleton's Blurt, Master Con- 
stalk, 1602 ; and in act i., sc. 2, of Ford's 'Tis Pity, 1633. In the former the 
tune is played for Lazarillo to dance The Spanish Pavan. The figure, which 
differed from other Pavans, is described in Thoinot Arbeau's Orchesographie, 1589; 
but as the tune there printed is wholly different from the following (which is 
found in Queen Elizabeth's Virginal Book, William Ballet's Lute Book, Sir 
J. Hawkins' transcripts of Virginal Music, &c.), I suppose this to be English, 
although not a characteristic air. 

The ballad, " When Samson was a tall young man," (of which the first stanza 
is here printed) is in the Pepys Collection, i. 32 ; in the Roxburghe, i. 366 ; and 
in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 283 (1810). a It is parodied in Eastward Hoe, the joint 
production of Ben Jonson, Marston, and Chapman, act ii., sc. 1. The two first 
lines are the same in the parody and the ballad. 

-^ Moderat 

, b 

X\) t l i 

e time. 

J J J I : 

~1 i i r~ 


i i i 

(qr < 


-* 5 

,T T 

Sam - son was a 


LH J J nJ \v < i * i 
* -T i 

tall young man, His pow'r and strength in - 

P < > 





-r-J i 




Y-. r 



J i 



i c 

1 1 

-hi I*' 

-I J 

-creas-ed then, And in the host and tribe of Dan, 


The Lord did bless him al - way. 




-ep- -= 

1 a 






J > 1 * 4 

-* J J J- 

~d 1 1 ' 



T =f 

:han-ced so up 

' ! -^ ^1 ' 
on a day, As 

he was walking 

on his way, He 



sa 1 



-& S 

1 & 

~ a 



saw a maiden fresh and gay, In Tim-nath, in Tim - nath. 


a The copies in the Pepys and Roxburghe Collections 
differ. The former has no printer's name; the latter 

(which is followed by Evans) was printed " for the 
assigns of T. Symcocke." 




The tune from William Ballet's Lute Book. In Middleton's Your five Gallants, 
Jack says, " This will make my master leap out of the bed for joy, and dance 
Wigmore* s G-alliard in his shirt about his chamber !" It is frequently mentioned 
by other early writers, and there are many ballads to the tune. Among them 
are " A most excellent new Dittie, wherein is shewed the wise sayings and wise 
sentences of Solomon, wherein each estate is taught his dutie, with singular 
counsell to his comfort and consolation " (a copy in the collection of the late 
Mr. W. H. Miller, from Heber's Library). " A most famous Dittie of the joyful 
receiving of the Queen's most excellent Majestic by the worthie citizens of 
London, the 12th day of November, 1584, at her Grace's coming to St. James' " 
(a copy in the Collection of Mr. George Daniel). In the Pepys Collection, i. 455, 
is "A most excellent Ditty called Collin's Conceit," beginning 

" Conceits of sundry sorts there are." 

Others are in the second volume of the Pepys Collection ; in the Roxburghe ; in 
Anthony Munday's Banquet of Daintie Conceits ; in Deloney's Strange Histories, 
1607, &c. 

The following stanza is from the ballad of " King Henry the Second crowning 
his son Henry, in his life-time," &c., by Deloney. The entire ballad is reprinted 
by Evans (ii. 63), from The Garland of Delight, but he omits the name of the tune. 


You pa - rents, whose af - fee - turn fond Up - on 



> 4 




& ~d~ 

^ f 

chil - dren doth ap - pear, Mark well the sto - ry now in 


^ ? 


I | _L, -V 1 

n i 



5 -a = 


here - in yo 


1 1 

shall grej 

r i - 



mat - ters 

hear. . 


1 i 






The following ballad is from a copy (probably unique) in the Collection of 
Mr. George Daniel, of Canonbury. It may be sang to several of the foregoing 
airs, but the name of the proper tune is not given on the copy. 



Good fellows must go learn to dance, 

The bridal is full near- a, 
There is a Braule come out of France, 

The trick'st you heard this year-a ; 
For I must leap, and thou must hop, 

And we must turn all three -a, 
The fourth must bounce it like a top, 

And so we shall agree -a; 
I pray thee, Minstrel, make no stop, 

For we will merry be-a. 

The bridegroom would give 20 pound 

The marriage-day were past-a ; 
You know while lovers are unbound, 

The knot is slipp'ry fast-a. 
A better man may come in place, 

And take the bride away-a; 
God send or Wilkin better grace, 

Our pretty Tom doth say-a; 
Good Vicar, axe the banns apace, 

And haste the marriage-day-a. 



A baud of bells in bawdrick wise 

Would deck us in our kind-a ; 
A shirt after the Morris guise, 

To flounce it in the wind-a ; 
A Whiffler for to make the way, 

And May brought in with all -a, 
Is braver than the sun, I say, 

And passeth Round or Braule-a, 
For we will trip so trick and gay, 

That we will pass them all-a. 

Draw to dancing, neighbours all, 

Good fellows, hip is best-a ; 
It skills not if we take a fall, 

In honoring this feast-a. 
The bride will thank us for our glee, 

The world will us behold-a ; 
where shall all this dancing be ? 

In Kent or in Cotswold-a ? 
Our lord doth know, then axe not me, 

And so my tale is told-a. 

Imprinted at London in Flete Strete at the signe of the Faucon, by Wylliam 
Gryffith, and are to be solde at his shoppe in S. Dunstones Church Yearde, 1569. 




THE most distinguishing feature of chamber music, in the reign of James I., 
from that of his predecessor, was the rapidly-increasing cultivation of instrumental 
music, especially of such as could be played in concert ; and, coevally, the in- 
cipient decline of the more learned, but less melodious descriptions of vocal music, 
such as madrigals and motets. 

During the greater part of the reign of Elizabeth, vocal music held an almost 
undivided sway, and the practice of instrumental music, in private life, was 
generally confined to solo performances, and to accompaniments for the voice. 

The change of fashion, so far as I have been able to trace it, may be dated from 
1599, in which year Morley printed a " First Booke of Consorte Lessons, made 
by divers exquisite authors," for six instruments to play together ; and Anthony 
Holborne a collection of " Pavans, Galliards, Almaines, and other short airs, both 
grave and light, in five parts." Morley's publication consisted of favorite 
subjects arranged for the Treble Lute, the Pandora,* the Cittern, the (English) 
Flute, b and the Treble and Bass Viols. Holborne's was for Viols, for Violins, 
or for wind-instruments. 

I know of no set of Madrigals printed during the reign of Elizabeth, which is 
described on the title-page as "apt for Viols and Voices" it was fully under- 
stood that they were for voices only; but, from 1603, when James ascended the 
throne, that mode of describing them, became so general, that I have found but 
two sets printed without it. d 

There was a foreign instrument of the lute descrip- 
tion, with a great number of strings, called the Pandura, 
but I imagine the English Pandora to be the same instru- 
ment as the .Bandora. In Thomas Robinson's "School 
of Musicke, the perfect fingering of the Lute, Pandora, 
Orpharion and Viol da Gamba" the music is noted on ix 
lines, for an instrument of six strings like the Lute. In 
1613, Drayton and Sir William Leighton severally enu- 
merated the instruments in use in England. Drayton 
names the " Pandore" among instruments strung with 
wire. Sir William Leighton speaks of the "Bandore," 
but neither of both. In 1609, Philip Rosseter printed a 
set of " Lessons for Consort," like Morley's, and for the 
same six instruments, if the Bandora be not an ex- 
ception. It was a large instrument of the lute kind, 
with the same number of strings (but in all probability of 
wire), and invented in 1562 by John Rose, citizen of 
London, dwelling in Bridewell. It was much used in 
this reign, especially with the Cittern, to which it formed 
the appropriate base. 

b The English flute, described by Mersenne as the 
Fistula fluids, sen Anglica, and by some as the Flute 
it bee, has eight holes for the fingers, and a mouth-piece 
at the end like a flageolet. Of the eight holes, six are in 
a row in front, one at the end for the little finger 
( added afterwards ), and one at the back for the 
thumb. The tone is soft, rich, and melodious, but less 
brilliant than the present flute. The ordinary length is 

rather more than two feet. I had three or four of differ- 
ent sizes, the largest exceeding four feet in length. The 
base flute must have been still longer. The modern 
flute is blown like the old fife ; or as in the ancient 
sculpture of The Piping Fawn. 

Under the name of "Violins " the four different sizes 
of the instrument are here comprehended. The word 
Violoncello is of comparatively modern use. In Ben 
Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, we find, "A set of these 
Violins I would buy, too, for a delicate young noise" (i.e., 
company of young musicians) "I have in the country; 
they are every one a size les than another; just like your 
fiddles." Act iii., sc. 1. Charles the Second's famous 
band of " four-and-twenty fiddlers, all in a row," con- 
sisted of six violins, six counter-tenors, six tenors, 
and six bases. The counter-tenor violin has become ob- 
solete, because all the notes of its scale could be played 
upon the violin or tenor. 

d The exceptions are Bateson's First Set of Madrigals, 
1604, and Pilkington's First Set, 1613, but the second sets 
of both authors are described as ''apt for viols and voices." 
So are Wilbye's Second Set, 1609 ; Michael Este's Eight Sets, 
of various dates, and the Madrigals of Orlando Gibbons, 
Robert Jones, John Ward, Henry Lichfield, Walter Porter, 
as well as Byrd's Psalmes, Songs, and Sonnets, 1611 : Peer- 
son's Motets or Grave Chamber Music, 1630; and many 
lighter kinds of music. See Rimbault's Bibliotheca 
Madrigaliana, 8vo., 1847. 



Between 1603 and 1609, Dowland printed his "Lacrimse, or Seven Teares 
figured in seven passionate Pavans, with divers other Pavans, Galliards, and 
Almands." This work, to which there are so many allusions by contemporary 
Dramatists, was in five parts, for the Lute, Viols, or Violins. In 1609, Rossiter 
printed his " Lessons for Consort" for the same six instruments as Morley. In 
1611, Morley's work was reprinted, 4 and about the same time Orlando Gibbons 
published his Fantasies of three parts for Viols. 11 

Twelve volumes of Dr. Bumey's MS. extracts for his 
History of Music were formerly in my possession, and are 
now in the British Museum, in one of them (Add. MSS. 
11,587) are his extracts from Morley's Consort Lessons. 
To "O mistress mine " (which I have printed at p. 209) 
he appends the following note: " If any melody or move- 
ment, besides the Hornpipe (a tune played by the Cornish 
pipe, or pipe of Cornwall), he truly native, it seems to be 
this ; which has the genuine drawl of our country clowns 
and ballad singers in sorrowful ditties, as the hornpipe has 
the coarse and vulgar jollity of their mirth and merri- 
ment." This criticism is a curiosity, and not less curious 
is the judgment he passes on the Consort Lessons, after 
scoring two out of the six parts (the Treble Viol and 
Flute), and adding his own base. Morley dedicates them 
to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and Dr. Burney says, 
" Master Morley, supposing that the harmony which was 
to be heard through the clattering of knives, forks, spoons, 
and plates, with the jingling of glasses, and clamorous 
conversation of a city feast, need not be very accurate and 
refined, was not very nice in setting parts to these tunes, 
if we may judge of the rest by what passes between the viol 
and flute" &c. The whole of this passage is transferred 
to his History of Music (iii. 102, Note D, 1789), except 
the qualification, "if we may judge," &c. It was not 
advisable to tell the reader how he had formed his opinion 
of a work that had formerly passed through two editions. 
Among Dr. Burney's other criticisms of English Music 
( for his H istory is essentially a critical one, and he has been 
commonly quoted as an authority) are the following, which 
are also directly connected with the subject of this book : 
In vol. ii., p. 453, he says, " It is related by Gio. Battista 
Donado that the Turks have a limited number of tunes, to 
which the poets of their country have continued to write 
for ages ; and the vocal music of our own country seems 
long to have been equally circumscribed ; for, till the last 
century, it seems as if the number of our secular and 
popular melodies did not greatly exceed that of the Turks." 
In a note it is stated that the tunes of the Turks were in 
all twenty-four; which were to depict melancholy, joy, or 
fury; to be mellifluous or amorous. It may not, I hope, 
be too presumptuous to say that Dr. Burney knew very 
little of the subject. In vol. iii., 143, after criticising a 
work printed in 1614, and saying, "The Violin was now 
hardly known by the English, in shape or name" (although 
Ben Jonson describes the instrument, at that very time, _ 
as commonly sold with roast pigs in Bartholomew Fair, 
and violins had certainly been used on the English 
stage from its infancy. See, for instance, the tragedy of 
Gorboduc, or Ferrex and Porrex, acted by the gentlemen 
of the Inner Temple before Queen Elizabeth, in 1561); 
he adds, "And the low state of our regal music 
in the time of Henry VIII., 1530, may be gathered 
from the accounts given in Hall and Hollinshed's 
Chronicles, of a Masque at Cardinal Wolsey's palace, 
Whitehall, where the King was entertained with 'aeon- 
cert of drums and fifes.'" He then says, " But this was 

soft music compared with that of his heroic daughter 
Elizabeth, who, according to Hentzner, used to be regaled 
during dinner "with twelve trumpets, and two kettle- 
drums; which, together with fifes, cornets, and side-drums, 
made the hall ring for half an hour together." I find 
nothing of the kind in Hall's Chronicle (there is a short 
notice of a similar Masque at Cardinal Wolsey's, in the 
tenth year of Henry VIII., fol. 65, b. 1548, but no drums 
and fifes) ; and Hollinshed, who takes the account from 
Cavendish's Life of Wolsey, is speaking not of a "concert " 
at the Cardinal's, but of the manner of receiving the King 
and some of his nobles, who came by water to a Masque; 
firstly by firing off " divers chambers " (short guns that 
make a loud report) at his landing, and then conducting 
him up into the chamber " with such a noise of drums 
and fleutes, as seldom had been heard the like." Caven- 
dish says, "with such a number of drums and fifes as 
I have seldom seen together at one time in any masque " 
(Singer's edit., 8vo., 1825); and, describing the masques 
generally, says, "Then was there all kind of music and 
harmony set forth, with excellent voices both of men and 
children." Sagudino, the Venetian Ambassador, who 
describes a banquet given by Henry VIII., in honor of 
the Flemish envoys, on the 7th July, 1517, says, "during 
the dinner there were boys on a stage in the centre of the 
hall, some of whom sang, and others played the flute, re- 
beck, and virginals, making the sweetest melody." As to 
Queen Elizabeth, I quote Hentzner's words from the copy 
used by Dr. Burney : " During the time this guard, which 
consists of the tallest and stoutest men that can be found 
in all England, were bringing dinner, twelve trumpets and 
two kettle-drums made the hall ring for half an hour to- 
gether." (This was the loud music to give notice to pre- 
pare for dinner, like the gong, or dinner-bell of the present 
day, but the fifes, cornets, and side-drums, are of Dr. 
Burney's invention.) "At the end of all this ceremonial 
a number of unmarried ladies appeared, \i\\o with par- 
ticular solemnity lifted the meat off the table, and conveyed 
it into the Queen's inner and more private chamber, where, 
after she had chosen for herself, the rest goes to the ladies 
of the Court. The Queen dines and sups alone, with very 
few attendants," &c. Hentzner also says, "Without the 
city" (of London) "are some theatres where English 
actors represent almost every day tragedies and comedies 
to very numerous audiences: these are concluded with 
excellent music, variety of dances, and the excessive 
applause of those that are present." The original words 
are " quas variis etiam saltationibus, suavissima adhibit;! 
musica, magno cum populi applausu finiresolent." Again, 
in summing up the character of the English in a few 
lines, he says, " They excel in dancing and music, for they 
are active and lively, though of a thicker make than the 
French." Dr. Bumey, throughout his History, writes in 
a similarly disparaging strain about English music and 
English musicians, for which I am unable to account. 

b Fortherepublication of these, and many other works of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the world is in- 



Viols had six strings, and the position of the fingers was marked on the finger- 
board by frets, as in guitars of the present day. The " Chest of Viols " consisted 
of three, four, five, or six of different sizes ; one for the treble, others for the mean, 
the counter-tenor, the tenor, and perhaps two for the base. Old English musical 
instruments were commonly made of three or four different sizes, so that a player 
might take any of the four parts that were required to fill up the harmony. So 
Violins, Lutes, Recorders, Flutes, Shawms, &c., have been described by some 
writers in a manner which (to those unacquainted with this peculiarity) has 
appeared irreconcileable with other accounts. Shakespeare (in Hamlet) speaks of 
the Recorder as a little pipe, and says, in A Midsummer NigTifs Dream, "he hath 
played on his prologue like a child on a recorder ; " but in an engraving of the 
instrument,* it reaches from the lip to the knee of the performer; and among 
those left by Henry VIII. were Recorders of box, oak, and ivory, great and small, 
two base recorders of walnut, and one great base recorder. In the same catalogue 
we find " flutes called Pilgrims' staves," which were probably six feet long. 
. Richard Braithwait, a writer of this reign, has " set down Some Rules for the 
Government of the House of an Earl" in which the Earl was to keep "five 
musitions skillfull in that commendable sweete science," and they were required 
to teach the Earl's children to sing, and to play upon the base-viol, the virginals, 
the lute, and the bandora, or cittern. When he gave " great feasts," the musi- 
cians were to play, whilst the service was going to the table, upon Sackbuts, 
Cornets, Shawms, and "such other instruments going with wind;" b and upon 
" Viols, Violins, or other broken musicke," during the repast. 

The custom of retaining musicians in the service of families continued to the 
time of the Protectorate. It was not confined to men of high rank (either in this 
or the preceding century), but was general with the wealthy of all classes. 

debted to the Musical Antiquarian Society. The Madri- 
gals of Wilbye, Weelkes, Bennet, Bateson, and Gibbons; 
the Ballets of Morley and Hilton ; the four-part songs of 
Dowland, and four Operas by Purcell ; besides the first 
music printed for the Virginals, the four-part Psalms by 
Este, and various Anthems, &c., &c. 

See " The Genteel Companion for the Recorder," by 
Humphrey Salter, 1683. Recorders and (English) Flutes 
are to outward appearance the same, although Lord Bacon, 
in his Natural History, cent, iii., sec. 221, says the Re- 
corder hath a less bore, and a greater above and below. 
The number of holes for the fingers is the same, and the 
scale, the compass, and the manner of playing, the same. 
Salter describes the recorder from which the instrument 
derives its name, as situate in the upper part of it, i.e., 
between the hole below the mouth and the highest hole 
for the finger. He says, "Of the kinds of music, vocal 
has always had the preference in esteem, and in con- 
sequence, the Recorder, as approaching nearest to th 
tweet delightfuluess of the voice, ought to have first place 
in opinion, as we see by the universal use of it confirmed." 
The Hautboy is considered now to approach most nearly 
to the human voice, and Mr. Ward, the military instru- 
ment manufacturer, informs me that he has seen "old 
English Flutes " with a hole bored through the side, in 
the upper part of the instrument, the holes being covered 
with a thin piece of skin, like gold-beater's skin. 1 sup- 
pose this would give somewhat the effect of the quill or 

reed in the Hautboy, and that these were Recorders. In 
the proverbs at Leckingfield (quoted ante Note b , p. 35), 
the Recorder is described as "desiring" the mean part, 
but manifold fingering and stops bringeth high (notes) 
from its clear tones. This agrees with Salter's book. He 
tells us the high notes are produced by placing the thumb 
AoJ/over the hole at the back, and blowing a little stronger. 
Recorders were used for teaching birds to pipe. 

b In Middleton's play, The Spanish Gipsy, act ii., sc. 1, 
is another allusion to the loud music while dinner was 
being carried in, as well as a common pun upon sackbuts 
and sack. 

Alv. " You must not look to have your dinner served in 
with trumpets." 

Car. " No, no, sack-buts shall serve us." 

" "Broken Music," as is evident from this and other 
passages, means what we now term "a string band." 
Shakespeare plays with the term twice: firstly in Troilui 
andCressida, act iii., sc. 1, proving that the musicians then 
on the stage were performing on stringed instruments; 
and secondly in Henry V., act v., sc. 2, where he says to 
the French Princess Katherine, " Come, your answer in 
broken music; for thy voice is music and thy English 
broken." The term originated probably from harps, lutes, 
and such other stringed instruments as were played with- 
out a bow, not having the capability to sustain a long note 
to its full duration of time. 



So the old merchant in Shirley's Love Tricks (licensed 1625) says, " I made a 
ditty, and my musician, that I keep in my house to teach my daughter, hath set it 
to a very good air, he tells me." At least one wealthy merchant of the reign of 
Henry VIII. retained as many musicians in his service as are prescribed for the 
household of an Earl in James' reign. Sir Thomas Kytson, citizen and mercer, 
built Hengrave Hall, in Suffolk, between the years 1525 and 1538, and at the 
death of his son (towards the close of Elizabeth's reign) inventories of all the fur- 
niture and effects were taken, including those of " the chamber where the musicyons 
playe," and of the " instruments and books of musicke" it contained.* With the 
exception of those for the lute, all the books of instrumental music were in sets of 
five (for music in five or more parts) , as well as those containing the vocal music, 
described as " old." The number of musicians was perhaps increased by his son, 
for in the household expenses of the year 1574, we find, " seven cornets bought 
for the musicians ; " and the viols, violins, and recorders, in the inventory, are 
(like those of Henry VHI.) in chests or cases containing six or seven of each ; 
whilst much of the vocal music required six, and some seven and eight, voices 
to sing it. In 1575 he lent the services of Robert Johnson, Mus. Bac., one of 
his musicians, to the Earl of Leicester, on the occasion of the pageants at 

Although we have no old English book written for the purpose of describing the 
musical instruments in use in former days, like those of Mersenne and Kircher 
for France and Germany, we find in our translations of the Bible and the 
Metrical Psalms, the names of all in general use at the times those translations 
were made, for the Hebrew instruments are all rendered by the names of such as 
were then commonly known. We are so accustomed to picture David play- 
ing on the harp, that we are not easily reconciled to the French version of the 
Psalms, in which, in translations of the same passages, the violin is the instru- 
ment assigned to him ; and what we translate lute, they render bagpipe (musette). 
It is not my purpose to enter upon a detailed account of musical instruments, 1 * 
but the curious in such matters will fintl in Sir William Leighton's " Teares or 
Lamentations of a sorrowful soule," a long catalogue of those known at this period. 
It is contained in " A thanksgiving to God, with magnifying of his holy name upon 
all instruments? In the following lines from Song IV. in Drayton's Poly-olbion, 
printed in the same year (1613), many of those in common use are cited: 

m History and Antiquities of Hengrave, by John Gage, 
F.S.A., fol., 1822. There are six viols in a chest; six 
violins in a chest (in 1572 a treble violin cost 20s.); seven 
recorders in a case; besides lutes, cornets, bandoras, 
citterns, sackbuts, flutes, hautboys, acurtall (orshortsort 
of bassoon), a lysarden (base cornet, or serpent), a pair of 
little virginals, a pair of double virginals, "a wind instru- 
ment like a virginal," and a pair of double organs. 

b Sir John Hawkins' descriptions of musical instru- 
ments are too much drawn from foreign sources. English 
instruments often differed materially from those in use 
abroad, as many do at the present day. I cannot agree 
with his description of the Cittern (it has too many strings) 
or of some others. The catalogue of musical instru- 
ments left by Henry VIII. (Harl. MSS. 1419, fol. 200) 
was unfortunately unknown to him, or it would have 
explained many difficulties. 

c A copy with music in the British Museum. Among 
the instruments not mentioned by Drayton are the follow- 
ing, which I give in Sir William Leighton's spelling: 
"Regalls, Simballs, Timbrell, Syrons, Crowdes, Clari- 
coales, Dulsemers, Crouncorns, and Simfonie." He men- 
tions the Drum after the Simphony, thereby apparently 
drawing a distinction between them, but according to 
Bartholomeus De Proprietatibus Rerum, printed by 
Wynken de Worde, the Simphony is "an instrument 
of musyke . . . made of an holowe tree, closed in lether 
in eyther syde, and mystrels betyth it wyth styckes?" 
" Crouncom" means, perhaps, Krumhorn or Cromhorn, a 
crooked horn, in imitation of which we have a reed stop in 
old organs called the Cromhorn, which is now corrupted 
into Cremona. Henry VIII., at his death, left several 
cases containing from four to seven Crumhorns in each. 


" When now the British side scarce finished their song, 
But th* English, that repin'd to be delay'd so long, 
All quickly at the hint, as with one free consent, 
Struck up at once and sung, each to the instrument 
(Of sundry sorts that were, as the musician likes), 
On which the practic'd hand with perfect' st fing'ring strikes, 
Whereby their height of skill might liveliest be exprest. 
The trembling Lute some touch, some strain the Viol best, 
In sets that there were seen, the music wondrous choice. 
Some, likewise, there affect the Gamba with the voice, 
To shew that England could variety afford. 
Some that delight to touch the sterner wiry chord, 
The Cithren, the Pandore, and the Theorbo strike : 
The Gittern and the Kit the wand'ring fiddlers like. 
So were there some again, in this their learned strife, 
Loud instruments that lov'd, the Cornet" and the Fife, 
The Hoboy, Sackbut deep, Recorder, and the Flute ; 
E'en from the shrillest Shawm unto the Cornamute. 
Some blow the Bagpipe up, that plays the Country-Round; 
The Tabor and the Pipe some take delight to sound." 

The Sundry Musiques of England, 

In consequence of the almost universal cultivation of music in the sixteenth 
century, and of the great employment and encouragement of musicians, so many 
persons embraced music as a profession, that England overflowed with them. 
Many travelled, and some were tempted by lucrative engagements to settle abroad. 
Dowland, whose " touch upon the lute " was said to " ravish human sense," 
travelled through Italy, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, and about the 
year 1 600 became lutenist to the King of Denmark. On Dowland's return to 
England in 1607, Christian IV. begged of Lady Arabella Stuart (through the 
Queen and Prince Henry) to allow Thomas Cutting, another famous lutenist, then 
in her service, to replace him. Peter Phillips, better known on the continent 
(where the greater part of his works were printed) as Pietro Philippi, accepted an 
engagement as organist to the Arch-duke and Duchess of Austria, governors of 
the Low Countries, and settled there. John Cooper spent much of his life in 
Italy, and was called Coprario, or Cuperario. There were few, if any, Italian 
composers or singers then in England, b and the music of Italy was chiefly known 
by the Madrigal, for the sacred music, as being for the service of the Mass, was 
strictly prohibited. 

Among Henry the Eighth's instruments were "Git- voices in Cathedral Service. The base Cornet was of a 

teron Pipes of ivory or wood, called Cornets." The Cornet more serpentine form, and from four to five feet in length ; 

described by Mersenne is of a bent shape, like the segment but Mersenne says, the Serpent (contorted to render it 

of a large circle, gradually tapering from the bottom to more easy of carriage, as its length was six feet one inch) 

the mouth-piece, The cornet was of a loud sound, but was the genuine base of that instrument, 
in skilful hands could be modulated so as to resemble the b Alfonso Ferabosco, the elder, was born, of Italian 

tones of the human voice. In Ben Jonson's Masque of parents, at Greenwich. As he was brought up and lived 

Neptune's Triumph, the instruments employed were five in England, he can scarcely be considered as an Italian 

Lutes and threeCornets. In several other Masques, Lutes musician. Nicholas Lanier was an Italian by birth, and 

and Cornets were the only instruments used. At the came to England as an engraver. He settled here, and 

Restoration, Cornets supplied the deficiency of boys' became an eminent musician. 


Anthony & Wood tells the following story of Dr. John Bull: While 
travelling incognito through France and Germany for the recovery of his health, 
he heard of a famous musician belonging to the Cathedral of St. Omer, and 
applied to him to see his works. The musician having conducted Bull to a vestry 
or music-school adjoining the Cathedral, shewed him a lesson or song of forty 
parts, and then made a vaunting challenge to any person in the world to add one 
more part, supposing it so complete that it was impossible to correct or add to it. 
Dr. Bull having requested to be locked up for two or three hours, speedily added 
forty more parts, whereupon the musician declared that " he that added those 
forty parts must either be the devil or Dr. John Bull." a In 1613, Bull (to 
whom many offers of preferment at foreign courts had been previously made) 
quitted England, and went to reside in the Netherlands, where he entered the 
service of the Archduke. 

The emigration of musicians was not confined to a few of the most eminent, for 
we hear, indirectly, of many in the employ of foreign courts, whose movements 
would not otherwise be recorded. Thus Taylor, the water-poet, who had just 
described the Lutes, Viols, Bandoras, Recorders, Sackbuts, and Organs, in the 
Chapel of the Graf (or Count) of Schomburg, says, "I was conducted an English 
mile on my way by certain of my countrymen, my Lord's musicians." 

We are indebted to foreign countries for the preservation of many of the works 
of our best musicians of this age, as well as of our popular tunes. Dr. Bull's 
music is chiefly to be found in foreign manuscripts. 15 Dowland tells us that "some 
part of his poor labours " had been printed in eight cities beyond the seas, viz., 
Paris, Antwerp, Cologne, Nuremburg, Frankfort, Leipzig, Amsterdam, and Ham- 
burg. Much of the music printed in Holland in the seventeenth century was also 
by English Composers. The right of printing music in England was a monopoly, 
generally in the hands of one or two musicians, and therefore very little, and 
only such as they chose, could be printed. Hence the scarcity, as well as the 
frequent imperfection, of these early works. 

In London, each ward of the city had its musicians ; there was also the Fins- 
bury Music, the Southwark and the Blackfriars Music, as well as the Waits of 
London and Westminster. Morley thus alludes to the Waits, in the dedication 
of his Consort Lessons to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen : "As the ancient 
custom of this most honourable and renowned city hath been ever to retain and 
maintain excellent and expert musicians to adorn your honours' favours, feasts, 
and solemn meetings : to those, your Lordships' Wayts, I recommend the same." 
A " Wayte," in the time of Edward IV., had to pipe watch four times in the 
night, from Michaelmas to Shrovetide, and three in the summer, as well as to 

Such exercises of learned ingenuity were common in b One foreign manuscript volume of Dr. Bull's works 

that day. Tallis wrote a Motet in forty parts, a copy of is now in my possession, and another in that of Mr. 

which is now before me. It is for eight choirs, each of Richard Clarke, who asserts that it contains " God save 

five voices ; the voices only coming together occasionally. the King," of which more hereafter. The contents of 

Dr. Buniey discredits Dr. Bull's feat as " impossible," both are described in Ward's Livet of the Graham Pro- 

but I am assured by Dr. Rimbault and by Mr. Macfarren, fessors. 

who have seen this Motet, that whether the story be true c It was held by Tallis and Byrd from 1575 to 1596, then 
or not, it was quite possible. In all cases the anecdote by Morley and his assignee. See Introduction to Rim- 
may be taken as a proof of the very high reputation Dr. bault's Bibliotltica Madrigaliana, 8vo., 1847. 
Bull enjoyed. 



"make ban gayte" at every chamber door; but Morley's Consort Lessons, as 
before mentioned, required six instruments to play them, a and the city bands are 
commonly quoted as playing in six parts. b 

After the act of the 39th year of Elizabeth, which rendered all " minstrels 
wandering abroad " liable to punishment as " rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy 
beggars," all itinerant musicians were obliged to wear cloaks and badges, with the 
arms of some nobleman, gentleman, or corporate body, to denote in whose service 
they were engaged, being thereby excepted from the operation of the act. So in 
Ram Alley, 1611, Sir Oliver says 

" Musicians, on ! 

Lightly, lightly, and by my knighthood's spurs 

This year you shall have my protection, 

And yet not buy your livery coats yourselves." 

And as late as 1699, we find in Sistoria Histrionica, " It is not unlikely that the 
lords in those days, and persons of eminent quality, had their several gangs of 
players, as some have now of fiddlers, to whom they give cloaks and badges." 

Musicians in the service of noblemen and gentlemen seem to have held a 
prescriptive right to go and perform to the friends and acquaintances of their 
masters, whenever they wanted money : such visits were received as compliments, 
and the musicians were rewarded in proportion to the rank of their masters. 
Innumerable instances of this will be found in early books of household expen- 
diture ; but, in James' reign, musicians not actually in employ presumed so far 
upon the license, that their intrusion into all companies, and at all times, became 
a constant subject of rebuke. Ben Jonson's Club, the Apollo, which met at the 
Devil tavern, chiefly for conversation, was obliged to make a law that no fiddler 
should enter, unless requested. Nevertheless, they were generally welcome, and 
generally well paid ; more especially, at merry-makings where their services were 
ever required. In those days a wedding was of a much gayer character than 
now. There was first the hunt's-up, or morning song, to awake the bride ; then 

A few specimens of the tunes of the waits of different 
towns will be given under the reign of Charles II. 

b So in Heywood's The Engliih Traveller, last scene of 
act i., 1633 

" Bint. Fear not, you shall have a full table. 
Young L. What, and music? 
Riot. The best consort in the city for six parts. 
Young L. We shall have songs, then 1 " 
c The rules of this club, in Latin, will be found in Ben 
Jonson's Works. The following translation is by one of 
his adopted poetical sons : 

" Let none but guests, or clubbers, hither come; 
Let dunces, fools, sad sordid men, keep home, 
Let learned, civil, merry men b'invited, 
And modest, too ; nor be choice ladies slighted. 
Let nothing in the treat offend the guests ; 
More for delight than cost, prepare the feasts. 
The cook and purvey'r must our palates know, 
And none contend who shall sit high or low. 
Our waiters must quick-sighted be, and dumb, 
And let the drawers quickly hear and come. 
Let not our wine be inix'd, but brisk and neat, 
Or else the drinkers may the vintners beat. 

And let our only emulation be, 

Not drinking much, but talking wittily. 

Let it be voted lawful to stir up 

Each other with a moderate chirping cup ; 

Let not our company be, or talk too much ; 

On serious things, or sacred, let's not touch 

With sated heads and bellies. Neither may 

Fiddlers unask'd obtrude themselves to play. 

With laughing, leaping, dancing, jests and songs, 

And whate'er else to grateful mirth belongs, 

Let's celebrate our feasts .- and let us see 

That all our jests without reflection be. 

Insipid poems let no man rehearse, 

Nor any be compelled to write a verse. 

All noise of vain disputes must be forborn, 

And let no lover in a corner mourn. 

To fight and brawl, like Hectors, let none dare, 

Glasses or windows break, or hangings tear. 

Whoe'er shall publish what's here done or said, 

From our society must be banished. 

Let none by drinking do or suffer harm, 

And, while we stay, let us be always warm." 

Poerta and Songs by Alexander Brome, 8vo., 1661. 


the music to conduct her to church (young maids and bachelors following, with 
garlands in their hands) ; the same from church ; the music at dinner ; and 
singing, dancing, and merry-making throughout the evening. For those who had 
no talent to write a hunt's-up, there were songs ready printed (like " The Bride's 
Good-morrow," in the Roxburghe Collection), but the hunt's-up was not confined 
to weddings, it was a usual compliment to young ladies, especially upon their 
birthdays. The custom seems now to be continued only with princesses, and on 
the last birthday of the Princess Royal, the court newsman, at a loss how to 
describe this old English custom, gave it the name of a " Matinale." 

As to music at weddings, see the following allusions : 

" Then was there a fair bride-cup of silver and gilt carried before her [the 
bride], wherein was a goodly braunch of rosemarie gilded very faire, hung about 
with silken ribbonds of all colours; next there was a noyse* of musitians, that 
played all the way before her; after her came all the chiefest maydens of the 
countrie, some bearing great bride-cakes, and some garlands of wheat finely 
gilded, and so she past unto the church." Deloney's Pleasant History of John 
Winchcomb, in his younger years called Jacke of Neivberie. 

" Come, come, we'll to church presently. Prythee, Jarvis, whilst the musick 
plays just upon the delicious dose, usher in the brides." Rowley's A Match at 
Midnight, 1633. 

In Ben Jonson's Tale of a Tub, Turfe, the constable, "will let no music go afore 
his child to church," and says to his wife 

" Because you have entertained [musicians] all from Highgate, 
To shew your pomp, you'd have your daughters and maids 
Dance o'er the fields like faies to church this frost. 
I'll have no rondels, I, in the queen's paths ! 
Let them scrape the gut at home, where they have fill'd it." 

And again, where Dame Turfe insists on having them to play at dinner, Clench 
adds " She is in the right, sir, vor your wedding dinner 
Is starv'd without the music." 

Even at funerals musicians were in request : dirges were sung, and recorders the 
instruments usually employed. It appears that the Blue-coat boys sang at City 
Funerals ; b being then taught music, as they should be now. Music was not less 
esteemed as a solace for grief, than as an excitement to merriment. Peacham says, 
" the physicians will tell you that the exercise of music is a great lengthener of life, 
by stirring and reviving the spirits, holding a secret sympathy with them ; besides 
it is an enemy to melancholy and dejection of mind ; yea, a curer of some dis- 
eases." (Oompleat G-entleman, 1622.) And Burton, "But I leave all declamatory 
speeches in praise of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject : 
besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign 
remedy against despair and melancholy, and will drive away the devil himself." 
(Anatomy of Melancholy.) So, in Henry IV., Shakespeare says 

" A noise of musicians means a company of musicians. "having authority to thrust into any man's room, only 

It is an expression frequently occurring : " those terrible speaking but this ' Will you have any musicke ?' " 

noyses, with threadbare cloakes, that live by red lattices Dekker's Belman of London, 1608. 

and ivy-bushes" [that is by ale-houses and taverns], b See Brome's City Wit, act iii. sc. 1. 


" Let there be no noise made, my gentle friends, 
Unless some slow and favourable hand 
Will whisper music to my weary spirit." 

Part II., act iv., sc. 9. 

Shakespeare purchased his house in Blackfriars, in 1612, from Henry Walker, 
who is described in the deed as " Citizen and Minstrel, of London." The price 
paid was 140, a which, considering the difference in the value of money, is equal 
to, at least, 700 now. Of what class of " minstrel " Walker was, we know not, 
but there were very few of any talent who had not the opportunity of saving money, 
if so disposed. Even the itinerant fiddler who gave " a fytte of mirth for a groat," 
was well paid. The long ballads were usually divided into two or three "fyttes," 
and if he received a shilling per ballad, it would purchase as many of the neces- 
saries of life as five or six times that amount now. The groat was so generally his 
remuneration, whether it were for singing or for playing dances, as to be 
commonly called " fiddlers' money," and when the groat was no longer current, 
the term was transferred to the sixpence. 

It appears that in the reign of James, ballads were first collected into little 
miscellanies, called Garlands, for we have none extant of earlier date. Thomas 
Deloney and Richard Johnson (author of the still popular boys' book, called TJie 
Seven Champions of Christendom) were the first who collected their scattered pro- 
ductions, and printed them in that form. 

Deloney's Garland of Good-will, and Johnson's Crown Garland of Golden Roses, 
were two of the most popular of the class. They have been reprinted, with some 
others, by the Percy Society, and the reader will find some account of the authors 
prefixed to those works. 

During the reign of Henry VHI., " the most pregnant wits " were employed 
in compiling ballads. b Those in the possession of Captain Cox, described in 
Laneham's Letter from Kenilwortli (1575), as " all ancient," c could not well be 
of later date than Henry's reign ; and at Henry's death we find, with the list of 
musical instruments left in the charge of Philip van Wilder, "sondrie bookes and 
skrottes of songes and lallattes" In the reign of James, however, poets rarely 
wrote in ballad metre ; ballad writing had become quite a separate employment, 
and (from the evidently great demand for ballads) I should suppose it to have 
been a profitable one. In Shakespeare's Henry IV., when Falstaff threatens 
Prince Henry and his companions, he says, " An I have not ballads made on you 
all, and sung to filthy tunes, let a cup of sack be my poison ; " and after Sir 
John Colvile had surrendered, he thus addresses Prince John : " I beseech your 
grace, let it be booked with the rest of this day's deeds ; or by the Lord, I will 
have it in a particular ballad else, with mine own picture at the top of it, Colvile 
kissing my foot." 

To conclude this introduction, I have subjoined a few quotations to shew the 

Shakespeare's autograph, attached to the counterpart The list of Captain Cox's ballads has been so often re- 

of this deed, was sold by auction by Evans, on 24th May, printed, that I do not think it necessary to repeat it. The 

1S41, for 155. reader will find it, with many others, in the introduction 

fc See The Nature of the Four Elements, written about to Ritson's Ancient Songs, as well as in more recently- 

1517. printed books. 


universality of ballads, as well as their influence upon the public mind ; but limit- 
ing myself to dramatists, to Shakespeare's contemporaries, and to one passage 
from each author. 

In Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, when Trash, the gingerbread- woman, 
quarrels with Leatherhead, the hobby-horse seller, she threatens him 

" 111 find a friend shall right me, and make a ballad of thee, and thy cattle all over." 
In Hey wood's A Challenge for Beauty, Valladaura says 
" She has told all ; I shall be balladed 

Sung up and down by minstrels." 
In Fletcher's Queen of Corinth, Euphanes says 

. " and whate'er he be 
Can with unthankfulness assoil me, let him 
Dig out mine eyes, and sing my name in verse, 
In ballad verse, at every drinking-house." 
In Massinger's Parliament of Love, Chamont threatens Lamira 

. " I will have thee 

Pictured as thou art now, and thy whole story 
Sung to some villainous tune in a lewd ballad, 
And make thee so notorious in the world, 
That boys in the streets shall hoot at thee." 
In Chapman's Monsieur d? Olive, he says 

" I am afraid of nothing but I shall be balladed." 
In a play of Dekker's (Dodsley, iii. 224) Matheo says 

"Sfoot, do yoxi long to have base rogues, that maintain a Saint Anthony's fire in 
their noses by nothing but two-penny ale, make ballads of you ? " 

In Webster's Devil's Law Case, the officers are cautioned not to allow any to 
take notes, because 

" We cannot have a cause of any fame, 
But you must have some scurvy pamphlets and lewd 
Ballads engendered of it presently." 
In Ford's Love's Sacrifice, Fiormonda says 

. . " Better, Duke, thou hadst been born a peasant ; 
Now boys will sing thy scandal in the streets, 
Tune ballads to thy infamy." 

In Marlow's Edivard II. , Mortimer says to the King 
" Libels are cast against thee in the street ; 

Ballads and rhymes made of thy overthrow." 
In Machin's The Dumb Knight 

" The slave will make base songs on my disgrace." 
In Middleton's The Roaring Crirl 

" 0, if men's secret youthful faults should judge 'em, 
'Twould be the general'st execution 
That e'er was seen in England ! 
There would be few left to sing the ballads, 
There would be so much work." 
This is in allusion to the ballads on last dying speeches. 


In the academic play of Lingua, Phantasies says 

" O heavens ! how am I troubled these latter times with poets ballad-makers. Were 
it not that I pity the printers, these sonnet-mongers should starve for conceits for all 

The popular music of the time of Charles I. was so much like that of James, 
as not to require separate notice. I have therefore included many ballads 
of Charles' reign in this division ; but reserved those which relate to the troubles 
and to the civil war, for the period of the Protectorate. 


In The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1665, and in MusicFs Delight on the 
Cithren, 1666, this is entitled " Upon a Summer's-day ; " and in later editions of 
The Dancing Master, viz., from 1670 to 1690, it is called " The Garland, or a 

The song, "Upon a Summer's-day" is in Merry Drollery Complete, 1661, 
p. 148. " The Garland " refers, in all probability, to a ballad in the Roxburghe 
Collection, i. 22, or Pepysian, i. 300; which is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, 
iv. 345 (1810), beginning, "Upon a Summer's time." It is more frequently 
quoted by the last name in ballads. In the Pepys Collection, vol. i., is a 
" Discourse between a Soldier and his Love ;" 

" Shewing that she did bear a faithful mind, 
For land nor sea could make her stay behind. 

To the tune of Upon a Summer time" 

It begins, " My dearest love, adieu." And at p. 182 of the same volume, 
"I smell a rat: to the tune of Upon a Summer tide, or The Seminary Priest." 
It begins, " I travell'd far to find." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, vol. i. 526, " The good fellow's advice," &c., to 
the tune of Upon a Summer time ;" the burden of which is 
lt Good fellows, great and small, 

Pray let me you advise 
To have a care withall ; 

'Tis good to be merry and wise." 

And at p. 384 of the same volume, another by L.P., called " Seldom cleanely, or 
A merry new ditty, wherein you may see 
The trick of a huswife in every degree ; 
Then lend your attention, while I do unfold 
As pleasant a story as ever was told. 

To the tune of Upon a Summer's time." 
It begins " Draw near, you country girls, 

And listen unto me ; 
I'll tell you here a new conceit, 

Concerning huswifry." 

I have chosen a song which illustrates an old custom, instead of the original 
words to this tune, because it is not desirable to reprint them. In Wit and 



Mirth, 1707, the following song, entitled The Queen of May, is joined to an 
indifferent composition : 

/r l p 

H KT- 

J o J J * 

-* 0-* * 

1 M KT 


-^ ^ v 


J J 1 h- 

Up - on a time I 

chanc'd To walk a-long a 




flp-0- * -0- 
, Where pretty lasses 

8 ^ 

^-- 3 


t^ : 


=3 : 



""I f~1 FT 



-i '0 ^ 

= 3 

L M 

J 1 H 

*-! -- -f- -0- -<^>- * 

danced In strife, to choose a Queen. Some home-lydress'd, some handsome, Some 

i 1 


i F - 


d E-4-J 

P ' r 

1 ' 

-J ; 

1 J . 1 1 


.^ h 

hJ-^M hi 



r i f* 

i i- 

i /r r / 

pretty, and some gay, But 

j r j ^ ^L . 

ji J * -J' 

who excell'd in 

^ . i ^ v * i -j- "j-^-j- " 

dancing, Must be the Queen of May. 



i 1 

tt *-*Q* a 

CS 5 

P ^"^ 


-H d 

Z3 F^i v 

-B r -S 

From morning till the evening 

Their controversy held, 
And I, as judge, stood gazing on, 

To crown her that excell'd. 
At last when Phoebus' steeds 

Had drawn their wain away, 
We found and crown'd a damsel 

To be the Queen of May. 

Full well her nature from her 

Face I did admire; 
Her habit well became her, 

Although in poor attire. 

Her carriage was so good, 

As did appear that day, 
That she was justly chosen 

To be the Queen of May. 

Then all the rest in sorrow, 

And she in sweet content, 
Gave over till the morrow, 

And homewards straight they went. 
But she, of all the rest, 

Was hinder'd by the way, 
For ev'ry youth that met her, 

Must kiss the Queen of May. 


This is one of the songs alluded to in Walton's Angler. Piscator. "I'll 
promise you I'll sing a song that was lately made at my request by Mr. William 
Basse, one that made the choice songs of ' The Hunter in his career,' and * Tom 
of Bedlam,' and many others of note." The tune was translated from lute 
tablature by Mr. G. F. Graham, of Edinburgh. It is taken from the " Straloch 
Manuscript," formerly in the possession of Mr. Chalmers, the date of which is 
given in the original MS. from 1627 to 1629. It is also in the Skene MS., &c. 
A copy of the song is in the Pepys Collection, i. 452, entitled " Maister Basse 
his careere, or The Hunting of the Hare. To a new court tune." Printed for 



E[liz.] Aplde]. On the same sheet is " The Faulconer's Hunting; to the tune 
of Basse his careere" The words are also in Wit and Drollery, Jovial Poems, 
1682, p. 64, and in Old Ballads, second edition, 1738, iii. 196. 

Wit h spirit. 

J*^ | (BfJ- 

1 Ri 


f 5 !" 


; ' * 4ft 

>ng ere the morn Ex - 
2 . P- 1 

^J J ti *jN-4-^ 

jects the re-turn Of Apollo from the o 

f^\ 1 

. j^ 1 ^ ; ^ 


- cean queen, Be - 

1 l ! . PJ 

_j h_d 


r> JT 

* * - 

-i P+ 1 

j rf-W- 1 


fore the creak Of the crow and the break 

day in the wel - kin seen, 





Mounted he'd halloo, And cheerful - ly follow To the chace with his bu - gl 

e clear. 

Echo doth he make, And the moun-tains shake.With the thunder of his ca - reer. 

^f]j rjlTI^^g 




Now bonny bay 

In his foine waxeth gray ; 
Dapple-grey waxeth bay in his blood ; 

White-Lily stops 

With the scent in her chaps, 
And Black-Lady makes it good. 

Poor silly Wat, 

In this wretched state, 
Forgets these delights for to hear ; 

Nimbly she bounds 

From the cry of the hounds, 
And the music of their career. 

Hills, with the heat 

Of the gallopers' sweat 
Reviving their frozen tops, 

[And] the dale's purple flowers, 

That droop from the showers 
That down from the rowels drops. 

Swains their repast, 

And strangers their haste 
Neglect, when the horns they do hear ; 

To see a fleet 

Pack of hounds in a sheet, 
And the hunter in his career. 

Thus he careers, 

Over heaths, over meres, 
Over deeps, over downs, over clay ; 

Till he hath won 

The noon from the morn, 
And the evening from the day. 

His sport then he ends, 

And joyfully wends 
Home again to his cottage, where 

Frankly he feasts 

Himself and his guests, 
And carouses in his career. 




A copy of this ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 350, printed for the 
assigns of Thomas Symcock. The tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 
1698 ; in Playford's Introduction, 1664; in Musictis Delight on the Cithren, 1666; 
in Apollo's Banquet for the Treble Violin, 1670 ; in the Pleasant Companion for 
the Flageolet, 1680 ; &c. 

The first song in Patrick Carey's Trivial Poems, written in 1651 (" Fair one ! 
if thus kind you be"), is to the tune Once I lotfd a maiden fair. It is also 
alluded to in The Fool turned Critic, 1678 " We have now such tunes, such 
lamentable tunes, that would make me forswear all music. Maiden fair and The 
King's Delight are incomparable to some of these we have now." 

The ballad consists of twelve stanzas, from which the following are selected. 

<J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 1 fe 1 1 ( J--J-J* J * 





M r- 

j j j j, 

Once I lov'd a 

ZLj-^-L^ _^__^_^_L^_ 

maiden fair, But she did de - ceive me; She with Ve-nus 

' 1* /"- 1 

J V - 



a J J 


E3 t 

-d d 


3 t- 



i j a 

J . J * m 

j J~~ gj 

-^cv^ f 


-s! d 

-s - 


^ t a 


might compare In my mind, be - lieve me. She was young, And among Creatures of temp 

i i c-^. c% 



m F ^1 

^p_^ s 


* J 1 

-d- * 


r r H 

-1 1 1 

i ,* J-"H 

^ ' J- '" 

w * 

-^ zi 

~d - 2 


Jr^. J 

1 g 

5 fc 

- ta 

- tion, Who will say I 


1 * & * ^ b5 1 -- ^ 

lut maid-ens may Kiss for re - ere - a - tion. 

p" . E 1 r H- - 


i 1 

1 1 




i j ^r 




^* i ^ 

Three times I did make it known 

To the congregation, 
That the church should make us one, 

As priest had made relation. 
Married we straight must be, 

Although we go a begging ; 
Now, alas ! 'tis like to prove 

A very hopeless wedding. 

Happy he who never knew 

What to love belonged ; 
Maidens wavering and untrue 

Many a man have wronged. 
Fare thee well ! faithless girl, 

I'll not sorrow for thee; 
Once I held thee dear as pearl, 

Now I do abhor thee. 




This beautiful air is contained in all editions of The Dancing Master, from 
1650 to 1690. The two first bars are the same as " All in a garden green" (see 
p. Ill) ; but the resemblance continues no further, and that air is in phrases of 
eight, and this of six bars. 

Not having been able to discover the original words, the following lines were 
written to it by the late Mr. J. A. Wade ; retaining the pastoral character, which 
is indicated by its name. 

v Moderate time, ana sust 


U.^J j | 

, j i t=i 


1 J J 1 

* How plea-sant 

-4, -. 9 
is it in the 



3 9 

os - som of the 

r r r f i 

-g : 3 

year, "" To 


y - i 

i i 

a tempo. , 

^ \ \ \ . h 1 1 1 1 1 


1 i 1 

J . J 4 


J J J 




=3 -* 5p -^ / I T" l " 1" T 

stray and find a nook, Where nought doth fill the hoi -low of the list'ning 

Zj 1 : 1 i i o 1 1 1 1 1 1 



. - 

=E i 

d ^ 



J J J 

^ : 1 


J J j 

i J 1 

- ^ J 

s*i : l * 

ear, Ex - ce 

J . J| 

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)t the mur-m'ring brook ; 

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bird in neighb'ring grove, That in 

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so - li - tude doth love 

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To breathe his lone - ly hymn ! Lc 


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)am a - long, From 

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morn to twi - light 

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And as I wander in the blossom of the year, To shed their balms around! 

By crystal waters' flow, Thus from the busy, throng, 

Flow'rs sweet to gaze on, as the songs of birds I careless roam along, 

Spring up where e'er I go! [to hear, 'Mid perfume and sweet sound. 

The violet agrees, 

With the honey-suckle trees, 


This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. 
In the Pepys Collection, i. 372, there is a black-letter ballad entitled " The 
Northern Turtle, wailing his unhappy fate in being deprived of his sweet mate : 
to a new Northern tune, or A health to Betty" This is not the air of A health of 
Betty , and therefore I suppose it to be the " new Northern tune." The first 
stanza is here arranged to the music. The same ballad is the Roxburghe Collec- 
tion, i. 319, as the second part to one entitled " The paire of Northerne Turtles : 
Whose love was firm till cruel death 
Depriv'd them both of life and breath." 

That is also to " a new Northern tune," and printed " for F. Coules, dwelling in 
the Old Baily." Coules printed about 1620 to 1628. 
The following ballads are also to the tune : 
Pepys, i. 390 " A constant wife, a kind wife, 

Which gives content unto a man's life. 

To the tune of Lie lulling beyond thee." Printed for F. C[oules]. It begins 
" Young men and maids, do lend me your aids." 

Pepys i., and Roxburghe, i. 156 " The Honest Wooer, 
His mind expressing, in plain and few terms, 
By which to his mistris his love he confirms : " 
to the tune of Lulling beyond her, begins 

" Fairest mistris, cease your moane, 

Spoil not your eyes with weeping, 
For certainly if one be gone, 

You may have another sweeting. 
I will not compliment with oaths, 

Nor speak you fair to prove you ; * 

But save your eyes, and mend your clothes, 

For it is I that love you." 

Roxburghe, i. 416 " The two fervent Lovers," &c., " to the tune of The two 
loving Sisters, or Lulling beyond thee." Signed L.P. 

Pepys, i. 427 " A pleasant new ballad to sing both even and morn, 

Of the bloody murther of Sir John Barley-Corne. 

To the tune of Shall I lie beyond thee." Printed at London for H[enry] G[osson], 
It commences thus : "As I went through the North country, 

I heard a merry greeting," &c. 

This excellent ballad has been reprinted by Evans (Old Ballads, iv. 214, 
ed. 1810), from a copy in the Roxburghe Collection, " printed for John Wright." 

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as walking 



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This is also one of the songs mentioned by old Isaak Walton. 

Milkwoman. " What song was it, I pray? was it 'Come, shepherds, deck your 
heads;' or, 'As, at noon, Dulcina rested;' or, 'Philida flouts me;' or, Chevy 
Chace ; or, 'Johnny Armstrong ; ' or, ' Troy Town ? ' " a 

Tzaak Walton $is born in 1593, and married first Rachel Cranmer, niece of 
that distinguished prelate, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1624. 

The air is found, under its English name, in Belkrophon, of Lust tot WysJied, 
Amsterdam, 1622 ; and in Gesangh der Zeeden, Amsterdam, 1662. b 

The words (which Ritson said " are not known ") will be found in the Pepys 
Collection, i. 366, entitled "The Shepherd's Lamentation: to the tune of 

All will be found in this collection except " Johnny 
Armstrong" of which (although an English song, and of 
a Westmoreland man) I have not yet found the tune. The 
words are in Wit restored, 1658, and in Wit and Drollery, 
Jm-ial Poems, 1682, called "A Northern Ballet, " begin- 
ning "There dwelt a man in fair Westmorland, 
Johnny Armstrong men did him call; 
He had neither lands nor rents coming in, 
Yet he kept eight score men in his hall." 

There is also a Scotch ballad about the same hero. 

b There is another English tune under the same name, 
to be found in two other collections, Nederlandtsche Ge- 
denck-Clanck, 1626, and Friesche Lust-Hof, 1634. I printed 
it in National English Airs, 1839, but think this rather 
more like a ballad-tune, and it is of somewhat earlier 



The plaine-dealing Woman." On the other half of the sheet is " The second part 
of The plaine-dealing Woman" beginning 

" Ye Sylvan Nymphs, come skip it," &c. 

Imprinted at London for J. W. Sir Harris Nicolas prints the song, Come, 
shepherds, in his edition of Walton's Angler, from a MS. formerly in the posses- 
sion of Mr. Heher. - A third copy will be found in MSS. Ashmole, No. 38, 
art. 164. 

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beds, And make the downs your 

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All ye forsaken wooers, 

That ever care oppressed, 
And all you lusty dooers, 

That ever love distressed. 
That losses can condole, 

And altogether summon ; 
Oh ! mourn for the poor soul 

Of my plain-dealing woman. 

Fair Venus made her chaste, 
And Ceres beauty gave her ; 

Pan wept when she was lost, 
The Satyrs strove to have her ; 

Yet seem'd she to their view 
So coy, so nice, that no man 

Could judge, but he that knew 
My own plain -dealing woman. 

At all her pretty parts 

I ne'er enough can wonder ; 
She overcame all hearts, 

Yet she all hearts came under ; 
Her inward mind was sweet, 

Good tempers ever common ; 
Shepherd shall never meet 

So plain a dealing woman. 




This is quoted as an old song in Brome's play, The Jovial Crew, which was 
acted at the Cock-pit in Drury Lane, in 1641" T'other old song for that." 
It is also in the Antidote to Melancholy, 1661. 

Tlie Jovial Grew was turned into a ballad-opera in 1731, and this song 
retained. The tune was then printed under the name of Taunton Dean; 
perhaps from a song commencing, " In Taunton Dean I was born and bred." 

The four last bars of the air are the prototype of Lilliburlero, and still often 
sung to the chorus, "A very good song, and" very well sung ; 
Jolly companions every one." 

The first part resembles Dargason (see p. 65), and an air of later date, called 
Country Courtship (see Index). 
Boldly and moderate time. 

There was an old fel-low at Waltham Cross, Who mer-ri-ly sung when he 

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liv'd by the loss, He never was heard to sigh with hey-ho ! But sent it out with a heigh trolly-lo ! He 


cheer'd up his heart when his goods went to wrack, With a hem, boys, hem, And a cup of old sack. 



This tune is contained in Playford's MusicKs Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 
1652 ; in MusicWs Handmaid for the Virginals, 1678 ; in ApoUtts Banquet for 
the Treble Violin ; in The Division Violin, 1685 ; in 180 Loyal Songs, 1684 
and 1694 ; and in the seventh and all later editions of The Dancing Master. 

It it also in Pills to purge Melancholy ; in the Musical Miscellany, 1721 ; in 
many ballad-operas, and other works of later date. 


Some of the ballads written to the tune have the following burden, which 
appears to be the original : 

" Says old Simon the king, 
Says old Simon the king, 
With his ale-dropt hose, and his malmsey nose, 

Sing, hey ding, ding a ding, ding." 

From its last line, Ritson conjectured that the " Hey ding a ding" mentioned 
in Laneham's Letter from Kenilworth, 1575, as one of the ballads "all ancient," 
then in the possession of Captain Cox, the Coventry mason, was Old Sir Simon 
under another name. So far as internal evidence can weigh, the tune may be of 
even much greater antiquity, but we have no direct proof. 

Mr. Payne Collier is of opinion that the ballad entitled Ragged and torn and 
true, was " first published while Elizabeth was still on the throne." (See Collier's 
Roxburghe Ballads, p. 26.) As it was sung to the tune of Old Simon the King, 
the latter necessarily preceded it. This adds to the probability of Ritson's con- 
jecture. But, although we have ballads printed during the reign of James I., to 
the tune of Old Simon, I have not succeeded in discovering one of earlier date. 

Sir John Hawkins, in the additional notes to his History of Music, says, " It is 
conjectured that the subject of the song was Simon Wadloe, who kept the Devil 
(and St. Dunstan) Tavern, at the time when Ben Jonson's Club, called the 
Apollo Club;* met there." The conjecture rests upon two lines of the inscription 
over the door of the Apollo room 

" Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers, 

Cries Old Sym, the King of Skinkers." 

A skinker meaning one who serves drink. Sir John quotes the song in Pills to 
purge Melancholy, iii. 144. It has but one line of burden, 

" Says old Simon the King ; " 

and instead of the Devil tavern, the Crown is the tavern named in it. It appears 
to be of too late a date for the original song. The Simon Wadloe b whom Ben 
Jonson dubbed "King of Skinkers," was buried in March, 1627, and more 
probably owed his title to having the same Christian name as the Simon of the 
earlier song. 

As there are two tunes, which differ considerably, it seems desirable, in the 
case of a song once so popular, to print both. The first is from Musictfs 
Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 1652 ; and the viol was tuned to what was 
termed the " bagpipe tuning," to play it. To this I have adapted the song quoted 
by Hawkins, but completing the burden as the music requires. I have no doubt 
that "Old Simon the King" was changed to " Old Sir Simon the King," from 
the want of another syllable to correspond with accent of the tune. 

For the excellent rules of this Club, see Note, p. 250. Jacob Henry Burn, 8vo.,1855. From the same book we learn 
b A Latin " Epitaph upon Simon Wadloe, vintner, that John Wadlow was proprietor of the Devil Tavern at 

dwelling at the Signe of the Devil and St. Dunstan," will the Restoration. He is mentioned twice in Pepys' Diary 

be found in MS. Ashmole, No. 38 fol., art. 328; and in (22nd April, 1661, and 25th Feb., 1664-5). The second 

Camden's Remains. It commences thus : time as having made a fortune gone to live like a prince 

" Apollo et cohors Musarum in the country, there spent almost all he had got, and 

Bacchus vini et uvarum," &c. finally returned to his old trade again. 

See Descriptive Catalogue of the Beaufoy Tokens, by 



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In a humour I was of late, As 
That best might suit my mind, So I 

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many good fellows may be, To 
tra - vell'd up and down, No 

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think ot j could find Til j j came to the ht of the (; rown> . 

compa- ' 

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hostess was 
old [Sir] 

sick of the mumps, The maid was ill at her ease, The 
Si - mon the king, [Says old Sir Si - mon the king, With his 

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was drunk in his dumps, They were all of one 
dropt hose, and his Malm - sey nose, Sing hey ding ding a 

4 i 

dis - ease, 
ding, ding.] 

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Considering in my mind, 

I thus began to think : 
If a man be full to the throat, 

And cannot take off his drink, 
If his drink will not go down, 

He may hang up himself for shame, 
So the tapster at.the Crown ; 

Whereupon this reason I frame : 
Drink will make a man drunk, 

Drunk will make a man dry, 
Dry will make a man sick, 

And sick will make a man die, 
Says Old Simon the King. 

If a man should be drunk to-night, 
And laid in his grave to-morrow, 

Will you or any man say 

That he died of care or sorrow ? 

Then hang up all sorrow and care, 
'Tis able to kill a cat, 

And he that will drink all right, 

Is never afraid of that ; 
For drinking will make a man quaff, 

And quaffing will make a man sing, 
And singing will make a man laugh, 

And laughing long life doth bring, 
Says Old Simon the King. 

If a Puritan skinker do cry, 

Dear brother, it is a sin 
To drink unless you be dry, 

Then straight this tale I begin : 
A Puritan left his can, 

And took him to his jug, 
And there he played the man 

As long as he could tug ; 
And when that he was spied, 

Did ever he swear or rail ? 
No, truly, dear brother, he cried, 

Indeed all flesh is frail, 

Says Old Simon the King. 


The above song dates before the Restoration, because there is a political parody 
upon it among the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus., dated January 19th, 1659, 
commencing thus : " In a humour of late I was 

Ycleped a doleful dump ; 
Thought I, we're at a fine pass, 

Not a man stands up for the Rump," &c. 

I suppose it to have been written only a short time before the return of Charles, 
and that this Old Simon the King is the same person alluded to in one of the 
Catches in the Antidote to Melancholy, 4to, 1661, beginning 
" Good Symon, how comes it your nose is so red, 
And your cheeks and your lips look so pale ? 
Sure the heat of the toast your nose did so roast 

When they were both soused in ale," &c. 

And perhaps also in " An Epitaph on an honest citizen and true friend to all 
claret drinkers," contained in part ii. of Playford's Pleasant Musical Companion, 
4to, 1687 " Here lyeth Simon, cold as clay, 

Who whilst he liv'd cried Tip away," &c. 
At the end of this epitaph it is said 

" Now although this same epitaph was long since given, 

Yet Simon's not dead more than any man living." 
He was, perhaps, an old man whose death had been long expected. 

The tune was in great favour at, and after, the Restoration. Many of the 
songs of the Cavaliers were sung to it; many by Martin Parker, and other 
ballad-writers of the reigns of James and Charles ; several by Wilmott, Earl of 
Rochester ; and others of still later date. 

Penkethman, the actor, wrote a comedy called Love without Interest, or 
The Man too hard for the Master (1699), in which one of the characters says 
satirically, " Who? he! why the newest song he has is The Children in the Wood, 
or The London Prentice, or some such like ditty, set to the new modish tune of 
Old Sir Simon the King" 

The name of the tune, Old Simon the King, is printed in much larger letters 
than any other of the collection, on the title-page of "A Choice Collection of 
Lessons, being excellently sett to the Harpsichord, by the two great masters, 
Dr. John Blow, and the late Mr. Henry Purcell," printed by Henry Play ford in 
1705 : it was evidently thought to be the great attraction to purchasers. 

Fielding, in his novel of Tom Jones, makes it Squire Western's favorite tune. 
He tells us, " It was Mr. Western's custom every afternoon, as soon as he was 
drunk, to hear his daughter play upon the harpsichord. . . . He never relished 
any music but what was light and airy ; and, indeed, his most favorite tunes were 
Old Sir Simon the King, St. George he was for England, and some others. . . . The 
Squire declared, if she would give him t'other bout of Old Sir Simon, he would 
give the gamekeeper his deputation the next morning. Sir Simon was played 
again and again, till the charms of music soothed Mr. Western to sleep." i. 169. 
It was the tune rather than the words, that gave it so lengthened a popularity. 
I have found the air commonly quoted under five other names; viz., as Ragged 


and torn, and true ; as Tlie Golden Age ; as I'll ne'er be drunk again ; as When 
this old cap was new ; and as Eound about our coal-fire. The first is from the 
ballad called " Ragged and torn, and true ; or The Poor Man's Resolution : to 
the tune of Old Simon the King" See Roxburghe Collection, i. 352 ; or Payne 
Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 26. 

The second from " The Newmarket Song, to the tune of Old Simon the King ; " 
and beginning with the line, " The Golden Age is come." See 180 Loyal Songs, 
4th edition, 1694, p. 152. 

The third from a song called " The Reformed Drinker ; " the burden of which 
is, "And ne'er be drunk again." See Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 47, 1707, or 
iv. 47, 1719 ; also Ritson's English Songs, ii. 59, 1813. 
The fourth from one entitled " Time's Alteration : 

" The old man's rehearsal what brave things he knew, 

A great while agone, when this old cap was new ; 

to the tune of He nere be drunke againe" Pepy's Collection, i. 160 ; or Evans' 
Old Ballads, iii. 262. (The name of the tune omitted, as usual, by Evans.) 

The fifth is the name commonly given to it in collections of country dances, 
printed during the last century. 

One of the best political songs to the tune is " The Sale of Rebellion's 
Household Stun ;" a triumph over the downfall of the Rump Parliament, 
beginning " Rebellion hath broken up house, 

And hath left me old lumber to sell ; 
Come hither and take your choice, 

I'll promise to use you well. 
Will you buy the old Speaker's chair, 

Which was warm and pleasant to sit in ? " &c. 

This song has the old burden at full length. The auctioneer, finding no pur- 
chasers, offers, at the end, to sell the whole " for an old song." It has been re- 
printed in Percy's Religues of Ancient Poetry. 
I have seen a song beginning 

" To old Sir Simon the King, 

And young Sir Simon the Squire," 

but have mislaid the reference. The tune is called " To old Sir Simon the King," 
in the first edition of the Beggars' Opera, 1728. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 468, one of the ballads by Martin Parker, to 
the tune of Ragged and torn, and true, is entitled " Well met, Neighbour, or 
" A dainty discourse, between Nell and Sis, 

Of men that do use their wives amiss." 

This might be revived with some benefit to the lower classes at the present day, 
especially if the last line of the burden could be impressed upon them 
" Heard you not lately of Hugh, 

How soundly his wife he bang'd ? 
He beat her all black and blue : 

Oh I such a rogue should be hang'd." 



Farquhar's song in the Beaux^s Stratagem, beginning 
" A trifling song you shall hear, 

Begun with a trifle and ended ; 
All trifling people draw near, 

And I shall be nobly attended," 

was written to this tune, and is printed to it in The Musical Companion, or Lady's 
Magazine, 8vo., 1741. 

" The praise of St. David's day : shewing the reason why the Welshmen honour 
the leek on that day." Beginning 

" Who list to read the deeds 

By valiant Welshmen done," &c., 
is also to the tune, under the name of When this old cap ivas neiu. 

The following is the ballad of "Ragged and torn, and true; or The Poor Man's 
Resolution," set to the tune as it is found in The Dancing Master, and other 
violin copies, but omitting the variations. 




am a poor man, God knows, And all my neighbours can tell, I 



want both money and clothes, And yet I live wond' - rous well 

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I have a con - tent - ed mind, And a 
Then hang up sor - row and care, It 

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heart to bear out all, Though 
never shall make me rue ; What 

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my back goes bare, I'm r 

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agged and torn 

and true. 


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I scorn to live by the shift, 

Or by any sinister dealing ; 
I'll flatter no man for a gift, 

Nor will I get money by stealing. 
I'll be no knight of the post, 

To sell my soul for a bribe ; 
Though all my fortunes be cross'd, 

Yet I scorn the cheater's tribe. 
Then hang up sorrow and care, 

It never shall make me rue ; 
What though my cloak be threadbare, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

A boot of Spanish leather 

I've seen set fast in the stocks, 
Exposed to wind and weather, 

And foul reproach and mocks ; 
While I, in my poor rags, 

Can pass at liberty still 
O, fie on these brawling brags, 

When money is gotten so ill ! 
O, fie on these pilfering knaves ! 

I scorn to be of that crew ; 
They steal to make themselves brave 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

I've seen a gallant go by 

With all his wealth on his back ; 
He looked as loftily 

As one that did nothing lack. 
And yet he hath no means 

But what he gets by the sword, 
Which he consumes on queans, 

For it thrives not, take my word. 
O, fie on these highway thieves ! 

The gallows will be their due 
Though my doublet be rent i' th' sleeves, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

Some do themselves maintain 

With playing at cards and dice ; 
O, fie on that lawless gain, 

Got by such wicked vice ! 
They cozen poor country-men 

With their delusions vilde ; [vile] 
Yet it happens now and then 

That they are themselves beguil'd ; 
For, if they be caught in a snare, 

The pillory claims its due ; 
Though my jerkin be worn and bare, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

I have seen some gallants brave 

Up Holborn ride in a cart, 
Which sight much sorrow gave 

To every tender heart ; 
Then have I said to myself 

What pity is it, for this, 
That any man for pelf 

Should do such a foul amiss. 
O, fie on deceit and theft ! 

It makes men at the last rue ; 
Though I have but little left, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

The pick-pockets in a throng, 

Either at market or fair, 
Will try whose purse is strong, 

That they may the money share ; 
But if they are caught i' th' action, 

They're carried away in disgrace, 
Either to the House of Correction, 

Or else to a worser place. 
O, fie on these pilfering thieves ? 

The gallows will be their due ; 
What need I sue for reprieves ? 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

The ostler to maintain 

Himself with money in's purse, 
Approves the proverb true, 

And says, Grammercy horse ; 
He rohs the travelling beast, 

That cannot divulge his ill, 
He steals a whole handful, at least, 

From every half-peck he should fill. 
O, fie on these cozening scabs, 

That rob the poor jades of their due ! 
I scorn all thieves and drabs 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 

'Tis good to be honest and just, 

Though a man be never so poor ; 
False dealers are still in mistrust, 

They're afraid of the officer's door : 
Their conscience doth them accuse, 

And they quake at the noise of a bush ; 
While he that doth no man abuse, 

For the law needs not care a rush. 
Then well fare the men that can say, 

I pay every man his due ; 
Although I go poor in array, 

I'm ragged, and torn, and true. 


The following is the before-mentioned song, " The Reformed Drinker, or I'll 
ne'er be drunk again," also to the tune of Old Sir Simon the King. 

Come, my hearts of gold, When with good fellows we meet, 

Let us be merry and wise ; A quart among three or four, 

It is a proverb of old, 'Twill make us stand on our feet, 

Suspicion hath double eyes. While others lie drunk on the floor. 

Whatever we say or do, Then, drawer, go fill us a quart, 

Let's not drink to disturb the brain ; And let it be claret in grain ; 

Let's laugh for an hour or two, 'Twill cherish and comfort the heart 

And ne'er be drunk again. But we'll ne'er be drunk again. 

A cup of old sack is good Here's a health to our noble King, 

To drive the cold winter away ; And to the Queen of his heart; 

'Twill cherish and comfort the blood Let's laugh and merrily sing, 

Most when a man's spirits decay : And he's a coward that will start. 

But he that drinks too much, Here's a health to our general, 

Of his head he will complain ; And to those that were in Spain ; 

Then let's have a gentle touch, And to our colonel 

And ne'er be drunk again. And we'll ne'er be drunk again. 

Good claret was made for man, Enough's as good as a feast, 

But man was not made for it ; If a man did but measure know ; 

Let's be merry as we can, A drunkard's worse than a beast, 

So we drink not away our wit ; For he'll drink till he cannot go. 

Good fellowship is abus'd, If a man could time recall, 

And wine will infect the brain : In a tavern that's spent in vain, 

But we'll have it better us'd, We'd learn to be sober all, 

And ne'er be drunk again. And we'd ne'er be drunk again. 


This tune is contained in Tfte Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. 
The following ballads were sung to it : 

Roxburghe Collection, i. 528 " Trial brings Truth to light ; or 
The proof a pudding is all in the eating ; 
A dainty new ditty of many things treating : 

to the tune of The Beggar Boy" by Martin Parker ; and beginning 
" The world hath allurements and flattering shows, 

To purchase her lovers' good estimation ; 
Her tricks and devices he's wise that well knows 

The learn'd in this science are taught by probation," &c. 
The burden is, " The proof of the pudding is all in the eating." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 542 " The Beggar Boy of the North 
Whose lineage and calling to the world is proclaim'd, 
Which is to be sung to the tune so nam'd ; " 
beginning " From ancient pedigree, by due descent, 

I well can derive my generation," &c. ; 
and the burden, " And cry, Good, your worship, bestow one token." 

In the Roxburghe, i. 450, and Pepys, i. 306" The witty Western Lasse," &c., 
" to a new tune called The Beggar Boy : " subscribed Robert Guy. This begins, 
" Sweet Lucina, lend me thy ayde ; " and in the Pepys Collection, i. 310, there is 



a ballad to the tune of Lucina, entitled " A most pleasant Dialogue, or a merry 
greeting between two Lovers," &c. ; beginning, " Good morrow, fair Nancie, 
whither so fast ; " which I suppose to be also to the tune. It is subscribed C.R. 
Printed at London for H[enry G[osson.] 

The following is also from the Roxburghe Collection (i. 462), and is reprinted 
in Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 7. 

/p%fi 1 1 1 


\f \ J M 

* ~~i ^ 



ir" F - J J f 

Sweet mis-tress Money, I 

here will declare Thy beauty which ev'ry one adoreth.Th 

L >% " r 

1 r ' ' M ' U . ' 

i T~n * 


gfe , 


N 1 K 

[ j IT 

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P ^ "P * ' r ~* 

lof- ty gal-lant and beg-gar so bi 

-f ' r-C : ttm 

I j 'd J 4 i' -d < i d ii 

ire, Some help and comfort from thee im-plor-eth, For 
. ,p , f , 



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-*i IEEE 

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thou art become the world's sweet-heart, While ev'ry one doth make thee their honey, And 

^ J f i J h i 



H ; 

1 M 

-, r- ^f m 

oth they are from thee to de-part, So well they do love sweet Mis - tress Mo-ney. 


This is a bagpipe tune, and might be harmonized with a drone base. In 
MusicKs Recreation on the Viol, Lyra-way, 1661, the viol is strung to the " bag- 
pipe tuning," to play it. It is to be found in every edition of The Dancing Master, 
from the first to that of 1698. I have not discovered the song of The Boatman, 
but have adapted a stanza from Coryat's Orambe, 1611, to the air. It resembles 
Trip and go (see p. 131), and the same words might be sung to it. The accent 
of the tune seems intended to imitate the turning of the scull in boating. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 496, is a ballad entitled " The wanton wife of 



Castle-gate, or The Boatman's Delight : to its own proper new tune ; " but it 
appears, from the following, which is the first stanza, that this air cannot have 
been intended. 

" Farewell both hawk and hind, Farewell, my best beloved, 

Farewell both shaft and bow, In whom I put my trust ; 

Farewell all merry pastimes, For its neither grief nor sorrow 

And pleasures in a row : Shall harbour in my breast." 

There is an air in Thomson's Orpheus Cdledonius called The Boatman, but wholly 
different from this. 

' In rowing 


-K-, 1 

r? rn 

,1 M N 

Ye Church-ales and ye 
t). (i ~i 1 

Mor - ris - es, With 

__ _ JL . j 

hob - by-horse ad - van - cing, Ye 

~T * ~ ' mf 

-=] ! F ' > : 

8 ^ 

_j 1 

N 1 1 N , j * J r J 

J*lj . 1 

J J J ' - =3 --j J J fr - H r 

round games with fine Sim and Sis A - bout the May 

' f ~r~* 

-pole dan - cing. 

a : 1 , E : 1 

~ 1 M & 

S3 . 1 1 

-u =i-p- 


: r 

^-B 1 J> J ^r~l rV-l ^n 


-f i J f* N 

i k P i 

J Q . J J J 

d PS--+ 

-Sj r j-*-i 1 r >- 
Ye nim-ble joints, that with red points and rib - bons deck the bri - dal, Lock 


m . mu 

*1 ^n * C; 

_j q? ^ 

! 1 1 

1 1 

& h J J* J ^ 

N i 

1 %f : fra r~ 

T r r 

up your pumps, and rest your stumps, For you are now down - cried all. 

~^~ * T^B ~9f * ttj * ~*~ 

z3 \ - \ 

__ __ . .___ _ ! 

li =1 i 2 


This second tune to the ballad, " When Arthur first in court began " (which 
the black-letter copies, The G-arland of G-ood-will, &c., direct to be sung to the 
tune of Flying Fame see p. 199), was transcribed by Dr. Rimbault, from the fly- 
leaf of a rare book of Lessons for the Virginals, entitled Parthenia Inviolata. 

The ballad is quoted by Shakespeare, by Beaumout and Fletcher, by Marston, 
&c. It is founded on the romance of Sir Launcelot du Lake, than which none 
was more popular. Chaucer, in " The Nonne Prest his tale," says 
' This story is al so trewe, I undertake, 
As the book is of Launcelot the Lake ; " 



and Churchard, in his " Replication to Camel's objection," says to him 
" The most of your study hath been of Robyn Hood : 
And Bevis of Hampton and Syr Launcelet de Lake 
Hath taught you, full oft, your verses to make." 

The ballad, entitled " The noble acts of Arthur of the Round Table, and of Sir 
Laiincelot du Lake," is printed in Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry. 
Boldly and slow. 


When Ar - thur first in court be-gan, And was ap-pi'ov-ed King, By 

force of arms, great vic-t'ries won, And con - quest home did bring. 



This is in every edition of 2%e Dancing Master, and in MusicKs Delight on 
the Cithren, 1666. 

It is found in the ballad-operas, such as The Bays' Opera, 1730, and The 
Fashionable Lady, 1730, under the name of Gome, follow, follow me. 

The name of The Spanish Gipsy is probably derived from a gipsies' song in 
Rowley and Middleton's play of that name. It begins, " Come, follow your 
leader, follow," and the metre is suitable to the air. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 544, is a black-letter ballad, entitled " The 
brave English Jipsie: to the tune of The Spanish Jipsie. Printed for John 
Trundle," &c. It consists of eighteen stanzas, and commencing 
" Come, follow, follow all, 

'Tis English Jipsies' call." 

And in the same volume, p. 408, one by M[artin] P[arker], called " The three 
merry Cobblers," of which the following are the first, eighth, fourteenth, and last 
stanzas. (Printed at London for F. Grove.) 

Come, follow, follow me, 

To the alehouse we'll march all three. 

Leave awl, last, thread, and leather, 

And let's go all together. 
Our trade excels most trades i'the land, 
For we are still on the mending hand. 

Whatever we do intend, 

We bring to a perfect end ; 

If any offence be past, 

We make all well at last. 
We sit at work when others stand, 
And still we are on the mending hand. 

All day we merrily sing, 

And customers to us do bring 

Or unto us do send 

Their boots and shoes to mend. 
We have our money at first demand ; 
Thus still we are on the mending hand. 

We pray for dirty weather, 
And money to pay for leather, 
Which if we have, and health, 
A fig for worldly wealth. 
Till men upon their heads do stand, 
We still shall be on the mending hand. 



The most popular song to this tune was 

" Come, follow, follow me, 

Ye fairy elves that be," &c. 

It is the first in a tract entitled " A Description of the King and Queene of 
Fayries, their habit, fare, abode, pompe, and state : being very delightful to the 
sense, and full of mirth. London : printed for Richard Harper, and are to be 
sold at his shop at the Hospitall Gate, 1635 ; " and the song was to be " sung 
like to the Spanish Gripsie" 

The first stanza is here printed to the tune. The song will be found entire in 
Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, or Ritson's English Songs. 
Lightly, and in moderate time. 



fol - low, 

fol - low me, Ye fai - ry elves that be, Which 



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cir - cle on the 

I3 : d : 1 

jreen, Come 

i i i 

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fol - low M 

i 1 


ab, your 

queen. . . 




f J ; 

-f FT- 

j 1 


H I H 

J J r 

I m 


m * m 


. m ; 9 m , m 

_ 1 _ H ! 

^r r 

T "f r^ ^r "5 

I 9 

Hand in hand let's dance a-round, For this place is 

fai - ry ground. 

r N N-r- 

c ? 1 i 

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m J , 

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1^ i t 

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In Anthony Munday's Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington (written in 
1597), where Little John expresses his doubts of the success of the play; 
saying " Methinks I see no jests of Robin Hood ; 

No merry Morrices of Friar Tuck ; 
No pleasant skippings up and down the wood ; 

No hunting songs," &c. 

The Friar answers, that " merry jests" have been shewn before, such as 
" How the Friar fell into the well, 

For love of Jenny, that fair, bonny belle," &c. 
The title of this ballad is " The Fryer well fitted; or 
A pretty jest that once befell ; 
How a maid put a Fryer to cool in a well : 
to a merry tune." 



The tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1686, entitled The Maid 
peept out at the window, or The Frier in the Well 

The ballad is in the Bagford Collection ; in the Roxburghe (ii. 172) ; the 
Pepys (iii. 145) ; the Douce (p. 85) ; and in Wit and Mirth, an Antidote to 
Melancholy, 8vo., 1682. Also, in an altered form, in Pills to purge Melancholy, 
1707 i. 340 ; or 1719, iii. 325. But not one of these contains the line, " The 
maid peept out of the window." I suppose, therefore, that the present has been 
modelled upon some earlier version of the ballad, which I have not seen. The 
story is a very old one, and one of the many against monks and friars, in which, 
not only England but all Europe delighted. 


-^ Grace 

fully. _^ 

7 K j ^ 

^ . OOLO 


-i -14> j 

I lay mus-mg 

all a - lone, Fa 

1 1 * 

tJJ* * T ^ *~~^ 

la, la la la, A 

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^ft n 


tzj . 

- -.-^~ 

p *_j_| 1 1_4 
TT if~l (T 

-rt 1 r. 

pret - ty j 

EE= 2 d 
T. iff- 

sst, I thought up - 

1 ih- 

on, ' Fa la, 

( ' !* 

la la la. 

r '- r 

^ * - 
^ SOLO. 

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~~^ i KT~ 

3 1 

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m * , f 

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= ?-TP2 t- 

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Then listen 

l^Ur * **i * : 

a -while, And I will tell Of a Friar that lov'd a bonny lass well, 

, P . f , 5f f r f - . i - 


p r ] r ' 

-^ ^-^ E 

5 ^ 


The story of the ballad may be told, with slight abbreviation. Firstly, the 
Friar makes love to the Maid : 

" But she denyed his desire, 
And told him that she fear'd Hell-fire. 
Tush, quoth the Friar, thou needst not doubt, 
If thou wert in Hell, I could sing thee out." 


The Maid pretends to be persuaded by his arguments, but stipulates that he shall 
bring her an angel of money. 

"Tush, quoth the Friar, we shall agree, While he was gone (the truth to tell), 

No money shall part my love and me; She hung a cloth before the well. 

Before that I will see thee lack, The Friar came, as his covenant was, 

I'll pawn my grey gown from my back. With money to his bonny lass. [quoth he, 

The Maid bethought her of a wile, Good morrow, fair Maid, good morrow, 

How she the Friar might beguile; Here is the money I promised thee." 

The Maid thanks him, and takes the money, but immediately pretends that her 
father is coming. 

" Alas ! quoth the Friar, where shall I run, Quoth he, for sweet St. Francis' sake, 

To hide myself till he be gone? On his disciple some pity take; 

Behind the cloth run thou, quoth she, Quoth she, St. Francis never taught 

And there my father cannot thee see. His scholars to tempt young maids to naught. 

Behind the cloth the Friar crept, The Friar did entreat her still 

And into the well on a sudden he leapt. That she would help him out of the well ; 

Alas! quoth he, I am in the well; She heard him make such piteous moan, 

No matter, quoth she, if thou wert in Hell : She help'd him out, and bid him begone. 

Thou sayst thou couldst sing me out of Hell, Quoth he, shall I have my money again, 

Now, prythee, sing thyself out of the well. Which from me thou hast before-hand ta'en? 

The Friar sung on with a pitiful sound, Good sir, quoth she, there's no such matter, 

help me out! or I shall be drown'd. I'll make you pay for fouling the water. 

1 trow, quoth she, your courage is cool'd ; The Friar went all along the street, 
Quoth the Friar, I never was so fool'd; Dropping wet, like a new-wash'd sheep; 

I never was served so before. [no more ; Both old and young commended the Maid 
Then take heed, quoth she, thou com'st here That such a witty prank had play'd." 


This " merry tune " is another version of The Friar in the Well (see the pre- 
ceding). The ballad of Sir Eglamore is a satire upon the narratives of deeds 
of chivalry in old romances. It is contained in The Melancholie Knight, by 
S[amuel] R[owlands], 1615 ; in the Antidote to Melancholy, 1661; in Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 ; in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv. 104; in the Bagford 
and Roxburghe Collections of Ballads ; in Ritson's Ancient Songs ; Evans' Old 
Ballads; &c., &c. 

It appears, with music, in part ii. of Playford's Pleasant Musical Companion, 
1687 ; in Pills to purge Melancholy ; in Stafford Smith's Musica Antigua; and the 
tune, with other words, in 180 Loyal Songs, &c. 

The title of the ballad is, " Courage crowned with Conquest; or A brief rela- 
tion how that valiant Knight, and heroic Champion, Sir Eglamore, bravely fought 
with and manfully slew a terrible, huge, great, monstrous Dragon. To a pleasant 
new tune." There are many variations in the copies from different presses. 

The following songs were sung to Sir Eglamore : 

" Sir Eglamore and the Dragon, or a relation how General Monk slew a most 
cruel Dragon, Feb. 11, 1659." See Loyal Songs written against the Rinnp 



' Ignoramus Justice ; or 

The English laws turn'd into a gin, 
To let knaves out and keep honest men in : 

to the tune of Sir Egledemore" London : printed for Allen Bancks, 1682. 
" The Jacobite toss'd in a Blanket," &c. (Pepys Coll., ii. 292) ; beginning 
" I pray, Mr. Jacobite, tell me why, Fa la, &c., 
You on our government look awry, Fa la, &c. 
With paltry hat, and threadbare coat, 
And jaws as thin as a Harry groat, 
You've brought yourselves and your cause to nought. 

Fa-la, fa-la-la-la, Fa-la, lanky down dilly." 

In Rowland's Melancholic Knight, the ballad is thus prefaced : 
" But that I turn, and overturn again, 
Old books, wherein the worm-holes do remain ; 
Containing acts of ancient knights and squires 
That fought with dragons, spitting forth wild fires. 
The history unto you shall appear, 
Even by myself, verbatim, set down here." 
j Gracefully. CHORUS. 

- . r .., 

**3 1 

/pfi fr 



E i 


J J 1 

^B ft ^ 


J . 


m : 

m \ 

Sir Eg - la - more, 

that v 

i-liant knight, Fa, la, lanky down dilly. 

7 \ r^5 ~7i 

* / "Ft IJ ] 

1 p 

1 J 




. ' 1 

J 1 

L * 

*, SOLO. 


^^ \ r 1 S , rr 


J J \^ 

1 f* i t : ' : 


*l ^ i "~^ 


1 * 

J g 

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He took his sword, and we 

m m .J. 
nt to fight, Fa, la, lanky down dilly. 


M r- 

j 1 



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3E 3 D 


_i / j ->- 

j j -K-i 

r~l FH 


r~l P 1 




= 5. 

he rode o'er 

-t P * 1 -J 4 J 

p =*=ITF 

hill and dale, All arm'd up-on his 

shirt of mail, 

^ . &y . 

. ^^ 


L e 

1 ^^ = Z^ 


j~r |* =j 


Fa la J a, fa la la, Fa la, Ian -ky down 


A Dragon came out of his den, The Dragon had a plaguey hide, 

Had slain, God knows how many men : And could the sharpest steel abide; 

When he espied Sir Eglamore, No sword would enter him with cuts, 

Oh ! if you had but heard him roar ! Which vext the Knight unto the guts ; 

Then the trees began to shake, But, as in choler he did burn, 

The Knight did tremble, horse did quake ; He watched the Dragon a good turn, 

The birds betake them all to peeping, And as a yawning he did fall, 

It would have made you fall a weeping. He thrust the sword in, hilt and all. 

But now it is vain to fear, Then like a coward he [did] fly 

For it must be fight dog, fight bear ; Unto his den that was hard by, 

To it they go, and fiercely fight And there he lay all night and roar'd: 

A live-long day, from morn till night. The Knight was sorry for his sword ; 

But riding thence, said, I forsake it, 
He that will fetch it, let him take it." 

Instead of the two last lines, in many of the copies, are the three following 
stanzas : 

The sword, that was a right good blade, For he was 80 hot with tagging w' th * 

As ever Turk or Spaniard made, Dra g n > t fla g 011 ' 

I, for my part, do forsake it, That nothin S Would 1 uench him but a whole 

And he that will fetch it, let him take it. Now God preserve our King and Queen, 

And eke in London may be seen 

When all was done, to the alehouse he went, As many knights, and as many more, 

And by and by his two-pence he spent ; And all so good as Sir Eglamore. 


This tune first appears in The Dancing Master, in the seventh edition, printed 
in 1686. It is there entitled The Collier's Jiyg. More than sixty years before 
it had been published in Holland, as an English song-tune, in Belkrophon, 1622 ; 
and in NederlandtscJie G-edenck-Clanck, 1626. In the index to the latter, among 
the "Engelsche Stemmen," it is entitled " Cobbeler, of: Het Engelsch Lapper- 
ken." All the English airs in thes Dutch books have Dutch words adapted to 
them; but as I do not know the English words which belong to this, I have 
adapted an appropriate song from The Shoemaker's Holiday, 1600. 

In the Pepys Collection of Ballads, vol. i., No. 227, is one entitled " Round, 
boyes, indeed ! or The Shoemaker's Holy-day : 

Being a very pleasant new ditty, 
To fit both country, towne, and cittie, &c. 

To a pleasant new tune." It is signed L.P. (Laurence Price?), and printed 
for J. Wright, who printed about 1620. This may prove to be the ballad. 
I noted that it was in eighteen stanzas, but omitted to copy it. 

Shoemakers called their trade " the gentle craft," from a tradition that King 
Edward IV., in one of his disguises, once drank with a party of shoemakers, and 
pledged them. The story is alluded to in the old play, Creorge a Greene, the 
Pinner of WaJcefield (1599), when Jenkinsays 

" Marry, because you have drank with the King, 
And the King hath so graciously pledg'd you, 
You shall no more be called shoemakers ; 
But you and yours, to the world's end, 
Shall be called the trade of the gentle graft." 

Dodsley's Old Plays, v. iii., p. 45. 



"Would I had been created a shoemaker," (says the servant in a play of Dekker's) 
" for all the gentle craft are gentlemen every Monday by their copy, and scorn 
then to work one true stitch." Dodsley's Old Plays, v. iii., p. 282. 

Cobblers, too, were .proverbially a merry set. In the opening scene of Ben 
Jonson's play, The case is altered, Juniper, the cobbler, is discovered sitting at 
work in his shop, and singing ; and Onion, who is sent for him, has great diffi- 
culty in stopping his song. When told that he must slip on his coat and go to 
assist, because they lack waiters, he exclaims, " A pityful hearing ! for now must I, 
of a merry cobbler, become a mourning creature." (The family were in mourning). 
Juniper is also represented as a small poet ; and when, in the third act, Onion 
goes to him again (the cobbler being in his shop, and singing, as usual), and 
explains his distress because Valentine had not written the ditty he ordered of 
him, Juniper says, "No matter, I'll hammer out a ditty myself." 

0$. J 



d J 

J J 1 J J J J 1 

Cold's the wind, and 

5b * f 

wet's the rai 

^^= f f -a * 

n, Saint Hugh be our good 

f \ jj* ^-3 C> 

cS * 

i P r P 

* -1* ( \ ^ M 


! P -f P b 

ft" ^ 1 


F E 1 ' ^ 

K i 1 

1 1 ^^ 


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g j 

i = 

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^ r^ 

r i f 3 "rat: 


speed ; 11 

C| p - - - 

1 is the weather that bringeth no gain, Nor helps good hearts in need. 

i Lf r p -r r i i ^=: 


3 j- 


r~|| | 

^*J j p 1 1 ' :i 4- 
f [ T*| ; 1 -^ 1 1 ; r- 

~J i~J 

Hey down a 




f ^" 

hey down 

J- J-J- 
a down; Hey 

der-ry der-ry down a down. 



~ I 

J 1 


U $ J J - 

Ho ! well done, To 

~~- 1 1 

me lei 

come, Ring 


7^ hrf 1 .-"^ 

corn-pass, gen - tie joy. 
p f j= E 

j. J 



Troll the bowl, the nut-brown bowl, 

And here, kind mate, to thee ! 
Let's sing a dirge for Saint Hugh's soul, 
And down it merrily. 

Hey down a down, hey down a down, 

Hey derry, derry, down a down ; 
Ho ! well done, to me let come, 
Ring compass, gentle joy. 



This tune was formerly very popular, and is to be found under a variety of 
names, and in various shapes. In the second vol. of The Dancing Master it is 
entitled Ttie Merry Milkmaids. In The Merry Musician, or a Cure for the 
Spleen, i. 64, it is printed to the ballad, " The Farmer's Daughter of merry 
Wakefield." That ballad begins with the line, " Down in the North Country ; " 
and the air is so entitled in the ballad-opera, A Cure for a Scold, 1738. In 
180 Loyal Songs, third and fourth editions, 1684 and 1694, there are two songs, 
and the tune is named Philander. The first of the songs begins, " Ah, cruel 
bloody fate," and the second is " to the tune of Ah, cruel Woody fate ; " by which 
name it is also called in The Grenteel Companion for the Recorder, 1683, and 

One of M[artin] P[arker's] ballads is entitled " Take time while 'tis offer'd ; " 
" For Tom has broke his word with his sweeting, 
And lost a good wife for an hour's meeting ; 
Another good fellow has gotten the lass, 
And Tom may go shake his long ears like an ass." 

to the tune Within the North Country" (Roxburghe, i. 396.) It begins with 
the line, " When Titan's fiery steeds," and the last stanza is 
" Thus Tom hath lost his lass, 
Because he broke his vow ; 
And I have raised my fortunes well 

The case is alter' d now" 

There are many ballads to the tune The case is altered, and probably this is 

In the Bagford Collection is " The True Lover's lamentable Overthrow ; or 
The Damosel's last Farewell," &c. : "to the tune of Cruel bloody fate;" 
commencing " You parents all attend 

To what of late befell ; 
It is to you I send 

These lines, my last farewell." &c. 

In the Douce Collection, p. 245, " The West Country Lovers 
See here the pattern of true love, 

Amongst the country blades, 
Who never can delighted be, 

But when amongst the maids : 
tune of Philander." 

The last is in black-letter, printed by J. Bonyers, at the Black Raven in Duck 
Lane. A former possessor has written " Cruel bloody fate " under " Philander," 
as being the other name of the tune. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 105, "The Deceiver Deceived; or The 
Virgin's Revenge : to the tune of Ah, cruel bloody fate" begins, " Ah, cruel maid, 
give o'er." 

In A Cabinet of Choice Jewels, 1688 (Wood's Library, Oxford) a " Carol for 
Innocents' Day: tune of Bloody fate." 



The song of Philander is in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 252 (1707), or 
iv. 284 (1719) ; in Wit and Drollery, 1682 ; and a black-letter copy in the 
Douce Collection, p. 74, entitled " The Faithfull Lover's Downfall; or The 
Death of fair Phillis, who killed herself for the loss of her Philander," &c. : to a 
pleasant new play-house tune, or cruel bloody fate" (Printed by T. Vere, at 
the Angel in Giltspur Street.) 

-^ o 



ana in moaeraie imie. 

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cru - el bloody fate, What w canst thou now do 

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more ? Ah me, 'tis now too late, Phi - Ian - der to res - tore, 

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Why should the heavenly pow'rs persuade Poor mor - tals to be - lieve That they 

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guard us here and re - 

ward us thei 

e, Yet 

all our joy 

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Her poniard then she took, and graspt it in her hand, 

And with a dying look, cried, Thus I fate command : 

Philander, ah, my love ! I come to meet thy shade below ; 

Ah, I come ! she cried, with a wound so wide, to need no second blow. 

In purple waves her blood ran streaming down the floor ; 

Unmov'd she saw the flood, and bless'd her dying hour : 

Philander, ah Philander, still the bleeding Phillis cried; 

She wept awhile, and forc'd a smile, then clos'd her eyes and died. 

The following is the version called " Down in the North Country," of which 
there are also copies in Halliwell's Collection (Cheetham Library, 1850), and in 
Dr. Burney'g Collection, Brit. Mus. 



-^ L Cheerfully. ( 


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Down in 


the North Coun - try, As an - cient re - ports do 

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tell, There lies a fa-mous country town, Some call it merry Wakeneld, And 

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this co 

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un - try town, A 

far - mer there did dwell, Whose 





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daugh-ter would to mar-ket go, Her trea - sure for to sell. 

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The following is the version of the same tune, which is entitled The Merry Milk- 
maids in the second volume of The Dancing Master. It was formerly the custom 
for milkmaids to dance before the houses of their customers in the month of May, 
to obtain a small gratuity ; and probably this tune, and The Merry Milkmaids in 
green, were especial favorites, and therefore named after them. To be a milkmaid 
and to be merry were almost synonymous in the olden time. Sir Thomas 
Overbury's Character o/ a Milkmaid, and some allusions to their songs, will be 
found with the tune entitled The Merry Milkmaids in green. The following 
quotations relate to their music and dancing. 

In Beaumont and Fletcher's play, The Coxcomb, Nan, the milkmaid, says 
" Come, you shall e'en home with us, and be our fellow ; 

Our house is so honest ! 

And we serve a very good woman, and a gentlewoman ; 

And we live as merrily, and dance o' good days 

After even-song. Our wake shall be on Sunday : 

Do you know what a wake is ? we have mighty cheer then," &c. 
Pepys, in his Diary, 13th Oct., 1662, says, " With my father took a melan- 
choly walk to Portholme, seeing the country-maids, milking their cows there, 
they being there now at grass ; and to see with what mirth they come all home 
together in pomp with their milk, and sometimes they have music go before them." 



Again, on the 1st May, 1667, " To Westminster ; on the way meeting many 
milkmaids with their garlands upon their pails, dancing with a fiddler before 
them; and saw pretty Nelly" [Nell Gwynne] "standing at her lodgings' door in 
Drury Lane, in her smock sleeves and bodice, looking upon one : she seemed a 
mighty pretty creature." 

In a set of prints, called Tempest's Cryes of London, one is called " The Merry 
Milkmaid, whose proper name was Kate Smith. She is dancing with her milk- 
pail on her head, decorated with silver cups, tankards, and salvers, borrowed for 
the purpose, and tied together with ribbands, and ornamented with flowers. Of 
late years, the plate, with other decorations, were placed in a pyramidical form, 
and carried by two chairmen upon a wooden horse. The mikmaids walked before 
it, and performed the dance without any incumbrance. Strutt mentions having 
seen "these superfluous ornaments, with much more propriety, substituted by a 
cow. The animal had her horns gilt, and was nearly covered with ribbands of 
various colours, formed into bows and roses, and interspersed with green oaken 
leaves and bunches of flowers." Sports and Pastimes, edited by Hone, p. 358. 


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LJ e. 





This is entitled Engelsche Kloclte-Dans in three of the Collections published in 
Holland : viz., in Bellerophon (Amsterdam, 1622) ; Nederlandtsche 0-edenck- 
Clanck (Haerlem, 1626) ; and Friesche Lust-Hof (Amsterdam, 1634.) 

As " klok" signifies " bell," and bells were worn in the morris, I suppose it to 
have been a morris-dance. In the above-named collections, Dutch songs are 
adapted to it, but I have no clue to the English words. 

Moderate time. 



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This is found, under the name of Amarillis, among the violin tunes in TJie 
Dancing Master of 1665, and in all later editions; in MusicKs Delight on the 
Cithren, 1666 ; in Apollo's Banquet, 1670 ; in the Pleasant Companion for the 
Flageolet, 1680 ; &c. 

The song, "Amarillis told her swain," is in Merry Drollery complete, 1670 (p. 3). 

The air is sometimes referred to as " Phillis on the new-made hay," from a 



ballad entitled " The coy Shepherdess; or Phillis and Amintas ; " which was sung 
to the tune of Amarillis. See Roxburghe Collection, ii. 85. 

Among the ballads to the air, are also the following : 

" The Royal Recreation of Jovial Anglers ; " beginning 
"Of all the recreations which 
Attend on human nature," &c. 

Roxburghe Collection. 

Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, p. 232; and Merry Drollery complete, 1661 and 
1670. It is also in Pills to purge Melancholy ; but there set to the tune of 
My father was lorn before me. 

" Love in the blossom ; or Fancy in the bud : to the tune Amarillis told her 
swain." Roxburghe, ii. 315. 

" Fancy's Freedom ; or true Lovers' bliss : tune of Amarillis, or Phillis on the 
new-made hay." Roxburghe, iii. 114. 

" The true Lovers' Happiness ; or Nothing venture, nothing have," &c. : tune 
of Amintas on the new-made hay ; or The Loyal Lovers." Douce Collection, and 
Roxburghe, ii. 486. 

" The Cotsall Shepherds : to the tune of Amarillis told her swain," in Folly in 
print, or a Book of Rhymes, 1667. 

The following stanza, set to the tune, is the first of the above-named ballad, 
*' The coy Shepherdess ; or Phillis and Amintas :" 

Smoothly, and in moderate time. 

Phil - lis on the new-made hay, On a plea - sant summer s day, 

fr 71- 

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In 're - clin - ing* 

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pos - ture lay, And thought no shep - herd 

nigh her ; 

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--, ' 

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f EEE f 

Till A-min - tas came that way, And threw him - self down hy her. 

9 J J J^j| 




In The Dancing Master of 1652, this is entitled Mr. Webb's Fancy ; and in 
later editions Cherrily and merrily. 

In vol. xi. of the King's Pamphlets, folio, there is a copy of a ballad written on 
the violent dissolution of the Long Parliament by Cromwell, entitled " The Par- 
liament routed ; or Here's a house to be let : 

I hope that England, after many jarres, 
Shall be at peace, and give no way to warres : 
Lord, protect the general!, that he 
May be the agent of our unitie : 

to the tune of Lucina, or Merrily and cherrily." [June 3, 1653.] It has been 
reprinted in Political Ballads, Percy Society, No. 11, p. 126. The first stanza 
is as folloAYS : " Cheer up, kind countrymen, be not dismay'd, 

True news I can tell ye concerning the nation : 
Hot spirits are quenched, the tempest is layd, 

And now we may hope for a good reformation." 

The above is more suited to the tune of Lucina (i.e., The Beggar Boy, p. 269) 
than to this air ; I have therefore adapted a song from Universal Harmony, 1746, 
an alteration of the celebrated one by George Herbert. 


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lay, so 

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calm, so 

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- dal of the earth and sky, The dews shall weep thy 

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to - night, For thou, with 



thy sweets, must die 




Not long thy fading glories stay, 

But thou, with all thy sweets, must die. 

Sweet love, alone, sweet wedded love, 
To thee no period is assign'd ; 

Thy tender joys by time improve, 
In death itself the most refin'd. 

Sweet rose, so fragrant and so brave, 
Dazzling the rash beholder's eye, 

Thy root is ever in its grave, 

And thou, with all thy sweets, must die. 

Sweet Spring, so beauteous and so gay, 
Storehouse where sweets unnumber'd lie, 



There are .black-letter copies of this ballad in the Pepys and Bagford Collec- 
tions. It is also in An Antidote to Melancholy, 1661 ; in part ii. of Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670 ; in Wit and Drollery, 1682 ; Pills to purge 
Melancholy, 1707 and 1719; &c. 

It is one of those offered for sale by the ballad-singer in Ben Jonson's 
comedy of Bartholomew Fair. 

Pepys, in his Diary, tells us of " reading a ridiculous ballad, made in praise of 
the Duke of Albemarle, to the tune of St. George the tune being printed too;" 
and adds, " I observe that people have great encouragement to make ballads of 
him, of this kind. There are so many, that hereafter he will sound like Guy of 
Warwick." (6th March, 1667.) 

Fielding, in his novel of Tom Jones, speaks of St. George he was for England 
as one of Squire Western's favorite tunes. 

The ballad in the Pepys Collection (i. 87) is entitled " Saint George's Com- 
mendation to all Souldiers ; or Saint George's Alarum to all that profess martiall 
discipline, with a memoriall of the Worthies who have been borne so high on the 
wings of Fame for their brave adventures, as they cannot be buried in the pit of 
oblivion : to a pleasant new tune." It was " imprinted at London, by W. W.," in 
1612, and is the copy from which Percy printed, in his Religues of Ancient 
Poetry. It begins " Why do we boast of Arthur and his Knightes." 

In Anthony Wood's Collection, at Oxford, No. 401, there is a modernization 
of this ballad, entitled 

" St. George for England, and St. Dennis for France ; 

O hony soite qui mal y pance : 

to an excellent new tune." (Wood's Ballads, ii. 118.) It is subscribed S. S., and 
" printed for W. Gilbertson, in Giltspur Street ; " from which it may be dated 
about 1659. 

As a specimen of the comparative modernization, I give the first stanza : 
" What need we brag or boast at all Sir Tarquin, that great giant, 

..Of Arthur and his Knights, His vassal did remain; 

Knowing how many gallant men But St. George, St. George, 

They have subdued in fights. The Dragon he hath slain. 

For bold Sir Launcelot du Lake St. George he was for England, 

Was of the table round ; St. Dennis was for France ; 

And fighting for a lady's sake, O hony soite qui mal y pance." 

His sword with fame was crown'd ; 

A copy of the old ballad in the Bagford Collection is entitled " A new ballad 
of St. George and the Dragon," but there is also another of St. George and the 
Dragon, which Percy has printed in the Reliques. 

In 180 Loyal Songs, 1685 and 1694, there is " a new song on the instalment of 
Sir John Moor, Lord Mayor of London : tune, St. George for England." And in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 20 (1707), "A new ballad of King Edward and 
Jane Shore," to the same. 



As the ballad is contained in Percy's Reliques, as well as a witty second part, 
written by John Grubb, and published in 1688, the first stanza only is here 
printed with the music. 
j Moderate time. 

/%V j J J J J 1 

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i rm n j=i 

fr\ - 17 I j m i ZMUZIS 
Why should we boast of 

P1J O .J J 

Ar-thur and his knights, 


Knowing well how many men 


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have en-du-red fights ? For be -sides King Ar - thur and Lance- lot du Lake, Or Sir 

Tris - tram de Li - o - nel, that fought for La -dies' sake, Read in old his - to - ries and 

there you shall see, How St. George, St. George the Dragon ma( j e to flee. Saint 

f f if ! bh c ij j^ 



George he was for England, 

St. Den 

- nia was for France, Sing 

Ho - - - ni soit 


^ U1 mal 


5 . ? * 5 -?-*^v 





This tune is in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690, and in Musictfs 
Delight on the Cithren, 1666. 

In the first editions of The Dancing Master it is entitled The Health ; in the 
seventh and eighth, The Healths, or The Merry Wassail. 

The following song, " Come, faith, since I'm parting," was written by Patrick 
Carey, a loyal cavalier, on bidding farewell to his hospitable entertainers at Wick- 
ham, in 1651. It is " to the tune of The Healths." 








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I'm part -ing, 

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And that God 



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when The 

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walls of sweet Wick 





shall see 


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gain, Let's 

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e'en hav< 



fro - 



And drink 








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heads with healths 











is with heall 




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_ : H_ 

And first to Sir William, I'll take't on my 


He well doth deserve that a brimmer it be : [he ; 
More brave entertainments none ere gave than 
Then let his health go round. 

Next to his chaste lady, who loves him as life; 
And whilst we are drinking to so good a wife, 
The poor of the parish will pray for her life ; 
Be sure her health go round. 

And then to young Will, the heir of this place ; 
He'll make a brave man, you may see't in his 


I only could wish we had more of the race ; 
At least let his health go round. 

To well-grac'd Victoria the next room we owe ; 
As virtuous she'll prove as her mother, I trow, 
And somewhat in huswifry more she will know; 
O let her health go round! 



To plump Bess, her sister, I drink down this 
cup : [up ; 

Birlackins, my masters, each man must take't 
'Tis foul play, I bar it, to simper and sup, 
When such a health goes round. 

And now, helter-skelter, to th'rest of the house : 
The most are good fellows, and love to carouse ; 
Who's not, may go sneck-up ; a he's not worth a 

That stops a health i' th' round. 

To th' clerk, so he'll learn to drink in the morn ; 
To Heynous, that stares when he has quaft up 

his horn ; 

To Philip, by whom good ale ne'er was forlorn ; 
These lads can drink a round. 

John Chandler ! come on, here's some warm 

beer for you ; 

A health to the man that this liquor did brew : 
Why Hewet ! there's for thee ; nay take't, 'tis 

thy due, 
But see that it go round. 

Hot Coles is on fire, and fain would be 

quench'd ; [drench 'd : 

As well as his horses, the groom must be 
Who's else? let him speak, if his thirst he'd 

have stench'd, 
Or have his health go round. 

And now to the women, who must not be coy : 
A glass, Mistress Gary, you know's but a toy; 
Come, come, Mistress Sculler, no perdonnex 

It must, it must go round. 


Dame Nell, so you'll drink, we'll allow you a 

Up with't, Mary Smith, in your draught never 

stop ; [drop, 

Law, there now, Nan German has left ne'er a 

And so must all the round. 

Jane, Joan, Goody Lee, great Meg, and the 


You must not be squeamish, but do as did Bess : 
How th' others are nam'd, if I could but guess, 
I'd call them to the round. 

And now, for my farewell, I drink up this quart, 
To you, lads and lasses, e'en with all my heart; 
May I find you ever, as now when we part, 
Each health still going round. 


This tune is contained in Bellerophon, of Lust tot Wynhed, Amsterdam, 1622 ; 
in the seventh and later editions of The Dancing Master ; in Apollo's Banquet ; 
and in several of the ballad-operas. 

In Bellerophon, the first part is in common time, and the second in triple, like 
a cushion dance ; but it is not so in any of the above-named English copies, 
which, however, are of later date. 

D'Urfey wrote to it a song entitled Gillian of Croydon (see Pills to purge 
Melancholy, ii. 46), and it is to be found under that name in some of the ballad- 
operas, such as The Fashionable Lady, or Harlequin's Opera, 1730 ; Sylvia, or 
The Country Burial, 1731; The Jealous Clown, 1730; &c. There are also several 
songs to it in the Collection of State Songs sung at the Mug-houses in London and 
Westminster, 1716. In Apollo's Banquet, the tune is entitled The Old Marinett, 
or Mall Peatly ; in Gay's Achilles, Moll Peatly. 

Mall is the old abbreviation of Mary. (See Ben Jonson's English Grammar.) 

In Round about our coal-fire, or Christmas Entertainments (7th edit., 1734), it 
is said, in allusion to Christmas, " This time of year being cold and frosty, 

a Sir Walter Scott prints this " sneake-up : " I sup- 
pose it should be "snecke-up" a common expression, 

equivalent to "go and be hanged." 



generally speaking, or when Jack-Frost commonly takes us by the nose, the 
diversions are within doors, either in exercise or by the fire-side. Dancing is one 
of the chief exercises Moll Peatly is never forgot ; this dance stirs the blood 
and gives the males and females a fellow-feeling for each other's activity, ability, 
and agility : Cupid always sits in the corner of the room where these diversions 
are transacting, and shoots quivers full of arrows at the dancers, and makes his 
own game of them." 

o 1 : -1-^1-1 M 

/ro j j | j <* j^T^^^i^T 

~rn { h*^^ | 

One ho-li - day, last summer, From four to se 1 
)-() f- f~~- F , * 

m^' fi| j . 
fen, by Croy-don chimes, 

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Three lass-es to - ping rummers Were set a pra - ting of the times. 
- . - . -F m * 

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7 call'd brown Nell: Take 

A wife call'd Joan of the Mill, And a maid the. 

f ! ! ; 1 : ! > J *- 


k_ _, p b i^J r 1_^_ 

i ^n k i 

, IP 

9 ' F F E ! c * m 

off your glass, said Gillian of Croy-don, A health to our Mas - ter Will. 

-F-l F-l-4-g- : J J* u^ t ' . ^ : -iu- 

J ' " ^ H 


The tune of Sobbing Joe will be found in every edition of The Dancing Master; 
in MusicWs Delight on the Cithren, 1666 ; &c. 

It is sometimes entitled Sobbing Joan, as by Carey in his Ballades (1651) ; in 
Polly, 1729 ; in The Bay's Opera, 1730 ; The Mad House, 1737 ; A Cure for a 
Scold, 1738; &c. 



" New Bob-in-Jo " is mentioned as a tune in No. 38 of Mercurius Democritus, 
or a True and Perfect Nocturnatt, December, 1652. (See King's Pamphlets, 
Brit. Mus.) 

The song, " My dog and I," is to the tune of My dog and I, or Bobbing Joan. 
(A copy in Mr. HalliwelPs Collection.) 

The following is the ballad by Patrick Carey, " to the tune of Bobbing Joane" 

I ne'er yet saw a love - ly crea-ture, Were she widow, maid, or wife, But 









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straight with -in 

my breast 

her feature Was paint -ed, strangely to the 

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out of sight, Tho' ne'er so bright, I 

f -T f 

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straightway lost her 

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pic-ture quite. 

-j p-5f 

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ir r ' i 

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It still was mine and others' wonder 

To see me court so eagerly ; 
Yet, soon as absence did me sunder 
From those I lov'd, quite cured was I. 
The reason was, 
That my breast has, 
Instead of heart, a looking-glass. 

And as those forms that lately shined 
I' th' glass, are easily defac'd ; 

Those beauties so, which were enshrined 
Within my breast, are soon displac'd : 

Both seem as they 
Would ne'er away ; 
Yet last but while the lookers stay. 

Then let no woman think that ever 

In absence I shall constant prove ; 
Till some occasion does us sever 
I can, as true as any, love : 
But when that we 
Once parted be, 
Troth, I shall court the next I see. 


The ballad, now known as You Gentlemen of England, is an alteration of one 
by M[artin] P[arker], a copy of which is in the Pepys Collection, i. 420; printed 
at London for C. Wright. It is in black-letter, and entitled "Saylers for my 
money: a new ditty composed in the praise of Saylers and Sea Affaires; briefly 
shewing the nature of so worthy a calling, and effects of their industry : to the 


tune of The Joviall Oobler." Instead of " You gentlemen of England," it begins, 
" Countriemen of England," &c. 

Ritson prints from a copy entitled " Neptune's raging fury ; or The Gallant 
Seaman's Sufferings. Being a relation of their perils and dangers, and of the- 
extraordinary hazards they undergo in their noble adventures: together with 
their undaunted valour and rare constancy in all their extremites ; and the 
manner of their rejoycing on shore, at their return home. Tune of When the 
stormy winds do blow" (the burden of the song). A black-letter copy of this 
version is in the Bagford Collection, printed by W. 0[nley], temp. Charles IE. ; 
and in one of the volumes of the Douce Collection, p. 168, printed by C. Brown 
and T. Norris, and sold at the Looking Glass on London Bridge. A third in the 
Roxburghe Collection, ii. 543. "Stormy winds" is also in the list of ballads 
printed by W. Thackeray, about 1660. 

On the accession of Charles II., we have, " The valiant Seaman's Congratu- 
lation to his Sacred Majesty King Charles the Second," &c. : to the tune of 
Let us drink and sing, and merrily troul the bowl, or The stormy ivinds do blow, or 
Hey, ho, my honey" (Black-letter, twelve stanzas; F. Grove, Snow Hill.) 
It commences thus : " Great Charles, your English seamen, 

Upon our bended knee, 
Present ourselves as freemen 

Unto your Majesty. 
Beseeching God to bless you 

Where ever that you go ; 
So we pray, night and day, 

When the stormy winds do blow." 

Although the option of singing it to three tunes is given, it is evident, from the 
two last lines, that it was written to this. 

Among the other ballads to the tune are, " The valiant Virgin, or Philip and 
Mary : In a description of a young gentlewoman of Worcestershire (a rich gentle- 
man's daughter) being in love with a farmer's son, which her father despising, 
because he was poor, caus'd him to be press'd for sea : and how she disguised 
herself in man's apparel and follow'd him," &c. " To the tune of When the stormy 
winds do blow;" (Roxburghe, ii. 546) beginning 
" To every faithful lover 

That's constant to her dear," &c. 

In Poems by Sen Jonson, junior, 8vo., 1672, is " The Bridegroom's Salutation: 
to the tune When the stormy winds do blow ; " beginning 
" I took thee on a suddain, 

In all thy glories drest," &c. 

In 180 Loyal Smgs, 1686 and 1694, a bad version of the tune is printed to 
" You Calvinists of England." 

There are fourteen stanzas in the copy of "You gentlemen " printed by Ritson, 
in his English Songs. The following shorter version is from one of the broadsides 
with music, compared with another copy in Early Naval Ballads (Percy Society, 
JS T o. 8, p. 34.) 



Q Boldl y- 

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You Gen - tie-men of Eng-land, T 

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lat live at home at ease, How 

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lit - tie do you think up - on 

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The dan - gers of the seas, Give 
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ear un - to the mar - i - ners, And they will plain - ly show, All the 

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cares and the fears When the storm - y winds do blow. 

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The sailor must have courage, 

No danger he must shun ; 
In every kind of weather 

His course he still must run ; 
Now mounted on the top-mast, 

How dreadful 'tis below : 
Then we ride, as the tide, 

When the stormy winds do blow. 

If enemies oppose us, 

And England is at war 
With any foreign nation, 

We fear not wound nor scar. 
To humble them, come on, lads, 

Their flags we'll soon lay low ; 
Clear the way for the fray, 

Tho' the stormy winds do blow. 

Sometimes in Neptune's bosom 

Our ship is toss'd by waves, 
And every man expecting 

The sea to be our graves ; 
Then up aloft she's mounted, 

And down again so low, 
In the waves, on the seas, 

When the stormy winds do blow. 

But when the danger's over, 

And safe we come on shore, 
The horrors of the tempest 

We think of then no more ; 
The flowing bowl invites us, 

And joyfully we go, 
All the day drink away, 

Tho' the stormy winds do blow. 




This tune is named after the Red Bull Playhouse, which formerly stood in 
St. John Street, Clerkenwell. It was in use throughout the reigns of James I. 
and Charles L, and perhaps before. At the Restoration, the King's actors, under 
Thomas Killigrew, played there until they removed to the new Theatre in Drury 
Lane ; and when Davenant produced his Playhouse to be Let, in 1663, it was 
entirely abandoned. (See Collier's Annals of the Stage.) 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 246, is a ballad -entitled " A mad kind of 
wooing ; or A Dialogue between Will the simple, and Nan the subtle, with their 
loving agreement : to the tune of The new Dance at the Red Bull Playhouse" 
It is black-letter, printed for the assigns of T. Symcocke, whose patent for 
"printing of paper and parchment on the one side" was granted in 1620, and 
assigned in the same year. Another copy of the ballad will be found in the 
Pepys Collection, i. 276, "printed for H[enry] G[osson] on London Bridge. 

The tune is contained in Apollo' 's Banquet for the Treble Violin, entitled The 
Damsel? s Dance; and in The Dancing Master (1698), Red Bull. 

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tetz o M 
Sweet Nan - cy, 
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do love 
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thee dear, Be - lieve 

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declare, While thy name is Nan. I 




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?n love me 

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is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 312 (1810). 



This is evidently the same air as And will he not come again, one of the snatches 
sung by Ophelia in Hamlet, but in a different form (see p. 237). It is contained 
in every edition of The Dancing Master. In the eighteenth edition it is entitled 
" The merry Milkmaids in green" to distinguish it from another air of similar 

In Sir Thomas Overbury's Character of a Milkmaid, he says, " She dares go 
alone, and unfold her sheep in the night, and fears no manner of ill, because she 
means none : yet, to say truth, she is never alone, she is still accompanied with old 
songs, honest thoughts, and prayers, but short ones." 

La the " Character of a Ballad-monger," in Whimzies, or a new Cast of 
Characters, 12mo., 1631, we find, " Stale ballad news, cashiered the city, must 
now ride post for the country, where it is no less admired than a giant in a 
pageant : till at last it grows so common there too, as every poor milkmaid can 
chant and chirp it under her cow, which she useth, as a harmless charm, to make 
her let down her milk." 

Maudlin, the milkmaid, in Walton's Angler, sings (among others) portions of 
two ballads by Martin Parker, a well-known ballad- writer of the latter part of the 
reign of James L, and during that of Charles and the Protectorate, and both are 

to this tune. The first is 

" The Milkemaid's Life ; or 

A pretty new ditty, composed and pen'd 
The praise of the milking paile to defend : 

to a curious new tune, called The Milkemaid's Dumps." (Roxburghe Coll., i. 244, 
or Collier's Roxburghe Ballads, 243.) Mr. Payne Collier remarks that the last 
stanza but one proves it to have been written before " the downfall of May- 
games " under the Puritans. 

You rural goddesses, Their courages never quail; 

That woods and fields possess, In wet and dry, 

Assist me with your skill, Though winds be high, 

That may direct my quill And dark's the sky, 

More jocundly to express They ne'er deny 

The mirth and delight, To carry the milking pail. 

Both morning and night, 

On mountain or in dale, Their hearts are free from care, 

Of those who choose They never will despair; 

This trade to use, Whatever may befall, 

And through cold dews They bravely bear out all, 

Do never refuse And Fortune's frowns out-dare. 

To carry the milking pail. They pleasantly sing 

The bravest lasses gay To welcome the Spring- 

Live not so merry as they ; 'Gainst heaven they never rail ; 

In honest civil sort If grass well grow, 

They make each other sport, Their thanks they show; 

As they trudge on their way. And, frost or snow, 

Come fair or foul weather, They merrily go 

They're fearful of neither Along with the milking pail. 



Bad idleness they do scorn ; 
They rise very early i' th' morn, 

And walk into the field, 

Where pretty birds do yield 
Brave music on ev'ry thorn : 

The linnet and thrush 

Do sing on each bush, 
And the dulcet nightingale 

Her note doth strain 

In a jocund vein, 

To entertain 

That worthy train 
Which carry the milking pail. 

Their labour doth health preserve, 
No doctors' rules they observe ; 

While others, too nice 

In taking their advice, [starve ; 
Look always as though they would 

Their meat is digested, 

They ne'er are molested, 
No sickness doth them assail ; 

Their time is spent 

In merriment ; 

While limbs are lent, 

They are content 
To- carry the milking pail. 

Those lasses nice and strange, 
That keep shops in the Exchange, 

Sit pricking of clouts, 

And giving of flouts ; 
They seldom abroad do range : 

Then comes the green sickness 

And changeth their likeness, 
All this for want of good sale ; 

But 'tis not so, 

As proof doth show, 

By those that go 

In frost and snow 
To carry the milking pail. 

If they any sweethearts have 
That do affection crave, 

Their privilege is this, 

Which many others miss : 
They can give them welcome brave. 

With them they may walk, 

And pleasantly talk, 
With a bottle of wine or ale; 

The gentle cow 

Doth them allow, 

As they know how. 
God speed the plough, 
And bless the milking pail. 

Upon the first of May, 
With garlands fresli and gay ; 

With mirth and music sweet, 

For such a season meet, 
They pass their time away : 

They dance away sorrow, 

And all the day thorow, 
Their legs do never fail ; 

They nimblely 

Their feet do ply, 

And bravely try 

The victory, 
In honour o' th' milking pail. 

If any think that I 
Do practice flattery, 

In seeking thus to raise 

The merry milkmaids' praise, 
I'll to them thus reply : 

It is their desert 

Inviteth my art 
To study this pleasant tale ; 

In their defence, 

Whose innocence 

And providence 

Gets honest pence 
Out of the milking pail. 

There is another version of the above ballad in the Roxburghe Collection 
(ii. 230), entitled " The innocent Country Maid's Delight; or a Description of 
the lives of the Lasses of London : set to an excellent Country Dance" It com- 
mences with the lines quoted by the milkmaid from the above sixth stanza : 
" Some lasses are nice and strange 
That keep shop in the Exchange." 



The second ballad quoted by Maudlin is entitled " Keep a good tongue in your 
head ; or Here's a good woman, in every respect, 

But only her tongue breeds all her defect : 

to the tune- of The Milkmaids" &c. (Roxburghe Coll., i. 510, or Collier's liox- 
burghe Ballads, 237.) From this I have selected a few stanzas to print with the 
tune. It is sometimes referred to under its name, as in the following : 
" Hold your hands, honest men : for 

Here's a good wife hath a husband that likes her, 

In every respect, but only he strikes her ; 

Then if you desire to be held men complete, 

Whatever you do, your wives do not beat. 

To the tune of Keepe a good tongue" &c. (Roxburghe, i. 514.) The following 
song by D'Urfey, entitled The Bonny Milkmaid, was also written to the tune, but 
had afterwards music composed to it for his play of Don Quixote, and is so printed 
in both editions of Pills to purge Melancholy, and in The Merry Musician, or 
A Cure for the Spleen, ii. 116. It is a rifacimento of Martin Parker's song 
printed above. 

Ye nymphs and^ sylvan gods, 
That love green fields and woods, 

Where Spring, newly blown, 

Herself does adorn 
With flow'rs and blooming buds : 

Come sing in the praise, 

Whilst flocks do graze 
In yonder pleasant vale, 

Of those that choose 

Their sleep to lose, 

And in cold dews, 

With clouted shoes, 
Do carry the milking pail. 

The goddess of the morn 
With blushes they adorn, 

And take the fresh air, 

Whilst linnets prepare 
A concert in each green thorn. 

The blackbird and thrush 

On every bush, 
And charming nightingale, 

In merry vein 

Their throats do strain 

To entertain 

The jolly train 
That carry the milking pail. 

W T hen cold bleak winds do roar 
And flow'rs can spring no mere, 

The fields that were seen 

So pleasant and green 
By Winter all candied o'er : 

Oh ! how the town lass 

Looks, with her white face 
And lips so deadly pale ; 

But it is not so 

With those that go 

Through frost and snow, 

With cheeks that glow, 
To carry the milking pail. 

The country lad is free 
From fear and jealousy, 

When upon the green 

He is often seen 
With a lass upon his knee ; 

W T ith kisses most sweet 

He does her greet, 
And swears she'll ne'er grow stale ; 

While the London lass, 

In every place, 

With her brazen face, 

Despises the grace 
Of those with the milking pail. 

" The Merry Milkmaid's Delight " was one of the ballads printed by 
W. Thackeray, in the time of Charles II. 

The following stanzas are selected from the ballad above-mentioned, " Keep 
a good tongue in your head." 




I married a wife of late, The more's my un - hap - py, 

fate; I took her for love, As fan - cy did me move, And not for her world-ly 

FIM r ' r ir 

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state. 1 
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qual - ities 

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rare, Few 

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with her com -pare, 

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Let me do her no 

f : s 



i ! 

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wrong : I must con - fess, Her chief a - miss is on - ly this, As 



some wives' is, She can - not rule her 

tongue, She can- not rule her tongue 

.J . H TTlg 


Her cheeks are red as the rose 
Which June for her glory shows ; 

Her teeth in a row 

Stand like a wall of snow 
Between her round chin and her nose ; 

Her shoulders are decent, 

Her arms white and pleasant, 
Her fingers are small and long. 

No fault I find, 

But, in my mind, 

Most womenkind 

Must come behind : 
O that she could rule her tongue ! 

With eloquence she will dispute ; 

Few women can her confute. 
She sings and she plays, 
And she knows all the keys 

Of the vial de aambo, or lute. 
She'll dance with a grace, 
Her Measures she'll trace 

As doth unto art belong ; 
She is a girl 
Fit for an earl, 
Not for a churl : 
She were worth a pearl, 

If she could but rule her tongue. 



Her needle she can use well, 
In that she doth most excel ; 

She can spin and knit, 

And every thing fit, 
As all her neighbours can tell. 

Her fingers apace 

At weaving bone-lace 
She useth all day long. 

All arts that be 

To women free, 

Of each degree, 

Performeth she : 
O that she could rule her tongue ! 

For huswifery she doth exceed ; 
She looks to her business with heed ; 

She's early and late 

Employ 'd, I dare say't, 
To see all things well succeed. 

She is very wary 

To look to her dairy, 
As doth to her charge belong ; 

Her servants all 

Are at her call, 

But she'll so brawl 

That still I shall 
Wish that she could hold her tongue. 


This ballad, which obtained a long and extensive popularity, seems to have 
been first printed in the reign of James I. (by T. Symcocke). 

Pepys thus refers to it in his Diary, under the date of 16th of June, 1668. 
" Came to Newbery, and there dined, and music : a song of the Old Courtier of 
Queen Elizabeth's, and how he was changed upon the coming in of the King, did 
please me mightily, and I did cause W. Hewer to write it out." There are many 
other versions of the ballad (sometimes entitled " The Old and New Courtier"), 
and some are of greater length than others. Besides those in the great collections, 
copies will be found in Le Prince d 1 Amour, 1660 ; Antidote to Melancholy, 1661 ; 
Wit and Drollery, 1682 ; Dryden's Miscellany Poems, iv., 108 (1716), &c. 

In Le Prince ff Amour, and in Merry Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670, there 
is a song of " An old Soldier of the Queen's ;" commencing 
" Of an old Soldier of the Queen's, 
With an old motley coat and a malmsey nose," 

and in Wit and Drollery, 1682, p. 165, one entitled " Old Soldiers;" commencing 
" Of old soldiers the song you would hear, 

And we old fiddlers have forgot who they were," 
and at p. 282, " The new Soldier" (" With a new beard," &c.). 

A ballad, written on the occasion of the overthrow of the Rump Parliament, 
by General Monck, and dated Feb. 28, 1659, is amongst the King's Pamphlets, 
Brit. Mus. (folio broadsides, vol. xvi.). It is entitled " Saint George and the 
Dragon, anglice Mercurius Poeticus." To the tune of " Tlie old Souldier of the 
Queen's;" commencing 

" News, news, here's the occurrences and a new Mercurins, 
A dialogue between Haselrigg the baffled, and Arthur the furious, 
With Ireton's readings upon legitimate and spurious, &c." 
It is reprinted in "Wright's Political Ballads (Percy Soc., No. 11). 

In the reign of Charles II., " T. Howard, Gent.," wrote and published "An 
old song of the Old Courtiers of the King's, with a new song of a New Courtier of 



the King's : to the tune of The Queen's Old Courtier." A copy of this latter, 
" printed for F. Coles," is among the Roxburghe Ballads. 

Dr. King, in his " Preface to the Art of Cookery, in imitation of Horace's Art 
of Poetry," declares his love " to the old British Hospitality, charity and valour, 
when the arms of the family, the old pikes, muskets, and halberts, hung up in 
the hall over the long table, and Chevy Chase, and The Old Courtier of the Queen's 
were placed over the carved mantle-piece, and beef and brown bread were carried 
every day to the poor." (Dr. King's Works, vol. iii.) 

About the middle of the last century the ballad was revived and sung by 
Mr. Vernon in Shad well's comedy, The Squire o/Alsatia, the burden being altered 
to " Moderation and Alteration," and, when comparing the young courtier to 
the old, to " Alteration, alteration, 

"Tis a wonderful alteration." 

Finally, it has been again revived, with further " alteration," in the present 
century, under the title of " The old English Gentleman." 

The ballad is to be chanted, ad libitum, upon one note, except the final syllable 
of each stanza, and the burden " Like an old Courtier," &c. 

To le sung ad. lib. upon one note. 


With an old song, made by an old ancient pate, 
Of an old worshipful gentleman, who had a great estate, 
Which kept an old house at a bountiful rate, . * 

And an old porter to relieve the poor at his . 


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of the Queen's, And the Queen's olt 






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With an old lady whose anger a good word 
assuages, [wages, 

Who every quarter pays her old servants their 

Who never knew what belonged to coachman, 
footmen, nor pages ; 

But kept twenty old fellows with blue coats and 
badges. Like an old Courtier, &c. 

With an old study fill'd full of learned old books, 
With an old reverend parson, you may judge 
him by his looks. [hooks, 

With an old buttery hatch worn quite off the 
And an old kitchen, that maintains half-a- 
dozen old cooks. Like an old, &c. 



With an old hall hung about with guns, pikes, 
and bows, [many shrewd blows, 

With old swords and bucklers that have stood 

And an old frieze coat to cover his worship's 
trunk hose, 

And a cup of old sherry to comfort his copper 
nose. Like an old, &c. 

With a neat lady that is brisk and fair, 
That never knew what belonged to good 

house-keeping or care, [air, 

But buys several fans to play with the wanton 
And seventeen or eighteen dressings of other 

women's hair. Like a young, &c. 

With an old fashion when Christmas was come, 
To call in his neighbours with bagpipe and drum ; 
And good cheer enough to furnish every old 

And old liquor able to make a cat speak and 

a man dumb. Like an old, &c. 

With an old huntsman, a falconer, and a kennel 

of hounds ; [grounds ; 

Which never hunted nor hawked but in his own 
Who like an old wise man kept himself within 

his own bounds, 
And when he died, gave every child a thousand 

old pounds. Like an old, &c. 

But to his eldest son, his house and land he 

assigned, [tiful mind, 

Charging him in his will to keep the old boun- 
To love his good old servants and to his 

neighbours be kind ; 
But in the ensuing ditty you shall hear how he 

was inclin'd. Like a young Courtier, &c. 

Like a young gallant newly -come to his land, 
That keeps a brace of creatures at his com- 
mand, [land, 
And takes up a thousand pound upon his own 
And lies drunk in a new tavern, 'till he can 
neither go nor stand. Like a young, &c. 

With a new honour bought with the old gold, 
That many of his father's old manors had sold, 
And this is the occasion that most men do hold, 
That good house-keeping is now grown so cold. 

With a new hall built where the old one stood, 
Wherein is burned neither coal nor wood, 
And a shovelboard-table whereon meat never 

Hung round with pictures that do the poor 

no good. Like a young, &c. 

With a new study stuft full of pamphlets and 
plays ; [he prays ; 

With a new chaplain that swears faster than 

With a new buttery hatch that opens once in 
four or five days ; 

With a new French cook to make kickshaws 
and toys. Like a young, &c. 

With a new fashion when Christmas is come, 
With a new journey up to London we must 

be gone, [porter John, 

And leave nobody at home but our new 
Who relieves the poor with a thump on the 

back with a stone. Like a young, &c. 

With a gentleman usher whose carriage is 
complete ; [meat ; 

With a footman, coachman, and page to carry 

With a waiting-gentlewoman whose dressing 
is very neat ; 

Who, when the master has dined, lets the 
servants not eat. Like a young, &c. 

Like a young, &c. 


This ballad is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 354, and Douce Collection, 
p. 152. It is entitled " May-day Country Mirth ; or The young Lads' and 
Lasses' innocent Recreation, which is to be prized before courtly pomp and pas- 
time : to an excellent new tune." Dr. Rimbault, in his " Little Book of Songs and 
Ballads, gathered from Ancient Music-books," prints a version " from a MS. 
volume of old songs and music, formerly in the possession of the Rev. H. J. 
Todd, dated 1630." The same is in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 245 (1810). Another 
version will be found with the tune in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 145 (1707), 
or iv. 145 (1719), with many more stanzas. 





Joan, to the Maypole a-way let us on, The time is swift, and will be 

gone, There go the lass - es a-way to the green, Where their beau-ties may be seen ; 


Bess, Moll, Kate, Doll, All the brave lass-eshave lads to at -tend 'em, Hodge, 


Nick, Tom, Dick, Jol - ly brave dancers, and who can a -mend 'em. Joan to the 



May-pole a-way let us on, The time is swift and must be gone, There go the 

. JT3 J??a-S59 J. 


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s -es a-way to the Green, Where their 

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eau-ties may be 

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Joan, shall we have a Hay or a Round, 
Or some dance that is new-found ? 
Lately I was at a Masque in the Court, 
Where I saw of every sort, 
Many a dance made in France, 

Many a Braule, and many a Measure ; 
Gay coats, sweet notes, 

Brave wenches O 'twas a treasure. 
In Pills to purge Melancholy, the above 
by others, such as the following: 
Did you not see the Lord of the May 
Walk along in his rich array ? 
There goes the lass that is only his ; 
See how they meet, and how they kiss ! 

Come Will, run Gill, 
Or dost thou list to lose thy lahour ; 

Kit, Crowd, scrape aloud, 
Tickle up Tom with a pipe and tabor. 

Lately I went to a Masque at the Court, 
Where I saw dances of every sort ; 
There they did dance with time and measure, 
But none like a country-dance for pleasure ; 

They did dance as in France, 
Not like the English lofty manner ; 

And every she must furnished be 
With a feathered knack, when she's hot for 
to fan her. 


But we, when we dance, and do happen to 
Have a napkin in hand for to wipe off the wet; 
And we with our lasses do jig it about, 
Not like at Court, where they often are out ; 

If the tabor play, we jump away, 
And turn, and meet our lasses to kiss 'em ; 

Nay, they will be as ready as we, 
That hardly at any time can we miss 'em. 

But now, methinks, these courtly toys 

Us deprive of better joys : 

Gown made of gray, and skin soft as silk, 

Breath sweet as morning milk ; 

O, these more please ; 

[All] these hath my Joan to delight me : 

False wiles, court smiles, 
None of these hath my Joan to despite me. 
second and third stanzas are replaced 

Come, sweet Joan, let us call a new dance, 
That we before 'em may advance ; 
Let it be what you desire and crave, 
And sure the same sweet Joan shall have. 

She cried, and replied, 
If to please me thou wilt endeavour, 

Sweet Pig, the Wedding Jig, 
Then, my dear, I'll love thee for ever. 

There is not any that shall outvie 
My litttle pretty Joan and I ; 
For I am sure I can dance as well 
As Robin, Jenny, Tom, and Nell : 

Last year we were here, 
When rough Ralph he played us a Boree, 

And we merrily 
Thump'dit about, and gain'd the glory. 

And if we hold on as we begin, 
Joan, thou and I the garland shall win ; 
Nay, if thou live till another day, 
I'll make thee Lady of the May. 

Dance about, in and out, 
Turn and kiss, and then for greeting ; 

Now, Joan, we have done, 
Fare thee well till next merry meeting. 


This tune is contained in Playford's Musictfs Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 
1652 ; in Musictfs Delight on the Citnren, 1666 ; in the Skene and several other 
MSS. ; also in Pills to purge Melancholy, vi. 86 (1719). 

The words are in Percy's Reliques ; Evans' Old Ballads, iii. 282 (1810) ; and 
Rimbault's Little Book of Songs and Ballads, p. 137. All these versions differ. 

Evans prints from a black-letter copy by F. Coules (whose ballads occasionally 
bear dates which vary from 1620 to 1628) ; Kimbault from Forbes' Gantus, 1662, 
with the second part from Coules' copy ; and Percy from a comparatively modern 

The ballad is quoted in Brome's Sparagus G-arden, acted in 1635, and its 
popularity was so great, that " Love will find out the way " was taken as the 
title to a play printed in 1661. Although stated on the title-page to be a 
comedy by T. B., it was only Shirley's Constant Maid, under a new name. 



The air is still current, for in the summer of 1855, Mr. Jennings, Organist of 
'All Saints' Church, Maidstone, noted it down from the wandering hop-pickers 
singing a song to it, on their entrance into that town. 

The title of the ballad, as printed by Coules, is "Truth's Integrity; or 
A curious Northern ditty, called Love will find out the way : to a pleasant new 
tune." A later copy in the Douce Collection, p. 232, is entitled " A curious 
Northern ditty, called Love will find out the way" 

In the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 436, is a black-letter ballad of " Stephen and 
Cloris ; or The coy Shepherd and the kind Shepherdess : to a new play-house 
tune, or Love will find out the way." 

I suppose ballads which are said to be " to the tune of Over hills and high 
mountains" are also intended for this air ; because the words of that ballad are 
almost a paraphrase of this, and in the same measure. See the following stanza 
from a copy in the Pepys Collection, iii. 165 : 

" Over hills and high mountains Through bushes and briers, 

Long time have I gone ; Being void of all care ; 

Ah ! and down by the fountains, Through perils and dangers 

By myself all alone ; For the loss of my dear." 

There is, however, an air, entitled On yonder high mountains, which may be in- 
tended, and which will be found in this collection, under a later date. 

Another black-letter ballad to the tune of Love will find out the way, is entitled 
" The Countryman's new Care away ; " commencing 

" If there were employments And every worthy soldier 

For men, as have been ; Had truly his pay ; 

And drums, pikes, and muskets, Then might they be bolder 

I' the field to be seen ; To sing Care away." 

As the version of Love will find out the way printed by Percy is the shortest, 

consisting in all of but five stanzas, it is here coupled with the tune. 
Smoothly and not too fast. 

' " * 

_|_JL ,*- 



i 1 i 


/u # v f J P-F 

r r r 

-F p - 


-f- 9 

=* = F = 

<B 4-^ t- 





O - ver the i 

1 1 .u. Vt ^ ia~ -t 1 


noun-tains, And 


o - ver 

, ? ' 

the i 

ivaves ; 
* \ 


:r the 


)'g/3 n 

3 5 


J p 



151 i 1 

_J r 

i i 





^ fr 




T t~T 



i J J JJI 


* LT 


-f- 5 - 

82 _ 

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fountains, And 



graves ; 

Under floods that 

are deepest, Which 

|3 >ci 

i r 

Neptune o - 

-^ F 








3 q 

J 1 






-bey : 

O-ver rod? 


s that are 



^p 'Frr 1 

;ep-est Love will find out the 

i ill 






5 i 



Where there is no place 

For the glow-worm to lie ; 
Where there is no space 

For receipt of a fly ; 
Where the midge dares not venture, 

Lest herself fast she lay ; 
If Love come, he will enter, 

And soon find out his way. 
You may esteem him 

A child for his might ; 
Or you may deem him 

A coward from his flight. 
But if she, whom Love doth honour, 

Be conceal'd from the day, 

Set a thousand guards upon her, 

Love will find out the way. 

Some think to lose him, 

By having him confin'd; 
And some do suppose him, 

Poor thing, to be blind ; 
But if ne'er so close ye wall him, 

Do the best that you may, 
Blind Love, if so ye call him, 

Soon will find out his way. 
You may train the eagle 

To stoop to your fist ; 
Or you may inveigle 

The phoenix of the east ; 
The lioness, ye may move her 

To give o'er her prey ; 
But you'll ne'er stop a lover : 

He will find out his way. 


This tune is contained in every edition of The Dancing Master, and in many 
other publications. It is often quoted under three, if not more, names. 

In The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690, it appears as Stingo, or The Oyle 
of Barley. 

The song, "A cup of old stingo" (i.e., old strong beer), is contained in Merry 
Drollery Complete, 1661 and 1670, and, if it be the original song, must be of a 
date from thirty to forty (and perhaps more) years earlier than the book. 

Traces of that doughty hero, Sir John Barleycorn, so famous in the days of 
ballad-singing, are to be found as far back as the time of the Anglo-Saxons. In 
the Exeter MS. (fol. 107) is an enigma in Anglo-Saxon verse, of which the 
following is a literal translation ; 

"A part of the earth is prepared beautifully with the hardest, and with the sharpest, 
and with the grimest of the productions of men, cut and .... (sworfen), turned and 
dried, bound and twisted, bleached and awakened, ornamented and poured out, carried 
afar to the doors of people ; it is joy in the inside of living creatures, it knocks and 
slights those, of whom before, while alive, a long while it obeys the will, and expos- 
tulateth not ; and then after death it takes upon it to jxidge, to talk variously. It is 
greatly to seek by the wisest man, what this creature is." Essay on the State of 
Literature and Learning under the Anglo-Saxons, by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., 
F.S.A., p. 79, 8vo., 1839. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 214, there is a black-letter ballad " to the tune 
of Stinyo" which was evidently written in the reign of Charles I., by its 
allusions to " the King's great porter," " Bankes' Horse," &c. It is entitled, 
" The Little Barley-Corn : 

Whose properties and vertues here 
Shall plainly to the world appeare ; 
To make yon merry all the yeere." 

As it has been reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 156 (1810), the first stanza 
only is subjoined : 

" Come, and do not musing stand, Not of the earth-, nor of the air, 

If thou the truth discern ; At evening or at morn, 

But take a full cup in thy hand, But, jovial boys, your Christmas keep 

And thus begin to learn : With the little barley-corn." 

The ballad is divided into two parts, each consisting of eight stanzas. 



A second name for the tune is The Country Lass, which it derived from a 
ballad by Martin Parker. Copies of that ballad are in the Pepys Collection 
(i. 268), and in the Roxburghe (i. 52). The former bears Martin Parker's 
initials, but no printer's name ; the latter was printed for the assigns of Thomas 

The copy in the Pepys Collection is entitled " The Countrey Lasse : 
To a dainty new note : which if you cannot hit, 
There's another tune which doth as well fit 
That's The Mother beguild the Daughter" 
"Although I am a countrey lasse, As those that with the choicest wines 

A loftie minde I beare-a ; Do bathe their bodies oft-a. 

I thinke myselfe as good as those Downe, downe deny, deny downe, 

That gay apparrell weare-a. Heigh downe, a downe, a downe-a, 

My coat is made of comely gray, A derry, deny, derry downe, 

Yet is my skin as soft-a, Heigh downe, a downe, a derry." 

This is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads, i. 41, and an altered copy will be found, 
with the music, in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 165 (1707), or iv. 152 (1719). 
The tune is referred to, under the above name, in a ballad by Laurence Price, 
entitled " Good Ale for my money : 

The good fellowes resolution of strong ale, 
That cures his nose from looking pale. 
To the tune of The Countrey Lasse. 

Be merry, my friends, and list awhile This song in's head he always carried, 

Unto a merry jest, When drink had made him mellow : 

It may from you produce a smile, I cannot go home, nor will I go home, 

When you hear it exprest ; It's long of the oyle of barley ; 

Of a young man lately married, I'll tarry all night for my delight, 

Which was a boone good fellow, And go home in the morning early" 

A copy will be found hi the Roxburghe Collection, i. 138. 

Hilton wrought this tune into a catch for three voices, and published it in his 
Catch that catch can, in 1652 ; and it was afterwards reprinted in that form by 
Playford in his Musical Companion, 1667, 1673, &c. 

The first line of the catch is " I'se goe with thee, my sweet Peggy, my honey." 
The third part is to the tune of Stingo, with the following words : 
" Thou and I will foot it, Joe, 
And what we doe neene shall know; 

But taste fas juice of barley. 
We'll sport all night for our delight, 
And home in the morning early" 
The air is somewhat altered to harmonize with the other parts. 

In the editions of The Dancing Master which were printed after 1690, the 
name is changed from Stingo, or The Oyle of Barley, to Cold and raw. This new 
title was derived from a (so called) "New Scotch Song," written by Tom 
D'Urfey, which first appeared in the second book of Comes Amoris, or Tlte 


Companion of Love, printed by John Carr in 1688 ; a and, as frequently the case, 
the air was a little altered for the words. 

Of this song Sir John Hawkins relates the following anecdote in his History of 
Music (8vo., ii. 564) : 

" This tune was greatly admired by Queen Mary, the consort of King William ; 
and she once affronted Purcell by requesting to have it sung to her, he being present. 
The story is as follows : The Queen having a mind one afternoon to be entertained 
with music, sent to Mr. Gosling, then one of her Chapel, and afterwards Sub- Dean of 
St. Paul's, to Henry Purcell, and to Mrs. Arabella Hunt, who had a very fine voice, 
and an admirable hand on the lute, with a request to attend her ; they obeyed her 
commands; Mr. Gosling and Mrs. Hunt sung several compositions of Purcell, who 
accompanied them upon the harpsichord; at length, the Queen beginning to grow 
tired, asked Mrs. Hunt if she could not sing the ballad of ' Cold and raw ;' b Mrs. 
Hunt answered, Yes, and sung it to her lute. Purcell was all the while sitting at the 
harpsichord unemployed, and not a little nettled at the Queen's preference of a vulgar 
ballad to his music ; but seeing Her Majesty delighted with this tune, he determined 
that she should hear it upon another occasion; and, accordingly, in the next birth- 
day song, viz., that for the year 1692, he composed an air to the words, ' May her 
bright example chace vice in troops out of the land,' the bass whereof is the tune to 
' Cold and raw.' " 

In Anthony & Wood's collection of broadsides (Ashmolean Library, vol. 417) 
there are two ballads with music, bearing the date of December, 1688, and 
printed to this tune. The first is " The Irish Lasses Letter ; or her earnest 
request to Teague, her dear joy : to an excellent new tune" The second is the 
famous song of Lilliburlero. 

In the Douce Collection is a ballad called " The lusty Friar of Flanders : to 
the tune of Gold and raw" 

Horace Walpole mentions it under the same name in a letter to Richard West, 
Esq., dated from Florence (Feb. 27, 1740), where, in speaking of the Carnival, 
he says, " The Italians are fond to a degree of our Country Dances.* 5 Gold and 
raw they only know by the tune; Blowzylella is almost Italian, and Buttered 
Peas is Pizelli al buro." (Letters of Walpole, in vi. vols, 1840 ; vol. i. p. 32.) 

The following is the song of " A cup of old stingo," from Merry Drollery 
Complete, with the tune from The Dancing Master of 1650. 

A few pages further In the same book there is another O'er the hills and, far away ; By moonlight on the green ; 

"new Scotch song," set by Mr. Akeroyd. What's that to you 1 and several others, which he has 

Ritson, in his Historical Essay on Scotish Song, 1794, been probably used to consider as genuine specimens of 

says, "An inundation of Scotch songs, so called, appears Scotish song; as, indeed, most of them are regarded 

to have been poured upon the town by Tom D'Urfey and even in Scotland." Ritson's list might be very greatly 

his Grub-street brethren, toward the end of the seven- extended. 

teenth and in the beginning of the eighteenth century; of b Sir John Hawkins, who relates the anecdote tradition- 
which it is hard to say whether wretchedness of poetry, ally, and who had evidently seen no older copy of the tune 
ignorance of the Scotish dialect, or nastiness of ideas, is than that contained in the Catch (as he elsewhere men- 
most evident, or most despicable. In the number of tions Hilton's Catches as Play ford's first publication) calls 
these miserable caricatures, the reader may be a little sur- it " the old Scot's ballad," but from the allusion to " the 
prised to find the favorite songs of De'ill take the Wars next birth-day song," it must have happened within four 
that hurry 'd Willy from me; Jenny, Jenny, where hast thou years of the first publication. The term "old," could 
been? Young Philander wooed me lang ; Farewell, my therefore only be applied, with propriety, to the music. 
bonny, witty, pretty Moggy ; In January last ; She rose and "This agrees with what I have been told about the book 
let me in ; Pretty Kate of Edinburgh ; As I sat at my tpin- entitled The Dancing Master (the early editions c 
ning wheel ; Fife, and a' the lands about it; Bonny lad, are extremely scarce in England), viz., that it is very well 
prithee lay thy pipe down; The bonny grey -ey'd morn; known to the dealers in Italy, and that it may be prod 
'Twos within a furlong of Edinburgh town; Bonny Dundee; there with comparatively little trouble. 




There's a lus - ty li-quor which Good fel - lows use to take - 



m ~ 

is distill'd with Nard most rich, And wa - ter of the lake - a ; Of Hop a lit - tie 




J J 1 ' m 


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^i 3 

! i 

i I_J 


p I J 

L| 1 8 J i 1 

quan -- ti - ty, And Barm to it they bring too ; Being bar - rell'd up, They 


L -1 


f- m m mm to 



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p-t : 

f r 

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J Hir 7 ^ *~ 

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J . J 



^ ' 

1't a cup Of 

i i * 5 4y * ! 
dain - ty good Old 

l__^ : 1 

Stin - go. 




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'Twill make a man indentures make, 

'Twill make a fool seem wise, 
'Twill make a Puritan sociate, 

And leave to be precise : 
'Twill make him dance about a cross, 

And eke to run the ring too, 
Or anything he once thought gross, 

Such virtue hath old stingo. 
'Twill make a constable oversee 

Sometimes to serve a warrant, 
'Twill make a bailiff lose his fee, 

Though he be a knave-arrant; 
'Twill make a lawyer, though that he 

To ruin oft men brings, too, 
Sometimes forget to take his fee, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 
'Twill make a parson not to flinch, 

Though he seem wondrous holy, 
And for to kiss a pretty wench, 

And think it is no folly ; 
'Twill make him learn for to decline 

The verb that's called Mingo, 
'Twill make his nose like copper shine 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

'Twill make a weaver break his yarn, 

That works with right and left foot, 
But he hath a trick to save himself, 

He'll say there wanteth woof to't; 
'Twill make a tailor break his thread, 

And eke his thimble ring too, 
'Twill make him not to care for bread, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 

'Twill make a baker quite forget 

That ever corn was cheap, 
'Twill make a butcher have a fit 

Sometimes to dance and leap ; 
'Twill make a miller keep his room, 

A health for to begin, too, 
'Twill make him shew his golden thumb, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. 
'Twill make an hostess free of heart, 

And leave her measures pinching, 
'Twill make an host with liquor part 

And bid him hang all flinching ; 
It's so belov'd, I dare protest, 

Men cannot live without it, 
And where they find there is the best, 

The most will flock about it. 



And, finally, the beggar poor, Now to conclude, here is a health 

That walks till he be weary, Unto the lad that spendeth, 

Craving along from door to door, Let every man drink off his can, 

With pre-commiserere ; ' And so my ditty endeth ; 

If he do chance to catch a touch, . I willing am my friend to pledge, 

Although his clothes be thin, too, For he will meet me one day ; 

Though he be lame, he'll prove his crutch, Let's drink the barrel to the dregs, 

If his head be lin'd with stingo. For the malt-man comes a Monday. 

The last line has furnished the subject for a Scotch song. 

The following is a later version of the tune. The copies in The Beggars' 
Opera, Pills to purge Melancholy, The Dancing Master, and Midas (1764), have 
all slight differences, such as would occur from writing down a familiar tune from 
memory. The words are Tom D'Urfey's "last new Scotch song." (See 
Comes Amoris, or The Companion of Love, ii. 16, fol. 1688.) 

Cold and raw the north did blow Bleak in the morn-ing . ear - ly 


All the trees were hid with snow ; Dag-gled in win-ter's year - ly : As 




1 f 1 fe 

k. J ^^ 

> I 1 



j P 

3 J 

f *1 

=i=r* T- 




_, * 


I came ri - ding on the slough, I met a far - mer's daughter, With 
c^ . -^- ' *-*-.-- m . 


1 1 1 


<q , ... ... ..... . 


i ' 


' i ' " 

ro - sy cheeks and bon - ny brow, Good faith, made 

mouth wa - ter. 

Down I veil'd my bonnet low, 
Thinking to show my breeding ; 

She returned a graceful bow 
A village far exceeding. 

1 However unobjectionable this song may have been in 
Queen Mary's time, the three remaining stanzas would 

I ask'd her where she went so soon, 

I long'd to begin a parley, 
She told me to the next market town 

On purpose to sell her barley." 

not be very courteously received in Queen Victoria's 
Tempora mutantur. 



Copies of this song are in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 116 and ii. 182, and 
in The Golden G-arland of Princely Delights, third edition, 1620. In the 
Roxburghe Ballads it is entitled " A Friend's Advice, in an excellent ditty, 
concerning the variable changes in this world " (printed by the assigns of Thomas 
Symcocke) ; in The Golden Garland, " The inconstancy of the world." 

The music is in a volume of transcripts of virginal music, by Sir John Hawkins ; 
in Logonomia Anglica, by Alexander Gil, 1619 ; in Friesche Lust-Hof, 1634 ; in 
D. R. Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Hymen, 4to., Amsterdam, 1647 ; in the Skene 
MS. ; in Forbes' Cantus ; &c. The same words are differently set by Richard 
Allison, in his Howre's Recreation in Musicke, 1608. 

Gil (or Gill), who was Master of St. Paul's School, refers to the song twice in his 
Logonomia. Firstly, " Hemistichium est, duobus constans dactylis, et choriambo ;" 
and secondly, " Ut in illo perbello cantico Tho. Campaiani, cujus mensuram, ut 
rectius agnoscas, exhibeo cum notis." 

Thomas Campian, or Campion, to whom the poetry, and perhaps also the 
music, is here ascribed, was by profession a physician ; but he was also an emi- 
nent poet and admirable musician. He flourished during the latter part of the 
reign of Elizabeth and the greater portion of that of James I. Neither the words 
nor music are, however, to be found in his printed collections. 

According to the registers of St. Dunstan's in the West, " Thomas Campion, 
Doctor of Physicke," was buried there on the 1st of March, 1619. a 

In Camphuysen's Stichtelycke Hymen the song is entitled " Essex's Lamentation, 
or What if a day." 

Ritson, in a note to his Historical Essay on Scotish Song, p. 57, says, " In a 
curious dramatic piece, entitled Philotus, printed at Edinburgh in 1603, by way 
of finale, is Ane sang of the foure lufearis (lovers) , though little deserving that 
title. It is followed by the old English song, beginning, ' What if a day, or 
a month, or a year?' alluded to in Hudibras, which appears to have been sung at 
the end of the play, and was probably, at that time, new and fashionable." 

Mr. Halliwell, in a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries in Dec., 1840, 
says, " It is a curious fact that one of the songs in Ryman's well-known collection 
of the fifteenth century, in the Cambridge Public Library, commences 
' What yf a daye, or nyghte, or howre, 
Crowne my desyres wythe every delyglite ; ' 

and that in Sanderson's Diary in the British Museum, MSS. Lansdowne 241, 
fol. 49, temp. Elizabeth, are the two first stanzas of the song, more like the copy 
in Ryman, and differing in its minor arrangements from the later version. 
Moreover, that the tune in Dowland's Musical Collection, in the Public Library, 
Cambridge, is entitled ' What if a day, or a night, or an hour ?' agreeing with 
Sanderson's copy." Mr. Halliwell has reverted to the subject in Reliquce Antiques, 
i. 323, and ii. 123. 

Haslewood supposed him to have died in 1621. It does not notice his four books of "Ayres," printed in 

is strange that the name of so eminent a man should 1610 and 1612, which, with some others, are described in 

have been omitted in the usual Biographical Dictionaries Rimhault's Bibliothica Madrigaliana. He composed the 

and Universal Biographies. A short account of him is Psalm tune, called " Babylon's streams," which is still 

given, with the reprint of his " Observations in the art in use. His Art of Descant is contained in Playford's 

f English Poetry," in Haslewood's "Ancient Critical Introduction. 
Essays upon English Poets and PoEsy." Haslewood 



" What if a day, or a month, or a year ? " is mentioned as one of the tunes for 
Psalms and Songs of Sion, by W[illiam] SQatyer], 1642. See p. 319. 

Rather slow. 

>tt ? - 


What if a day, or a month, or a year, Crown thy de-lights with a 
May not the change of a night or an hour, Cross thy de-lights with as 

-* C2. 

- a 

thousand sweet con-tentings, a thousand sweet con - ten - tings, , 

ma - ny sad tor-mentings, as ma - ny sad tor - men - tings, " ' " nour > 

J |J J + 



^ n 

i 1 J" e C i 



beau - ty, 



Are but blossoms 

If 1 

dy - in 


1 ' 


QJ a 
Wan - ton pleasures, 

C ] 


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5 1 E 

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i ^^ , 

J m m 


J ^^ 

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& &( 

J . J d 

^ 1 ud 

9 ^ 

-ft 8 

-q- x^* $P W VP 
do - ting love, Are but sha - dows fly - ing. All our joys 




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dL ' * #2. 

i-r-d ! d^d- 

d rH d 1 d ' * ^?5 

are but toys, I - die thoughts de - ceiv - ing ; None hath pow'r 
i . 1 J 

1 1 



\-ri d 

<a F 0-m- 



a ' ' T " LI ^ = 


of an hour Of his life's be - reav - ing. 



Th' earth's but a point of the world, and a man What if the world, with a lure of its wealth, 

Is but a point of the earth's compared centre : Raise thy degree to great place of h,gh ad- 
Shall then the point of a point be so vain, vancing; 

As to triumph in* silly point's adventure ? May not the world, by a check of that wealth, 

All is hazard that we have, Brin S thee a S am to as low des P lsed chan g ? 
Here is nothing biding ; While the sun of wealth doth shine 

Days of pleasure are as streams Thou shalt have fnends P lent y ' 

Through fair meadows gliding. But > come want > the y re P ine > 

Weal or woe, time doth go, Not cne abldes of twentv ' 

Time hath no returning ; Wealth < and f^^)> holds and ends, 

Secret Fates guide our states As th y fortunes rise and fal1 : 

Both in mirth and mourning. U P and down > smile and frown > 

Certain is no state at all. 

What if a smile, or a beck, or a look, What if a grip, or a strain, or a fit, [sickness : 

Feed thy fond thoughts with many vain con- Pinch thee with pain of the feeling pangs of 

ceivings : May not that grip, or that strain, or that fit, 

May not that smile, or that beck, or that look, Shew thee the form of thine own true perfect 

Tell thee as well they are all but false deceivings ? likeness ? 

Why should beauty be so proud, Health is but a glance of joy, 

In things of no surmounting? Subject to all changes; 

All her wealth is but a shroud, Mirth is but a silly toy, 

Nothing of accounting. Which mishap estranges. 

Then in this there's no bliss, Tell me, then, silly man, 

Which is vain and idle, Why art thou so weak of wit, 

Beauty's flow'rs have their hours, As to be in jeopardy, 

Time doth hold the bridle. When thou mayst in quiet sit ? 


This tune has attained a long-enduring popularity. It is to be found in every 
edition of The Dancing Master, as well as in many other publications, and is 
commonly known at the present day. 

The name of TJie Hemp-dresser, or The London Gentlewoman, is derived from 
an old song which was translated into Latin (together with Chtvy Chace and many 
others) by Henry Bold, and published, after his death, in " Latine Songs with 
their English," 1685. 

One of D'Urfey's songs, commencing, " The sun had loos'd his weary team," 
was written to this air. It is printed, with music, in his third book of songs, 
1685 ; in Playford's third book of " Choice Ayres and Songs ; " and in vol. i. 
of all the editions of Pills to purge Melancholy. In the first, it is entitled "A new 
song set to a pretty country dance, called The Hemp-dresser : " in the second, it 
has the further prefix of " The Winchester .Christening ; The Sequel of the 
Winchester Wedding. A new song," &c. 

In TJie Beggars' Opera, 1728 ; The Court Legacy, 1733 ; The Sturdy Beggars, 
1733 ; and The Rival Milliners, 1737, the tune is named " The sun had loos'd 
his weary team," from D'Urfey's song. In other ballad-operas, such as Penelope, 
1728 ; and Love and Eevenge, or The Vintner outwitted, n.d., it takes the name 
of one beginning, " Jone stoop'd down." Burns also wrote a song to it " The 
Deil's awa wi' the Exciseman." 



In the " History of Robert Powel, the puppet-showman," 8vo., 1715, Tlie 
Duke of York's Delight ; Welcome home. Old Rowley ; TJie Knot ; and The .Hemp- 
dressers, are mentioned as favorite tunes called for by the company. 

The song of The Hemp-dresser consists of four stanzas, of which the two first 
are as follows : 

There was a London gentlewoman This man he was a hemp-dresser, 

That lov'd a country man-a; And dressing was his trade-a; 

And she did desire his company And he did kiss the mistress, sir, 

A little now and then-a. And now and then the maid-a. 

Fa la, &c. Fa la, &c. 

The first verse of D'Urfey's song is here printed with the music. 

~s Gracefully. ^ ""^ , ^ t ** 



rH J- 

bO -M J J I '-T-*I * J J5= 

i| 1 j* J 




<sfl ft > * 1 i : S E 

-i ^~ 


j r r r 

The sun had loos'd his wea - ry team, And turn'd his steeds a graz - ing 

5 * L _L 


H E 

1 8 i J J ^ 

--H : d- 





1 m- 

K h I* is r**rl i 

j 4 -j =P r j j j 

-K 1 PL- 




J c ' 

J J 4-4^ 


fa - thorn deep in Neptune's stream His The - tis was em - bra - 

cing ; The 

-f - &f = 4lli P- -i* - 


r- 1- 


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-J 1- 


's ' 



r* r k. 

s i r* 



J J tsd J J n i k. i 

! J 

J' ' * j ^ 

J J B 


m m J 

r r J J J r 

stars tripp'd in the fir - ma - ment, Like milk-maids on a 

May - day, 


i 1 -. j 




. j 


- / . i k **^*\ 




N pn t 

\ r 

_J J J J J fS 1 N 1 

^-d J 


7* ^ ' J 

-d * 


I . ^ . * J ^. ^ 

coun - try lass-es a mumming sent, Or schoolboys on a 


- day. 

'** " P 

-r ' r ' -^ i= 



The following tune is by Thomas Ford, one of the musicians in the suite of 
Prince Henry, the eldest son of James I. It is a song for one voice to the lute, 
or for four without accompaniment, and contained in his Musicke of sundrie 
Kindes (fol. 1607.) The second part of a popular tune called Jamaica, or My 
father was born before me, bears a resemblance to the second part of this. 

In the G-olden Garland of Princely Delight, third edition, 1620, the song is 
entitled, " Love's Constancy." .* 



Ford was not a great harmonist, but this song (now miscalled a madrigal) has 
survived the works of many more learned composers, and is probably as popular 
at the present day as when first written. The harmony of the modern copies is 

not by Ford. 
j Slow. 

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first I saw your 

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face I resolv 

'd To 

ho - nour and re - 

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-nown you, If i 

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low I be dis - 


dain'd I 

wish M 


heart had ne - ver 


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known you. What ! 

J J 

I that 

lov'd, and you that lik'd, Shall we 

be-gm to 


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wran - gle ? No, no, no, my 

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heart is fast, 

J 1 f 1 

And can - not dis - en 

; *-& J " 
- tan - gle. 

J J 


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P m- 

f ^^ 

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= t= =t 


r P r 

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If I admire or praise you too much, 

That fault you may forgive me ; 
Or if my hands had stray'd to touch, 

Then justly might you leave me. 
I ask'd you leave, you bade me love, 

Is't now a time to chide me ? 
No, no, no, I'll love you still, 

What fortune e'er betide me. 

The sun, whose beams most glorious are, 

Rejecteth no beholder; 
And your sweet beauty, past compare, 

Made my poor eyes the bolder. 
I have only found the last stanza 
third edition, 8vo., 1671. 

When beauty moves, and wit delights, 
And signs of kindness bind me, 

There, O there, where'er I go, 
I'll leave my heart behind me. 

[If I have wronged you, tell me wherein, 

And I will soon amend it ; 
In recompense of such a sin, 

Here is my heart, I'll send it. 
If that will not your mercy move, 

Then, for my life I care not ; 
Then, O then, torment me still, 

And take my life, and spare not.] 

in late copies, such as Wifs Interpreter, 



A copy of this song is in the Pepys Collection, i. 230, entitled "A new song of 
a young man's opinion of the difference between good and bad women. To a 
pleasant new tune." (Printed at London for W. I.) It is also in the second part 
of The Golden Garland of Princely Delights, third edition, 1620, entitled " The 
Shepherd's Resolution. To the tune of The Young Man's Opinion." As the 
name of the tune is here derived from the title of the ballad, it must have been 
printed in ballad form before 1620, when it was published among The Workes of 
Master George Wither. 

The tune is in Heber's Manuscript (described at p. 204), but, except for the 
popularity of the words, it would scarcely be worth preserving. They were after- 
wards reset by Mr. King, and are printed to his tune in Pills to purge Melancholy. 

The first line of the copy in the Pepys Collection (unlike that in The Golden 
Garland) is, " Shall I wrestling in dispaire." In the same volume are the 
following : 

Page 200. "The unfortunate Gallant gull'd at London. To the tune of 
Shall I wrastle in despair" (Printed for T. L.) Beginning 

" From Cornwall Mount to London fair." 

Page 316. " This maid would give tenne shillings for a kisse. To the tune 
of Shall I wrassle in despair." (Printed at London by I. White.) Beginning 

" You young men all, take pity on me." 

Page 236. " Jone is as good as my lady. To the tune of What care I how 
fair she be ?" (Printed at London for A. M[ilbourn].) Beginning 

" Shall I here rehearse the story." 

The following (which has been attributed, upon insufficient evidence, to Sir 
Walter Raleigh) is in the same metre, and has the same burden as George 
Wither's song : 

Shall I, like an hermit, dwell Were her hands as rich a prize 

On a rock or in a cell ? As her hairs or precious eyes ; 

Calling home the smallest part If she lay them out to take 

That is missing of my heart, Kisses, for good manners sake ; 

To bestow it where I may And let every lover skip 

Meet a rival every day ? From her hand unto her lip ; 
If she undervalues me, If she seem not chaste to me, 

What care I how fair she be. What care I how chaste she be. 

Were her tresses angel-gold ; No, she must be perfect snow, 

If a stranger may be bold, In effect as well as show, 

Unrebuked, unafraid, Warming but as snow-balls do, 

To convert them to a braid, Not, like fire, by burning too ; 

And, with little more ado, But when she by chance hath got 

Work them into bracelets too ; To her heart a second lot ; 
If the mine be grown so free, Then, if others share with me, 

What care I how rich it be. Farewell her, whate'er she be. 


/ Moderate time. 

Shall I, wast -ing in des - pair, Die because a woman's fair? 




s-i a 

1 1 j 


h J 1 i> | 1 I 

j J -d ' ^^-^-- 

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Or my cheeks make pale with care, Be - cause an - o - ther's 

=| r=^r r P 3 i , . ,-d n 

ro - sy are ? 

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she fair - er 

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than tin 

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j day 



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the flow* -ry n 

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leads in 

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If she be not so to me, What care I how fair she be. 

I itffl^ 

i i*fci 

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3 P^^ 

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Shall my foolish heart be pin'd, 
'Cause I see a woman kind ? 
Or a well-disposed nature, 
Joined with a lovely feature ? 
Be she kind, or meeker than 
Turtle-dove or pelican ; 
If she be not so to me, 
What care I how kind she be. 

Shall a woman's virtues move 
Me to perish for her love ? 
Or, her well-deservings known, 
Make me quite forget mine own ? 
Be she with that goodness blest, 
Which may gain her name of Best ; 
If she be not so to me, 
What care I how good she be. 

'Cause her fortune seems too high, 
Shall I play the fool, and die ? 
He that bears a noble mind 
If no outward help he find, 
Think what with them he would do, 
That without them dares to woo : 
And, unless that mind I see, 
What care I how great she be. 

Great, or good, or kind, or fair, 
I will ne'er the more despair : 
If she love me, this believe, 
I will die ere she shall grieve. 
If she slight me when I woo, 
I can slight and let her go : 
If she be not fit for me, 
What care I for whom she be. 



In The Dancing Master of 1665 there are two tunes under very similar titles. 
The first is The New Exchange ; the second, The New New-Exchange. The first 
is sometimes called Durham Stable;* the second, which was more frequently 
used as a ballad tune, is, in other editions, named The New Royal Exchange. 

In Wit and Drollery, 1656, p. 110, is a song to this tune " On the Souldiers 
walking in the new Exchange to affront the Ladies." It consists of four stanzas, 
the first of which is here printed with the music. 

In the same book, at p. 60, is another song of six stanzas beginning 
" We'll go no more to Tunbridge Wells, And we will have them henceforth call'd 

The journey is too far ; The Kentish new-found Spa. 

Nor ride in Epsom waggon, where Then go, lords and ladies, whate'er you 

Our bodies jumbled are. Go thither all that pleases ; [ail ; 

But we will all to the westward waters go, For it will cure you, without fail, 

The best that e'er you saw, Of old and new diseases." 

In Westminster Drollery, part ii, 1671, is a third song, " to the tune of Til go 
no more to the New Exchange ; " beginning 
" Never will I wed a girl that's coy, For, if too coy, then I must court 

Nor one that is too free ; For a kiss as well as any ; 

But she alone shall be my joy And if too free, I fear o' th' sport 

That keeps a mean b to me. I then may have too many," &c. 

In Wit Restored, in sever all select Poems, not formerly publisht, 1658, there are 
two songs, The Burse of Reformation, and The Answer. The first commencing 
" We will go no more to the Old Exchange, And we have it henceforth call'd 

There's no good ware at all ; The Burse of Reformation. 

Their bodkins, and their thimbles, too, Come, lads and lasses, what do you lack ? 

Went long since to Guildhall. Here is ware of all prices ; 

But we will go to the New Exchange, Here's long and short, here's wide and 
Where all things are in fashion ; Here are things of all sizes, [straight; 

and the Answer 
" We will go no more to the New Exchange, Gold chaines and ruffes shalt beare the bell, 

Their credit's like to fall, For all your reformation. 

Their money and their loyalty Look on our walls, and pillars too, 

Is gone to Goldsmiths' Hall. c You'll find us much the sounder : 

But we will keep our Old Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham stands upright, 

Where wealth is still in fashion, But Crook-back was your founder." 

These have been reprinted in " Satirical Songs and Poems on Costume," for the 
Percy Society, by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. Another equally curious song for the 

a Strype, in his edition of Stow' vi., p. 75, things; where we saw some new-fashion pettycoats of 

says " In the place where certain old stablts stood, belong- sarcenet, with ablack broad lace printed round the bottom 

ing to this house [Durham House], is the New Exchange; and before j very handsome, and my wife had a mind to 

being furnished with shops on both sides the walls, both one of them." 

below and above stairs, for milliners, sempstresses, and b Mean, i.e., a middle course; the mean being the inter- 
other trades, and is a place of great resort and trade for mediate part, or parts, between the treble and tenor. If 
the nobility and gentry, and such as have occasion for there were two means, as in the lute, the lower was called 
such commodities." It was opened April llth, 1609, in the greater: the upper, the lesser mean, 
the presence of James I. and his Queen, and taken down c The place appointed for the reception of fines imposed 
in 1737. Coutts' Banking House now stands upon the upon the Royalists ; and for loans, etc., to the Puritanic 
site. Pepys, in his Diary, 15th April, 1662, says, "With party, 
my wife by coach to the New Exchange, to buy her some 



manners and fashions of the day, is " The New Exchange," in Merry Drollery 
Complete, 1670, p. 134 ; commencing 
"I'll go no more to the Old Exchange, For men and maids, for girls and boys, 

There's no good ware at all ; And traps to catch the fleas. 

But I will go to the New Exchange, 

Call'd Haberdashers' Hall : There you may buy a Holland smock, 

For there are choice of knacks and toys, That's made without a gore," &c. 
The fancy for to please ; 

^^ 1 r- 

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IP 2 


'11 go no more to the 

New Ex-change, 

CT 1* % 


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is no room at 





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all, It is so throng'd and crowded by the gallants of White - hall. 


1 c 1 



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But I'll go to the 

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Old Exchang 

e, Where old things ar 

3 in fash 

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on ; For 







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Kew's be - 

come the shop Of this bless 

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- ed 


- for 

- mation. 


a ' 




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Come, my new Courtiers, what d'ye lack? Good con - scien - ces ? if you do, Here's 



=Tr 1 ' 1 "^| ' 

long and wide, the on - ly wear, The straight will trou - ble you. 




This, like In sad and ashy weeds (p. 202), or like Fear no more the heat of the 
sun, in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, is a sort of dirge, a mourning or funeral song. 
The copy in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 330, is entitled " The Obsequy of 
Faire Phillida : with the Shepherds' and Nymphs' Lamentation for her losse. 
To a neio court tune." The music is contained in a MS. volume of virginal 
music transcribed by Sir John Hawkins, and in Starter's Friesche Lust-Hof, 
1634, under its English name. In the library of the British Museum there is a 
copy of " Psalmes or Songs of Sion, turned into the language and set to the tunes 
of a Strange Land, by W[illiam] S[latyer], intended for Christmas Carols, and 
fitted to divers of the most noted and common, but solemne tunes, every where 
in this land familiarly used and knowne." 1642. Upon this copy a former 
possessor had written the names of the tunes to which they were designed to be 
sung. These are, The fairest Nymph the valleys ; All in a garden green ; Bara 
Faustus* Dreame ; Crimson velvet ; What if a day, or a month, or a year ? Fair 
Angel of England ; Dulcina ; Walsingham ; and Jane Shore.* 
H it/i expression. 

The fair-est nymph the val - leys 
On whom they oft have tend - ed 

Or mountains e - ver bred, The 
And ca-rol'd in the plains, And 

shepherd's joy, So beau-ti-ful and coy, Fair Phi- li - da is dead! 
for her sake, Sweet Rounde- lays did make, Ad - mir'd by youthful swains. 


, ^ , 

cruel fate, the beau- ties en- vying Of this blooming rose, So ready to dis - 




* ^ i - 

j i '] r*^~i 

1 , , 


-2- p_| p 5 ? .4 

o 1 1 1 1 ^J 
close, With a frost un-kind-ly Nipt the bud untime-ly, 

P. ^^ , p r 1== 

So a- way her glo-ry goes. 

*i 1 LJ 



= i 




: . j-^ 

All the tunes here named will be found in this Collection. 



The sheep for woe go bleating, 
That they their goddess miss, 

And sable ewes, 

By their mourning, shew 
Her absence, cause of this. 
The nymphs leave off their dancing, 
Pan's pipe of joy is cleft, 

For great his grief, 

He shunneth all relief, 
Since she from him is reft. 
Come, fatal sisters, leave your spools,' 
Leave 'weaving' altogether, 
That made this flower to wither. 

Let envy, that foul vipress, 

Put on a wreath of cypress, 
Sing sad dirges altogether. 

Diana was chief mourner 
At these sad obsequies, 
Who with her train 
Went tripping o'er the plain, 
Singing doleful elegies. 
Menalchus and Amintas, 
And many shepherds moe, h 

With mournful verse, 
Did all attend her hearse, 

And in sable saddles go. 
Flora, the goddess that us'd to beautify 

Fair Phillis' lovely bowers 

With sweet fragrant flowers, 
Now her grave adorned, 
And with flowers mourned, 

Tears thereon in vain she pours. 

Venus alone triumphed 
To see this dismal day, 
Who did despair 
That Phillida the fair 
Her laws would ne'er obey. 
The blinded boy his arrows 
And darts were vainly spent ; 
Her heart, alas, 
Impenetrable was, 
And to love would ne'er assent. 
At which affront, Citharea repining, 
Caus'd Death with his dart 
To pierce her tender heart ; 
But her noble spirit 
Doth such joys inherit, 
'As' from her shall ne'er depart. 


" Of prikyng and of hunting for the Hare 
Was al his lust, for no cost wolde he spare." 

Chaucer's Description of a Monk. , 

Hunting has always been so favorite an amusement with the English, that the 
great variety of songs upon the subject will excite no surprise. Those I have 
printed, of the reign of Henry VIII., relate either to deer or fox-hunting; but 
Henry was no less careful of the minor sport, as may be seen by an act of 
Parliament (passed anno 14-15 of his reign), entitled "An Act concerning 
the Hunting of the Hare." It recites that, " For as muche as oure Soveraigne 
Lorde the Kinge, and other noblemen of this realme, before this time hath 
used and exercised the game of huntynge the hare, for their disporte and 
pleasure, which game is now decayed and almost utterly dystroied for that 
divers parties of this realme, by reason of the trasinge in the snow, have killed 
and destroied, and dayly do kille and distroy the same hares, by fourteen or six- 
teen upon a daye, to the dyspleasure of our Soveraigne Lorde the Kinge and 
other noblemen," &c. ; therefore the act fixes a penalty of six shillings and eight- 
pence (a large sum in comparison with the value of the hares in those days) for 
every one so killed. Henry seems, also, to have considered the sale of hunting- 

A spool to wind yarn upon. 



horns of sufficient importance, as a source of revenue, to affix an export duty of 
four shillings per dozen upon them.* 

"A Songe of the huntinge and killinge of the Hare" was entered on the 
registers of the Stationers' Company, to Richard Jones, on June 1, 1577, but the 
entry contains no clue to the words, or to the air. 

The tune of the present song may be traced back to the reign of James I. ; 
but, both in his reign, and in that of his predecessor, hunting was so favorite a 
sport, and hunting songs so generally popular, that the introduction of either on 
the stage was thought a good means of assisting the success of a play. 

Wood tells us that in Richard Edwardes' comedy of Palcemon and Arcyte 
(which was performed before Queen Elizabeth, in Christ Church Hall, Oxford, on 
the 2nd and 3rd September, 1566) " A cry of hounds was acted in the quadrant 
upon the train of a fox, in the hunting of Theseus; with which the young 
scholars, who stood in the remoter part of the stage and windows, were so much 
taken and surprised, supposing it to be real, that they cried out, * There, there 
he's caught, he's caught ! ' All which the Queen, merrily beholding, said, 
1 Oh, excellent ! These boys, in very truth, are ready to leap out of the windows 
to follow the hounds.' ' : 

James was passionately fond of hunting ; and Anthony Monday, in his play, 
The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Huntington, thus deprecates his displeasure and 
that of the audience for not having introduced hunting songs, or resorted to the 
other usual expedients to ensure applause. In act iv., sc. 2, Little John says 
" Methinks I see no jests of Robin Hood ; 

No merry Morrices of Friar Tuck ; 
No pleasant skippings up and down the wood ; 
No hunting songs ; no coursing of the buck. 
Pray God this play of ours may have good luck, 
And the King's Majesty mislike it not." 

I have printed one song on hare-hunting, of James' reign (Master Basse his 
Careere, or The New Hunting of the Hare), at p. 256. Another song, entitled 
" The Hunting of the Hare, with her last will and testament, 
As it was performed on Bamstead Downs, 
By coney- catchers and their hounds," 

was printed by Coles, Vere, and Wright, and will be found in Anthony t Wood's 
Collection. It commences thus 

" Of all delights that earth doth yield, 
Give me a pack of hounds in field, 
Whose echo shall, throughout the sky, 
Make Jove admire our harmony, 
And wish that he a mortal were, 
To share the pastime we have here." 
No tune is indicated in the copy, and it could not have been sung to this air, 

This will be found in "The Rates of the Custome " Clarycordes, the payre, 2s.; Harpe Strynges, the boxe, 

House, both inwarde and outwarde, very neceesarye 10s.; Lute Strynges, called Myiiikins, the groce, 22d. ; 

for all Merchantes to knowe. Imprinted at London, by Orgons, the payre, ut lint in valors; Wyer for Clary- 

me, Rycharde Kele, dwellynge at the longe shoppe in the cordes, the pound, 4d.; Virginales, the payre, 3s. 4d.j 

Poultrye, under Saynt Myldreds Churche." 1545. Among Whisteling Bellowes, the groc. 8s. 
the import duties relating to music, will be found 


In Wit and Drollery, and in several other publications, is a song, entitled 
The Hunt, commencing 

" Clear is the air, and the morning is fair, 

Fellow huntsmen, come wind me your horn ; 
Sweet is the breath, and fresh is the earth 
That melteth the rime from the thorn." 

Hunting the Hare is also in the list of the songs and ballads printed by William 
Thackeray, at the Angel in Duck Lane, in the early part of the reign of 
Charles II., and it is, in all probability, the song to this tune (commencing 

" Songs of shepherds, and rustical roundelays "), 

because the tune was then popular, and the words are to be found near that time 
in Westminster Drollery, part ii. (1672); as well as afterwards in Wit and 
Drollery, 1682; in the Collection of Old Ballads, 8vo., 1727; in Miscellany 
Poems, edited by Dryden, iii. 309 (1716) ; in Bitson's, Dale's, and other 
Collections of English Songs. 

The first copy of the tune that I have discovered is in Playford's Musictfs 
Recreation on the Lyra Viol, 1652 ; the second is in MusicKs Recreation on the 
Viol, Lyra-way, 1661. In both publications it is entitled Room for Cuckolds. 

Pennant speaking of Rychard Middleton (father of Sir Hugh Middleton), says, 
" Thomas, the fourth son, became Lord Mayor of London, and was the founder of 
the family of Chirk Castle. It is recorded that having married a young wife in 
his old age, the famous song of Room for Cuckolds, here comes my Lord Mayor ! 
was invented on the occasion." Pennant's Tours in Wales, ii. 152 (1810). 
Thomas Middleton was Lord Mayor of London in 1614. Pennant gives the 
Sebright MSS. as his authority for the anecdote. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 60, will be found, " A Scourge for the Pope ; 
satyrically scourging the itching sides of this obstinate brood in England. To 
the tune of Room for Cuckolds."" It is one of Martin Parker's early songs: 
" Printed by John Trundle, at his shop in Smithfield," and signed, " Per me, 
Martin Parker." Another song, which bears this title of the tune, is contained 
in vol. xvi. of the King's Pamphlets Brit. Mus., and dated in MS., 1659. It is 
also quoted, by the same name, in Folly in print, or A Book of Rhymes, 1667, in 
the song, " Away from Romford, away, away." 

A third, and perhaps the earliest name for the air, is Room for Company ; 
apparently derived from a ballad in the Pepys Collection, i. 168, entitled and 
commencing, " Room for Company, here comes good fellowes. To a pleasant new 
tune" Imprinted at London for E. W. This was perhaps Edward White, a 
ballad-printer of Elizabeth's reign, and of the earliest part of that of James I. 

In Pills to purge Melancholy, vi. 136, there is a song about the twelve great 
Companies of the city of London, printed to this tune, and commencing 
" Room for gentlemen, here comes my Lord Mayor." 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 538, is, " The fetching home of May ; or 
" A pretty new ditty, wherein is made known, 

How each lass doth strive for to have a green gown. 
To the tune of Room for Company," Printed for J. Wright, jun., dwelling 



at the upper end of the Old Bailey (about 1663). It is also contained in the 
Antidote to Melancholy, 1661; and in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 26 (1707), 
or iv. 26 (1719). 

The first stanza is subjoined, with the earlier version of the tune. 
Smoothly, and in moderate time. 

Pan, leave piping, The Gods have done feasting, There's never a Goddess a 
f J 

hunting to-day ; Mor - tals marvel at Co - ri-don's jesting, That gives them assistance to 

r r- |Tj^ 

en - ter-tain May. The lads and the lass - es, With scarves on their fa - ces, So 



lively time pass - es, Trip o - ver the downs : Much mirth and sport they make, 

Run-ning at Barley-break, Good lack, what pains they take For a green gown 

^ il~m= 


In the Antidote to Melancholy, and in Pills to purge Melancholy, the above song 
is printed under the title of TJie Green Grown, a name derived from the last line or 
each stanza of the sons- In Musick a-la-Mode ; or The young Maid's Delight ; 



containing five excellent new songs sung at the Drolls in Bartholomew Fair, 1691, 
there is another song, under the name of The Gbreen Crown, " to an excellent play- 
house tune." 

The tune of Hunting the Hare is now in common use for comic songs, or for 
such as require great rapidity of utterance ; but it has also been employed as a 
slow air. For instance, in Gay's ballad-opera of Achilles, 1733, it is printed 
in | time, and entitled " A Minuet." 



Songs of shepherds and rus-ti-cal roundelays, Form'd of fancies, and whistled on reeds, 

*): . 

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_^ 1 


1 1 

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\ 2 J d 


\-\ t^f^i 

i nr] j . ii 

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Sung to solace young 

" -"* 

nymphs up-on ho - li 

- days, 

3 hgTJ J 
^ * 

Are too un-worthy for 

-i . 

wonderful deeds. 

1 f^ ' 

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-v_|: ^ ^ \ 

-^ - ^ 

^) cr^s. 

Sot-tish Si - le-nus To Phoebus the genius Was sent by dame Ve-nus a song to prepare, 

-^ 1 

p . . 


phrase nicely coin'd, And in verse quite refin 

hunted the hare. 




Stars quite tir'cl with pastimes Olympical, 

Stars and planets which beautiful shone, 
Could no longer endure that men only shall 
Swim in pleasures, and they but look on ; 

Round about horned 

Lucina they swarmed, 
And her informed how minded they were, 

Each god and goddess, 

To take human bodies, 
As lords and ladies, to follow the hare. 

Chaste Diana applauded the motion, 

While pale Proserpina sat in her place, 
To light the welkin, and govern the ocean, 
While she conducted her nephews in chase : 

By her example, 

Their father to trample, 
The earth old and ample, they soon leave the air ; 

Neptune the water, 

And wine Liber Pater, 
And Mars the slaughter, to follow the hare. 


Light god Cupid was mounted on Pegasus, Hymen ushers the lady Astraea, 

Lent by the Muses, by kisses and pray'rs ; The jest took hold of Latona the cold ; 

Strong Alcides, upon cloudy Caucasus, Ceres the brown, with bright Cytherea ; 

Mounts a centaur, which proudly him bears; Thetis the wanton, Bellona the bold; 

Postilion of the sky, Shame-fac'd Aurora, 

Light-heeled Mercury With witty Pandora, 

Soon made his courser fly, fleet as the air; And Maia with Flora did company bear ; 

Tuneful Apollo, But Juno was stated 

The kennel did follow, Too high to be mated, 

And whoop and halloo, boys, after the hare. Although she hated not hunting the hare. 

Drown'd Narcissus from his metamorphosis, Three brown bowls to th' Olympical rector, 

Rous'd by Echo, new manhood did take ; The Troy-born boy presents on his knee ; 

Snoring Somnus upstarted from Cimmeris, Jove to Phoebus carouses in nectar, 

Before, for a thousand years, he did not And Phoabus to Hermes, and Hermes to 

There was club-footed [wake ; Wherewith infused, [me ; 

Mulciber booted, I piped and I mused, 

And Pan promoted on Corydon's mare ; In language unused, their sports to declare : 

Proud Pallas pouted, Till the house of Jove 

Loud ./Bolus shouted, Like the spheres did move : 

And Momus flouted, yet followed the hare. Health to those who love hunting the hare ! 


This tune is referred to under three names, viz., The Crossed Couple, Hyde 
Park, and Tantara rara tantivee. 

The ballad of " The Crost Couple : to a new Northern tune much in fashion," 
is in the Roxburghe Collection, ii. 94. In the same volume, at p. 379, is " News 
from Hide Park," &c., " to the tune of The Crost Couple" 

The burden of " News from Hide Park " (as will be seen by the verse printed 
below with the music) is Tantara rara iantivee; and in the Bagford Collection 
(p. 170), the tune is quoted under that name, in "A pleasant Dialogue betwixt 
two wanton Ladies of Pleasure ; or, The Duchess of Portsmouth's woful farewell 
to her former felicity." This ballad is a supposed conversation between Nell 
Gwyn and Louise Renee de Penencourt de Querouaille (vulgarly, Madame 
Carwell), whom Charles II. created Duchess of Portsmouth. 

Nell Gwynn was as popular with the ballad-singers, from her many redeeming 
qualities, as the Duchess of Portsmouth (being a Roman Catholic, and supposed 
to send large sums of money to her relations in France) was out of favour with 
them.* The ballad commences thus : 

" Brave gallants, now listen, and I will you tell, 

With a fa la la, la fa, la la, 

Of a pleasant discourse that I heard at Pell-Mell, 
With a fa la la, la fa, la la, &c. 

On the following page, in the same collection, there It commences thus : 

is another Dialogue between the Duchess of Portsmouth " I prithee, Portsmouth, tell me plain, 

and Nell Gwyn, on the supposed intention of the former Without dissimulation, 

to retire to France with the money she had acquired. It When dost thou home return again, 

is entitled, " Portsmouth's Lamentation: Or a Dialogue And leave this English nation ! 

between two amorous Ladies, E. G. and D. P. Your youthful days are past and gone, 

" Dame Portsmouth was design'd for France You plainly may perceive it, 

But therein was prevented ; Winter of age is coming on, 

Who mourns at this unhappy chance, "Tis true you may believe it." 

And sadly doth lament it. Nine stanzas, " Printed for C. Dennisson, at the Stationers 

To the tune of Tom the Taylor, or Titus Oales." Arms, within Aldgate." 



The ballad of News from Hide Park is also printed, with the tune, in Pills to 
purge Melancholy, ii. 138 (1700 and 1707). Cunningham, in his Hand-book of 
London, says of Hyde Park : " In 1550, the French Ambassador hunted there 
with the King in 1578, the Duke Casimer ' killed a barren doe with his piece, 
in Hyde Park, from amongst 300 other deer.' In Charles the First's reign, it 
became celebrated for its foot and horse races round the Ring ; in Cromwell's 
time, for its musters and coach races ; in Charles the Second's reign, for its drives 
and promenades a reputation which it still retains." (Edit. 1850, p. 241.) 
This ballad was printed in the reign of Charles II. The following are the three 

first stanzas. 

~ I 

One ev'-ning a lit -tie be - fore it was dark, Sing tan-ta-ra, ra - ra, tan - 
I call'd for my gelding, and rode to Hyde Park, Sing tan-ta-ra, ra - ra, tan - 


. n t | ie merr y mon t n o f May, When meadows and fields were gaudy and gay, And 

flowers apparrell'd as bright as the day, I 


got up-on my tan - ti - vee. 

r J If 


The Park shone brighter than the skies, 

Sing tantara rara tantivee, 
With jewels, and gold, and ladies' eyes, 

That sparkled and cried, " Come see me ; " 
Of all parts of England Hyde Park hath the 


For coaches, and horses, and persons of fame ; 
Itlook'd, at first sight, like a field full of flame, 

There hath not been such a sight since Adam's, 

For perriwig, ribbon, and feather ; 
Hyde Park may be termed the market for 
Or lady-fair, choose you whether, [madams, 
Their gowns were a yard too long for their legs, 
They show'd like the rainbow cut into 
A garden of flowers, or navy of flags, 
When they did all mingle together. 

IT i j . , .. 

Which made me ride up tantivee. 

Another tune called Hide Park is to be found in the earliest editions of TJie 
Dancing Master, and there are ballads in a different metre, such as "A new ditty 
of a Lover, tost hither and thither, that cannot speak his mind when they are 
together," by Peter Lowberry (Roxburghe, i. 290) ; commencing thus : 



" Alas * I am in love, She doth so far excel 

And cannot speak it; All and each other, 

My mind I dare not move, My mind I cannot tell, 

Nor ne'er can break it. When we're together." 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 197, is a ballad, " The Defence of Hide Parke from 
some aspersions cast upon her, tending to her great dishonour : To a curious new 
Court tune" It is in ten-line stanzas, and commences, " When glistering Phoebus." 
" Printed at London for H[enry] G[osson]." Also, at i. 188, " The praise of 
London : or, A delicate new Ditty, which doth invite you to faire London City. 
To the tune of the second part of Hide Parke" 

In Westminster Drollery, 1671, there is another song called " Hide Park: the 
tune, Honour invites you to delights Come to the Court, and be all made Knights; " 
commencing " Come, all you noble, 

You that are neat ones," &c. 

A copy of the ballad, Come to the Court, and be all made Knights, will be found in 
Addit. MSS., Brit. Mm, No. 5,832, fbl. 205, entitled "Verses upon the Order 
for making Knights of such persons who had 40. per annum, in King James 
the First's time." Both James I. and Charles I. resorted to this obnoxious ex- 
pedient for raising money. According to John Philipot, Somerset Herald, in his 
Perfect Collection or Catalogue of all Knights Batchelours made by King James, 
since his coming to the Crown of England, 1660, James I. created 2,323 Knights, 
of whom 900 were made the first year of his reign. 

Shepherds, leave singing your pastoral sonnets, 

" Come all you farmers out of the country, 

Carters, ploughmen, hedgers, and all ; 
Tom, Dick, and Will, Ralph, Roger, and 


Leave off your gestures rusticall. 
Bid all your home-spun russets adieu, 
And suit yourselves in fashions new ; 
Honour invites you to delights 
Come all to Court, and be made Knights. 

He that hath forty pounds per annum 
Shall be promoted from the plough ; 

His wife shall take the wall of her grannum, 
Honour is sold so dog-cheap now. [ing 

Though thou hast neither good birth nor breed- 

If thou hast money thou'rt sure of speeding. 
Honour invites you, &c. 

Knighthood, in old time, was counted an 


Which the blest spirits did not disdain ; 
But now it is used in so base a manner, 

That it's no credit, but rather a stain. 
Tush, it's no matter what people do say, 
The name of a Knight a whole village will 

Honour invites you, &c. [sway. 

And to learn compliments shew your en- 

[deavours ; 

Cast off for ever your two shilling bonnets, 
Cover your coxcombs with three pound 


Sell cart and tar-box, new coaches to buy, 
Then, 'Good, your worship,' the vulgar will 
Honour invites you, &c. [ cr y- 

And thus unto worship being advanced, 
Keep all your tenants in awe with your 

And let your rents be yearly enhanced, 

To buy your new-moulded madams new 


Joan, Siss, and Nell, shall all be ladyfied, 
Instead of hay-carts, in coaches shall ride. 
Honour invites you, &c. 

Whatever you do, have a care of expences ; 

In hospitality do not exceed ; 
Greatness of followers belongeth to princes, 
A coachman and footman are all that you 


And still observe this Let your servants meat 


To keep brave apparel upon your wife's back. 
Honour invites you," &c. 


Another version of this ballad is printed in the Rev. Joseph Hunter's History 
of Sheffield (p. 104), from " a small volume of old poetry in the Wilson Collec- 
tions." It is there entitled, " Verses on account of King Charles the First raising 
money by Knighthood, 1630." Shepherds are said to wear ten-penny, instead of 
" two shilling," bonnets in that version ; and it has the following concluding 
stanza : " Now to conclude and shut up my sonnet, 

Leave off the cart, whip, hedge-bill, and flail ; 
This is my counsel, think well upon it, 

Knighthood and honour are now put to sale. 
Then make haste quickly, and let out your farms, 
And take my advice in blazing your arms. 

Honour incites you" &c. 
The above would suit the tune of Hunting the Hare. 


The earliest printed copy hitherto discovered of the music of this celebrated 
song, which retains undiminished popularity after a lapse of more than two cen- 
turies, is to be found in the first edition of The English Dancing Master, 1650-51. 
This is one of the earliest known publications by Playford, before whose time music 
was sparingly printed, and small pieces, such as songs, ballad and dance tunes, or 
lessons for the virginals, were chiefly to be bought in manuscript, as they are in 
many parts of Italy at the present time. In the first edition of The Dancing 
Master the tune is called G-ray's-Inne Maske, and in later editions (for instance, 
the fourth, printed in 1670) Gray 's-Inne Maske ; or, Mad Tom. The black- 
letter copies of the ballad, in the Pepys Collection (i. 502) ; in the Bagford 
(643, m. 9, p. 52) ; and the Roxburghe (i. 299), are entitled New Mad Tom of 
Bedlam; or, " The Man in the Moone drinks claret, a 

With powder'd beef, turnip, and carret," <fcc. 

" The tune is Gray's-Inn Maske" 

It was formerly the custom of gentlemen of the Inns of Court to hold revels 
four times a year, b and to represent masks and plays in their own Halls, or else- 

The ballad is usually printed with another, which is also It makes an old man lusty, 

entitled "The New Mad Tom; or, The Man in the Moon The young to brawl, 

drinks Claret, as it was lately sung at the Curtain, Holy- And the drawers up call, 

well, to the same tune." The Curtain Theatre (according Before being too much musty, 

to Malone and Collier) was in disuse at the commence- Whether you drink all or little, 

ment of the reign of Charles I. (1625). This ballad has Pot it so yourselves to wittle; 

three long verses, in the same measure, and evidently in- Then though twelve 

tended to be sung to the same music. The first is as A clock it be, 

follows: Yet all the way go roaring. 

" Bacchus, the father of drunken nowls, If the band 

Full mazers, beakers, glasses, bowls, Of bills cry stand, 

Greezie flap-dragons, Flemish upsie freeze, Swear that you must a 

With health stab'd in arms upon naked knees ; Such gambols, such tricks, such fegaries, 

Of all his wines he makes you tasters, We fetch though we touch no canaries ; 

So you tipple like bumbasters; Drink wine till the welkin roars, 

Drink till you reel, a welcome he doth give ; And cry out a of your scores." 

O how the boon claret makes you live ; b Ano ther curious custom, of obliging lawyers to dance 

Not a painter purer colours shows four times a year, is quoted from Dugdale by Sir John 

Then what's laid on by claret. Hawkins. (History of Music, vol. ii., p. 137.) "It is not 

Pearl and ruby doth set out the nose, many years since the judges, in compliance with ancient 

When thin small beer doth mar it ; Custom, danced annually on Candlemas-day. And, that 

Rich wine is good, nothing might be wanting for their encouragement in this 

It heats the blood, excellent study (the law), they have very anciently had 


where. A curious letter on the subject of a mask, which for some unexplained 
reason did not, take place, may be seen in Collier's History of Early Dramatic 
Poetry and Annals of the Stage, vol. i., p. 268. It is addressed to Lord 
Burghley, by " Mr. Frauncis Bacon " (afterwards Lord Bacon), who in 1588 dis- 
charged the office of Reader of Gray's Inn. Many other curious particulars of 
their masks may be found in the same work, and some in Sir J. Hawkins' History 
of Music. For the Christmas Revels of the bar, see Mr. Payne Collier's note to 
Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. vii., p. 311. Lawyers are now, generally speaking, a 
music-loving class. The enjoyment of sweet sounds is to many the most accept- 
able recreation after long study. They were also famous in former days for 
songs and squibs. Some, too, were tolerable composers, for every one claiming to 
be a gentleman learnt music. As their compositions are rather out of my present 
subject, I will refer only to their rhyming propensities ; and, although much more 
ample illustration might be given, two passages from letters of John Chamberlain 
to Sir Dudley Carleton, printed in The Court of James I. (1849), will probably 
suffice. On May 20, 1615, Chamberlain says, " On Saturday last the King went 
again to Cambridge to see the play, Ignoramus, which hath so nettled the lawyers, 
that they are almost out of all patience ; and the Lord Chief Justice [Sir E. 
Coke] both openly at the King's Bench, and divers other places, hath galled and 
glanced at scholars with much bitterness ; and there be divers Inns at Court have 
made rhymes and ballads against them, which they have answered sharply enough." 
(i. 363.) Again in the letter of Nov. 23, 1616, " Here is a bold rhyme of 
our young gallants of Inns of Court against their old benchers, and a pretty 
epigram upon the Lord Coke, and no doubt more will follow ; for when men are 
down, the very drunkards make rhymes and songs upon them." (i. 444.) 

The authorship of the music of this song has been a subject of contention ; and 
so little have dates been regarded, that it has long passed as the composition of 
Henry Purcell, and is still published with his name. Walsh paved the way to 
this error (in which Ritson and many others followed), by including it in 
a collection of " Mr. Henry Purcell's Favourite Songs, out of his most cele- 
brated Orpheus Britannicus, and the rest of his works." It is not contained in 
the Orpheus Britannicus (which was published by Purcell's widow), and the music 
may still be seen as printed eight years before Purcell's birth. 

In a note upon the passage before quoted from Walton's Angler, Sir J. 
Hawkins adds, " This song, beginning, ' Forth from my dark and dismal cell,' 
with the music to it, set by Henry Laives, is printed in a book, entitled Choice 
Ayres, Songs, and Dialogues to sing to the Theorbo-Lute and Bass Viol, fol. 1675 ; 
and in Playford's Antidote against Melancholy, 8vo., 1669." 

there should be four Revels that year, and no more," &c. Candlemas-day preceding, according to the ancient order 

And again he says, " Nor were these exercises of dancing of this society, when the judges were present ; with this, 

merely permitted, but thought very necessary, as it seems, that if the like fault were afterwards committed, they 

and much conducing to the making of gentlemen more fit should be fined or disbarred." 
for their books at other times ; for, by an order made 6th 



Sir John Hawkins must have had some reason, which he does not assign, for 
attributing the composition to Henry Lawes. It is not contained in either of the 
printed collections of Lawes' songs, nor have I been able to find any copy with his 
name attached to it. Sir John seems to be mistaken, because Lawes did not 
enter the Chapel Royal until 1626, and the Curtain Theatre, at which one of the 
songs to the tune were sung* was in disuse at the commencement of the reign of 
Charles I. (1625). We must therefore look to an earlier composer. 

One of the Addit. MSS., Brit. Mus. (No. 10,444) is a collection of Mask- 
tunes, and there are several in that collection entitled " Gray's Inn." See 
Nos. 50, 51, 91, 99, &c. If Nos. 50 and 99 are from the same Mask (which is 
not improbable), Mad Tom may be the composition of Lawes' master, John 
Cooper, called " Cuperario " after his visit to Italy. No. 50, the first of the 
above tunes, is there called "Cuperaree, or Gray's Inn;" No. 51, "Gray's In 
Anticke Masque;" and No. 99 (the tune in question), "Gray's Inne Masque." 

There is an equal uncertainty about the authorship of the words. In Walton's 
Angler, 1653, Piscator says, " I'll promise you I'll sing a song that was lately 
made at my request by Mr. William Basse, one that made the choice songs of 
The Hunter in his career, and Tom of Bedlam, and many others of note." There 
are, however, so many Toms of Bedlam, that it is impossible to determine, from 
this passage, to which of them Isaak Walton refers. 

In addition to the broadsides, and a copy in Le Prince d 9 Amour, 1660, there is 
in MSS. Harl., No. 7,332, a version in the handwriting of " Fearegod Barebone, of 
Daventry, in the county of Northampton," who, " beinge at many times idle, and 
wanting imployment, bestoed his time with his penn and incke wrighting thease 
sonnets, songes, and epigrames, thinkinge that it weare bettar so to doe for the 
mendinge of his hand in wrighting, then worse to bestow his time." Master 
Fearegod Barebone was, no doubt, a puritanical hypocrite ; and wrote this excuse 
about improving his handwriting, to be prepared in case the book should fall into 
" ungodly hands." No other inference can be drawn from his selection of some 
of the songs in the manuscript. Mad Tom, however, is not one of those objection- 
able ditties, and, as being the oldest copy, I have here followed his manuscript. 
The tune is from The Dancing Master, and differs somewhat from later versions. 

Mad Tom was employed as a ballad tune in Penelope, 1728 ; and The Bay's 
Opera, 1730. 


ffitV j n J~TI 


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Forth from my sad and darksome cell. 
Fear and despair pur - sue my soul, 

rrvsHt P ? * "T 9 i f -ra 

Tt-S* / i i 1 F b -m CT 

-j fl' J 4 j. j. h 

From the deep a - byss of hell, Mad 
Hark, how the angry fu - ries howl, Plu- 

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tt \< . l*~ i- 

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^""^ n 

Mr. Payne Collier, in a note to Heber's Catalogue, 
Part iv., p. 92, says that this song was sung at the Curtain 
Theatre, about 1G10. In Choice Ayres, 2nd edition, fol., 

1675, the composer's name is not given, and it is printed 
without any base. 





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Tom is come to view the world a-gain, To see if ' he can ease h 
-to doth laugh, and Pros-er - pine is glad To see poor naked Tom o 


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Through the woods I wander night and day, To find my straggling senses, ://: When 
In an an-grymoodl met old Time With a whip for my of - - fences; 

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he me spies, a - way he flies, For Time will stay for no man ; With 
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Last night I heard the dog-star bark ; But I could get no cider ; 

Mars met Venus in the dark ; He drank whole buts, 

Limping Vulcan het an iron bar, Till he brake his guts, 

And furiously he ran at the god of war. But mine be never the wider. 

Mars with his weapons beset him about, Poor Tom is very dry : 

But Vulcan's temples had the gout, A little drink for charity ! 

And his horns did hang so in his light, Now, hark ! I hear Actaeon's hounds, 

He could not see to aim his blows aright. The huntsman whoops and halloos ; 

Mercury, the nimble post of heaven, Ringwood, Roister, Bowman, Jowler, 

Came to see the quarrel ; And all the troop do follow. 

Gor-bellied Bacchus, giant-like, The Man in the Moon drinks claret, 

Bestrid a strong-beer barrel. Eats powder'd beef, turnip, and carrot, 

To me he drank, But a cup of old Malaga sack 

I did him thank, Will fire the bush at his back. 

It will be observed that the second verse of the above is not now sung. 
Another Mad Tom, composed by George Hayden, and commencing, "In my 
triumphant chariot hurl'd," has been added to the first, to make a bravura. There 
are even different copies of George Hayden's song, some having a | movement at 
the close, which others have not. Hayden was the author of the still favorite 
duet, " As I saw fair Clora." He flourished in the early part of last century. 


In Le Prince d' Amour, 1660, there are no less than three songs entitled 
Tom of Bedlam ; also Bishop Corbet's song, TJie distracted Puritan, which is to 
the tune of Tom of Bedlam. 

The first song (at p. 164) consists of eight stanzas, and commences thus : 
" From the top of high Caucasus, And them I bore twelve leagues and more, 

To Paul's Wharf near the Tower, In spite of Turks and soldiers, [merry; 

In no great haste, I easily pass'd Sing, sing, and sob ; sing, sigh, and be 

In less than half an hour. Sighing, singing, and sobbing; 

The gates of old Byzantium Thus naked Tom away doth run, 

I took upon my shoulders, And fears no cold nor robbing. 

The second is at p. 167, and consists also of eight stanzas, of which the two 
first are as follows : 
" From the hag and hungry goblin, Of thirty bare years have I 

That into rags would rend you, [man Twice twenty been enraged ; 
And the spirits, that stand by the naked And, of forty, been three times fifteen 

In the book of moons, defend you ; In durance soundly caged ; 

That of your five sound senses On the lordly lofts of Bedlam, 

You never be forsaken, With stubble soft and dainty, [dong, 

Nor travel from yourselves with Tom Brave bracelets strong, and whips, ding- 

Abroad to beg your bacon. And wholesome hunger plenty. 

While I do sing, 'Any food, any feeding, Yet did I sing, ' Any food, any feeding, 

feeding, drink, or clothing ! Feeding, drink, or clothing ! 

Come, dame or maid, be not afraid, Come, dame or maid, be not afraid, 

Poor Tom will injure nothing.' Poor Tom will injure nothing.' " 

Ritson, who has reprinted the above two songs, supposes them " to have been 
written by way of burlesque on such sort of things." (Ancient Songs, p. 261, 1790.) 


The third song (p. 169) is now commonly known as Mad Tom. It is in 
another metre, and has a separate tune. (Ante p. 330.) 

The fourth, commencing, " Am I mad, noble Festus," (p. 171), is here 
printed to this tune. 

In the Roxburghe Collection, i. 42, there is a song on the tricks and disguises 
of beggars, entitled " The cunning Nor theme Begger : 

Who all the bystanders doth earnestly pray, 
To bestow a penny upon him to-day : 

to the tune of Tom of Bedlam" The first stanza is as follows : 
" I am a lusty begger, Yet, though I'm bare, 

And live by others giving ; I'm free from care, 

I scorne to worke, A fig for high preferments, [good sir, 

But by the highway lurke, But still will I cry, ' Good, your worship, 

And beg to get my living. Bestow one poor denier, sir ; 

I'll i' th' wind and weather, Which, when I've got, 

And weare all ragged garments ! At the pipe and the pot, 

I soon will it cashier, sir' " 

This copy of the ballad was printed "at London" for F. Coules, and may be 
dated as of the reign of Charles, or James I. 

In Wit and Drollery, 1656 (p. 126), there is yet another Tom of Bedlam, 
beginning " Forth from the Elysian fields, a place of restless souls, 

Mad Maudlin is come to seek her naked Tom, 
Hell's fury she controls," &c. 

This is printed in an altered form, and with an imperfect copy of the tune, in 
Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 192 (1700 and 1707), under the title of "Mad 
Maudlin to find out Tom of Bedlam : " 

" To find my Tom of Bedlam, ten thousand years I'll travel; 
Mad Maudlin goes, with dirty toes, to save her shoes from gravel. 
Yet will I sing, Bonny boys, bonny mad boys, Bedlam boys are bonny ; 
They still go bare, and live by the air, and want no drink nor money." 
The tune is again printed in Pills to purge Melancholy, iii. 13 (1707), to a song 
"On Dr. G[ill?], formerly master of St. Paul's School," commencing 
" In Paul's Churchyard in London, 
There dwells a noble firker, 
Take heed, you that pass, 
Lest you taste of his lash, 
For I have found him a jerker : 

Still doth he cry, talte him up, take him up, sir, 

Untruss with expedition ; 
the birchen tool 
Which he winds in the school 

Frights morse than the Inquisition." 

In Loyal Songs written against the Riimp Parliament, 1731, ii. 272, we have 
" The cock-crowing at the approach of a Free Parliament ; or 

Good news in a ballat A country wit made it, 

More sweet to your pallat Who ne'er got the trade yet, 

Than fig, raisin, or stewed prune is : And Mad Tom of Bedlam the tune is." 


Among the King's Pamphlets in the British Museum there are two songs to 
this tune. The first (by a loyal Cavalier) is " Mad Tom a Bedlam's desires of 
Peace: Or his Benedicities for distracted England's Restauration to her wits 
again. By a constant though unjust sufferer (now in prison) for His Majesties 
just Regality and his Country's Liberty. S.F.W.B." (Sir Francis Wortley, 
Bart.) This is in the sixth vol. of folio broadsides, and dated June 27, 1648. 
" Poor Tom hath been imprison'd, Yet still he cries for the King, for the good 

With strange oppressions vexed ; Tom loves brave confessors ; [King ; 

He dares boldly say, they try'd each way But he curses those that dare their King de- 

Wherewith Job was perplexed. Committees and oppressors." &c. [pose, 

This has been reprinted in Wright's Political Ballads, for the Percy Society, 
p. 102 ; and in the same volume, p. 183, is another, taken from the fifteenth vol. 
of broadsides, entitled "A new Ballade, to an old tune, Tom of Bedlam" dated 
January 17, 1659, and commencing, " Make room for an honest red-coat." 

Besides these, we have, in Wit and Drollery, 1682, p. 184, Loving Mad Tom, 
commencing, " I'll bark against the dog-star;" and many other mad-songs in the 
Roxburghe Collection, such as " The Mad Man's Morrice;" " Love's Lunacie, or 
Mad Bess Js Vagary;" &c., &c. 

Bishop Percy has remarked that " the English have more songs on the subject 
of madness, than any of their neighbours." For this the following reason has 
been assigned by Mr. Payne Collier, in a note to Dodsley's Collection of Old 
Plays, ii. 4 : 

" After the dissolution of the religious houses, where the poor of every denomination 
were provided for, there was for many years no settled or fixed provision made to 
supply the want of that care which those bodies appear always to have taken of their 
distressed brethren. In consequence of this neglect, the idle and dissolute were 
suffered to wander about the country, assuming such characters as they imagined were 
most likely to insure success to their frauds, and security from detection. Among 
other disguises, many affected madness, and were distinguished by the name of 
Bedlam Beggars. These are mentioned by Edgar, in King Lear: 
" The country gives me proof and precedent, 
Of Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices, 
Stick in their numb'd and mortify'd bare arms 
Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary ; 
And, with this horrible object, from low farms, 
Poor pelting villages, sheep-cotes, and mills, 
Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayer, 
Inforce their charity." 

In Dekker'a Bellman of London, 1616, all the different species of beggars are 
enumerated. Amongst the rest are mentioned Tom of Bedlam's band of mad caps, 
otherwise called Poor Tom's flock of wild geese (whom here thou seest by his black 
and blue naked arms to be a man beaten to the world), and those wild geese, or hair 
brains, are called Abraham men. An Abraham man is afterwards described in this 
manner : ' Of all the mad rascals (that are of this wing) the Abraham man is the 
most fantastick. The fellow (quoth this old Lady of the Lake unto me) that sate 
naif naked (at table to-day) from the girdle upward, is the best Abraham man that 
ever came to my house, and the notablest villain : he swears he hath been in Bedlam, 



and will talk frantickly of purpose : you see pins stuck in sundry places of his naked 
flesh, especially in his arms, which pain he gladly puts himself to (being, indeed, no 
torment at all, his skin is either so dead with some foul disease, or so hardened with 
weather, only to make you believe he is out of his wits) : he calls himself by the name 
of Poor Tom, and coming near any body, cries out, Poor Tom is a cold. Of these 
Abraham men, some be exceeding merry, and do nothing but sing songs, fashioned 
out of their own brains, some will dance ; others will do nothing but either laugh or 
weep ; others are dogged, and are sullen both in look and speech, that, spying but a 
small company in a house, they boldly and bluntly enter, compelling the servants 
through fear to give them what they demand, which is commonly Bacon, or some- 
thing that will yield ready money.' " 

The song of Tom of Bedlam is alluded to in Ben Jonson's The Devil is an Ass, 
1616, act v., sc. 2. When Pug wishes to be thought mad, he says, " Your best 
song's Thorn o'Bet'lem." 

The following copy of the tune is from a manuscript volume of virginal music, 
formerly in the possession of Mr. Windsor, of Bath, and now in that of 
Dr. Rimbault. It is entitled Tom a Bedlam. The words are from Bishop 
Corbet's song, The distracted Puritan, which is printed entire in Percy's Reliques 
of Ancient Poetry. 

* Fompously. 

rJ.-M i 





Am I mad, O no - ble 



5, Wh 


zeal and god-ly 

knowledge Have 


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put me in hope To deal with the Pope As well as the best in Col - lege ? 

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Bold-ly I preach, hate a cross, hate a sur-plice, Mi 

- * -1 T ;j. 

- tres, copes and roch - ets. 

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gas 3- J 5'^^- j * g^ | | * 

Come, hear me pray nine times a day, And fill your heads with crotchets. 

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In the house of pure Emanuel* 
I had my education, 

Where my friends surmise 

I dazzled my eyes 
With the sight of revelation. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

They bound me like a bedlam, 
They lash'd my four poor quarters ; 

Whilst this I endure, 

Faith makes me sure 
To be one of Fox's martyrs. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

These injuries I suffer 
Through antichrist's persuasion : 

Take off this chain, 

Neither Rome nor Spain 
Can resist my strong invasion. 
Boldly I preach, &c. 

Of the beast's ten horns (God bless \is!) 
I have knock'd off three already ; 

If they let me alone 

I'll leave him none : 
But they say I am too heady. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

When I sack'd the seven hill'd city, 
I met the great red dragon ; 

I kept him aloof 

With the armour of proof, 
Though here I have never a rag on. 
Boldly I preach, &c. 

With a fiery sword and target, 
There fought I with this monster : 

But the sons of pride 

My zeal deride, 
And all my deeds misconster. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

I un-hors'd the Whore of Babel, 
With the lance of Inspiration ; 

I made her stink, 

And spill the drink 
In her cup of abomination. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 

I appear'd before the archbishop, 
And all the high commission ; 
I gave him no grace, 
But told him to his face, 
That he favour'd superstition. 

Boldly I preach, &c. 


This tune is contained in Sir John Hawkins' Transcripts of Virginal Music ; in 
the fourth and later editions of The Dancing Master; in The Beggars' Opera; 
The Mock Doctor ; An Old Man taught Wisdom ; The Oxford Act ; and other 

In some of the earlier editions of TJie Dancing Master ; it is entitled Thomas, 
you cannot ; in others, Tumas, I cannot, or Tom Trusty ; in some of the ballad- 
operas (for instance, The G-enerous Freemason, and The Lover his own Rival'),' 
Sir Thomas, I cannot. 

In the Pepys Collection, i. 62, is a black-letter ballad (one of the many written 
against the Roman Catholics after the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, in 1605), 
entitled " A New-yeeres-Gift for the Pope ; come see the difference plainly 
decided between Truth and Falsehood : 

Not all the Pope's trinkets, which here are brought forth, 
Can balance the bible, for weight, or for worth," &c. 
" To the tune of Thomas you cannot" It commences thus : 
" All you that desirous are to behold 

The difference 'twixt falsehood and faith," &c. 

In Grammatical Drollery, by W. H. (Captain Hicks), 1682, p. 75, is a song 
commencing, "Come, my Molly, let us be jolly:" to the tune of Thomas, 
I cannot; and in Chetwood's History of the Stage, 8vo., 1749, a song on a 
theatrical anecdote, by Mr. John Leigh (an actor, who died in 1726) , of which 
the following is the first stanza : 

a Emamiel College, Cambridge, was originally a seminary of Puritans. 



A > {jrau y- _^i i is i 

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My scandalous neighbours of Portu - gal Street, Come list- en a-whiletomy 
I'll sing you a song though my voice be not sweet, And that you will say is a 


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^'^^-^As merry a sonnet as times can af- ford, Of Eglington, Walker, Jack 
pi - ty. 





Hall and my Lord ; If you doubt >vhat I say, to con - firm ev' - ry word, I'll 

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call as a witness Will Thomas, Will Thomas, I'll 

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call as a witness Will 

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I have not been successful in finding the song of Tliomas, you cannot, from 
which the tune derives its name. In some copies (when there are no words), the 
second part of the tune consists only of eight bars, instead of ten. See the 
following from Sir J. Hawkins' Transcripts of Virginal Music. 




This tune is to be found in Nederlandtsche G-edenck-Clanck, 1626 ; in Friesche 
Lust-Hof, 1634; and in The Dancing Master, from 1650 to 1690. 

In the first named it is entitled Prins Daphne; in the second, WJien Daphne 
did from Phcebusfly ; and in the last, Daphne, or The Shepherdess. 

A copy of the words will be found in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 388, entitled 
" A pleasant new Ballad of Daphne : To a new tune." Printed by the assignees 
of Thomas Symcocke. It is on the old mythological story of Daphne turned into 

a laurel. 

Gracefully, and not too slow. 

P , r , 1 r 1 M r \ ^-r-\ , . 

3 1- 

3 4- 

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When Daph -ne from fair Phoebus did fly, The west wind most 
Her silk - en scarf scarce shadow'd her eyes, The God cried, O 


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sweet -ly did 
pi - ty ! and 

blow in her 
held her in 


face, ^^^ Stay, Nymph, 
chace. ^"^ Lion nor 

-- -^ 

stay, Nymph, cries A - 
ti - ger doth thee 

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- pol - lo, Tar - 
fol - low, Turn 


ry, and 
thy fair 

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turn thee, Sweet Nymph, stay, 
eyes, and look this way. 

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turn, O pretty 

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let. our red lips 


meet : O 



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Daph - ne ! 


pi - ty 


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Daph - ne, 

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pi - - ty 


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She gave no ear unto his cry, [moan ; Let the earth a virgin bear me; 

But still did neglect him the more he did Or devour me quick a maid. 

Though he did entreat, she still did deny, Diana heard her pray, 

And earnestly pray him to leave her alone. And turn'd her to a Bay. 

Never, never, cries Apollo, Pity, Daphne, pity me, &c. 

Unless to love thou wilt consent, j , ., rj . ,, 

Amazed stood Apollo then, [desir d, 

But still, with my voice so hollow, -IIM.M i. u i. u r v. >j i 

J While he beheld Daphne turn d as she 

I'll cry to thee, while life be spent. Acc urs'd am I, above gods and men, 

But if thou turn to me, With griefs and lamentg my senses are th ., d 

'Twill prove thy felicity. Vanvell ! false Daphne, most unkind, 

Pity, Daphne, pity me, &c. My loye lies buried in thy grave> 

Away, like Venus's dove she flies, Long sought I love, yet love could not find, 

The red bloodher buskins did run alladown, Therefore is this thy epitaph : 

His plaintive love she still denies, [renown. " This tree doth Daphne cover, 

Crying, Help, help, Diana, and save my That never pitied Lover." [me, 

Wanton, wanton lust is near me, Farewell, false Daphne, that would not pity 

Cold and chaste Diana, aid ! Although not my love, yet art thou my Tree. 


This beautiful and very expressive melody is to be found in The Dancing 
Master, from 1650 to 1690, under the title of Newcastle. In The Grub Street 
Opera, 1731, it is named Why should I not love my love ? from the burden of the 
song. The following fragment of the first stanza is contained in the folio manu- 
script formerly in the possession of Bishop Percy, p. 95. See Dr. Dibdin's 
Decameron, vol. 3. 

" Come you not from Newcastle ? Why should I not love my love ? 

Come you not there away ? Why should not my love love me ? 

met you not my true love, ##*##* 

Eyding on a bonny bay ? 

It is quoted in a little black-letter volume, called " The famous Historic of 
Fryer Bacon : containing the wonderfull things that he did in his life ; also the 
manner of his death ; with the lives and deaths of the two Conjurers, Bungye 
and Vandermast. Very pleasant and delightfull to be read." 4to.,w.d. "Printed 
at London by A. E., for Francis Grove, and are to be sold at his shop at the 
upper-end of Snow Hill, against the Sarazen's Head: " 

" The second time, Fryer Bungy and he went to sleepe, and Miles alone to watch 
the brazen head ; Miles, to keepe him from sleeping, got a tabor and pipe, and being 
merry disposed, sung this song to a Northern tune of C'am'st thou not from New- 

" To couple is a custome, If my love prove untrue, 

All things thereto agree ; With that I can get more. 

Why should not I then love ? The faire is oft unc0 nstant, 

Since love to all is free. The ^lacke is often proud; 

Bnt lie have one that's pretty, He chuse a lovely browne ; 

Her cheekes of scarlet dye, Come, fidler, scrape thy crowd. 

For to breed my delight, Comej fi d i ei>) gcrape t hy crowd, 

When that I ligge her by. p or Peggie the browne is she 

Though vertue be a dowry, Must be my bride ; God guide 

Yet He chuse money store : That Peggie and I agree." 



I have been favored by Mr. Barrett with a song, " come ye from Newcastle? " 
as still current in the North of England ; but, doubting its antiquity, I have not 
thought it desirable to print it in this collection. 

Rather slow, and with expression. 


-9- -m- -_^ -9- 

O come you from New - cas - tie, Come you not there a - way ? 

I- I ,' |_| 





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you not my true love, Riding on a bon - ny bay ? 

I i 




j | 

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ould not I 



hi ' J ' J ^-j 

my love, Why should not my i 

<^> <?* 

ove love 

me? [Why 

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should not I 





- ter him, Since love to all 

is free?] 





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This tune is to be found in every edition of The Dancing Master. Pepys 
mentions it in the following account of a court ball, in the reign of Charles II. : 

" 31 Dec., 1662. By and bye comes the King and Queene, the Duke and 
Duchess, and all the great ones ; and after seating themselves, the King takes out the 
Duchesse of York; and the Duke, the Duchesse of Buckingham; the Duke of 
Monmouth, my Lady Castlemaine; and so on, other lords other ladies; and they 
danced the Bransle. After that, the King led a lady a single Coranto : and then the 
rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies : very noble it was, and great pleasure 
to see. Then to Country-dances ; the King leading the first, which he called for, 
which was Cuckolds all a row, the old dance of England." 

It became a party tune of the Cavaliers, who sang the songs of Hey, boys, tip 

The two last lines are supplied from a song written to complete the fragment, by the late Mr. George Macfarren. 



go we, and London' 's trite character, to it. The latter, abusing the Londoners for 
taking part against the King, and commencing, " You coward-hearted citizens," 
is contained in Hats rhimed to death, or The Rump Parliament hanged in the 
Shambles, 1660 ; and in both editions of Loyal 8ongs written against the Rump 

The tune is mentioned in the old song, London is a fine town ; and one with 
the burden is contained in Wit and Drollery, 1661. The latter is reprinted (to 
the tune of London is a fine town) in Pills to purge Melancholy, ii. 77, 1700, and 
iv. 77, 1719. 

The following, on the miseries of married life, is from a black-letter ballad, 
" printed by M.P. for Henry Gosson, on London Bridge, neere the gate," and 
signed Arthur Halliarg. A copy is in the Roxburghe Collection, i. 28 ; and 
it is reprinted in Evans' Old Ballads,!. 170 (1810). I have omitted four stanzas, 
the remainder being sufficient to tell 'the story. " The cruel Shrew ; or The 
Patient Man's Woe : Declaring the misery and great pain, 

By his unquiet wife, he doth daily sustain." 
To the tune of Cuckolds all a row. 

_s Moderate time. 

r\ fc 1 N 1 N i 

hi ' * 

Jf_ Q J 

3 * t 


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n j-vH j 

14 i * 

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J I ^ 

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Come ba-che-lors and mar-riedmen, And lis - ten to my song, And 

f J . ^ . ^ 

P. -p- . 

-* -. 


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h 1 

h J WT- 

|^- ^ 

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3 d ' v j d 

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j r . r ' 

will shew you plain - ly then, The in - ju - ry and wrong That 
! J* J . *- ' *- ' . _ 





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h 1 


zi N P 1 
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jr-O g 

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* 9 

-0- -m- -- ',-0- 9 ^ 

con - stant - 
^-^ , 

ly i 

do sus - tain Through my un - happy life, The 

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which does put me to great 


T ' f ' i r^T 

pain, By my un - qui - et 

* h~p c i *" 

T J 



. ' * 



She never lins her bawling, 

Her tongue it is so loud, 
But always she'll be railing, 

And will not be controll'd : 
For she the breeches still will wear, 

Although it breeds my strife ; 
If I were now a bachelor, 

I'd never have a wife. 

Sometimes I go in the morning 

About my daily work, 
My wife she will be snorting, 

And in her bed she'll lurk, 
Until the chimes do go at eight, 

Then she'll begin to wake, 
Her morning's draught well spiced straight 

To clear her eyea she'll take. 

As soon as she is out of bed, 

Her looking-glass she takes, 
(So vainly is she daily led), 

Her morning's work she makes 
In putting on her brave attire, 

That fine and costly be ; 
While I work hard in dirt and mire : 

Alack what remedy ? 

Then she goes forth a gossiping 

Amongst her own comrades; 
And then she falls a boosing 

With all her merry blades ; 
When I come from my labour hard, 

Then she'll begin to scold, 
And call me rogue without regard ; 

Which makes my heart full cold. 

When I, for quiet's sake, desire 

My wife for to be still, 
She will not grant what I require, 

But swears she'll have her will ; 
Then if I chance to heave my hand, 

Straightway she'll murder cry ; 
Then judge all men that here do stand, 

In what a case am I. 

And if a friend by chance me call 

To drink a pot of beer, 
Then she'll begin to curse and brawl, 

And fight, and scratch, and tear ; 
And swears unto my work she'll send 

Me straight without delay ; 
Or else with the same cudgel's end, 

She will me soundly pay. 

Then is not this a piteous cause, 

Let all men now it try, 
And give their verdicts, by the laws, 

Between my wife and I ; 
And judge the cause, who is to blame, 

I'll to their judgment stand, 
And be contented with the same, 

And put thereto my hand. 

If I abroad go anywhere, 

My business for to do, 
Then will my wife anon be there 

For to increase my woe ; 
Straightway she such a noise will make 

With her most wicked tongue, 
That all her mates, her part to take, 

About me soon will throng. 

Thus am I now tormented still 

With my most wretched wife ; 
All through her wicked tongue so ill, 

I am weary of my life : 
I know not truly what to do, 

Nor how myself to mend, 
This lingering life doth breed my woe, 

I would 'twere at an end. 

O that some harmless honest man, 

Whom death did so befriend, 
To take his wife from off his hand, 

His sorrows for to end, 
Would change with me to rid my care, 

And take my wife alive, 
For his dead wife, unto his share ! 

Then I would hope to thrive. 


In Fletcher's play, The Knight of Malta, act iii., sc. 1, there is a " Song by 
the Watch," commencing thus : 

" Sit, soldiers, sit and sing, the round is clear, 
And cock-a-loodle-loo tells us the day is near ; 
Each toss his can until his throat be mellow, 
Drink, laugh, and sing TJie soldier has no fellow" 

The last line is repeated in three out of the four verses or parts, and I suppose 
The soldier has no fellow to have been then a well-known song. 


Various ballads were written to a tune called The buff coat has no fellow (see, 
for instance, Pepys Coll., iii. 150; Roxburghe, i. 536; &c.), and as the buff 
coat was a distinguishing mark of the soldier of the seventeenth century, if the 
words could be recovered, it might prove to be the song in question. 

" In the reign of King James I.," says Grose, " no great alterations were made 
in the article of defensive armour except that the buff coat, or jerkin, which was 
originally worn under the cuirass, now became frequently a substitute for it, it 
having been found that a good luff leather would of itself resist the stroke of a 
sword ; this, however, only occasionally took place among the light-armed cavalry 
and infantry, complete suits of armour being still used among the heavy horse." 
Military Antiquities, 1801, 4to., ii., 323. I have been favored with the follow- 
ing note on the same subject by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. : " The buff coat was 
peculiarly indicative of the soldier. It first came into use in the early part of 
the seventeenth century, when the heavier defensive armour of plate was dis- 
carded by all but cavalry regiments. The infantry, during the great civil wars 
of England, were all arrayed in buff coats ; and in Rochester Cathedral are 
still preserved some of these defensive coverings, as worn by Oliver's soldiers 
in their unwelcome visits there ; as well as the bandoleers worn over them, to hold 
the charges for muskets. The officers and cavalry at this time only added the 
cuirass ; the leather coat was frequently very thick and tough, and a defence 
against a sword cut. The foreign, as well as the English armies, about this time, 
discarded heavier armour ; and the prints by Gheyn, of Low-Country troopers, as 
well as those by Ciartes, of the soldiers of the French King, are all habited in 
the buff coat, which displays, in the rigidity of its form, its innate strength." 
Grose gives an engraving of those that were worn over corslets, from one that 
belonged to Sir Francis Rhodes, Bart., of Balbrough Hall, Derbyshire, in the 
time of Charles I. 

The tune, The luff coat has no fellow, is to be found in the fourth and every 
subsequent edition of The Dancing Master ; a in the earlier editions as Buff coat, 
and afterwards as Buff coat, or Excuse me. The following list of ballad-operas, in 
all of which songs may be found that were written to the tune, sufficiently proves 
its former popularity : Polly ; The Lottery ; An Old Man taught Wisdom ; TJie 
Intriguing Chambermaid; The Lovers' Opera; The Bay's Opera; The Lover his 
own Rival; The G-rub Street Opera ; The Devil of a Duke, or Trapolin's Vagaries; 
The Fashionable Lady, or Harlequin's Opera; The Generous Freemason; and 
The Footman. 

This popularity extended to Ireland and Scotland ; and although, in its old 
form, purely English in character, the air has been claimed both as Irish and as 
Scotch. T. Moore appropriated it, under the name of My husband's a journey to 
Portugal gone, although in the opinion of Dr. Crotch, Mr. Wade, and others, " it is 

Mr. Stenhouse, in his notes to Johnson's Scol't Musical is to he found in it. Mr. Stenhouse had before him one 

Museum, asserts that this air is to he found in Playford's of the last editions of vol. i. of The Dancing Master, 

Dancing Master of 1657, a book which he quotes con- printed by Pearson and Young, between 1713 and 1725, 

stantly, and which, I am convinced, he never saw. Having and consisting of 358 pages, to which only can all of his 

tested all his references to that work, I have no hesi- quotations be referred, 
tation in saying that not even one of the airs he mentions 



not at all like an Irish tune." In Scotland it has been claimed as The Deuk's 
dang o'er my Daddie, and again disclaimed by Mr. George Farquhar Graham, 
editor of Wood's Songs of Scotland, who " freely confesses his belief that the air 
is not of Scottish origin." iii. 165. 

All the oldest copies of Buff coat begin with three long notes, which seem to 
require corresponding monosyllables for the commencement of the words. The 
line I have quoted from The Knight of Malta suggests a commencement some- 
what in the following manner : 


(fol? % 1 | 1 

- f~i 

J j^3 1 > hi J H pHff 

S } ^i r= % 5*- ' ' ' ' J.' ' -' 4 

Drink, laugh, sing, boys, For the sol-dier has no fel-low. 

Jm i 

H4-b-fi 1 ^ * =j 

f ^=f 

P-^r^-^ rff 

J . 3 r"T^ 1 


> pn r Wl'^ . - ff 

' J * ' \ | 

F ft "?" 


f "I 1 "F '"T * 

i I 


r i i 

H* E3 VH- 


v -P v-J =1 1 ! 

r i* r i* i 

m . ^ m j^^e*^ 

J r 

k. r* 

_r r 

K M 

w \ 


n ' 

i J^^ 


l*^* + -j- 

m -1 -F- -fi- ^ fc i 

C * r 



k ^ T ^ 

r "i 

I -S- 


* ' 1 ^i 

I should add, that in some copies of The Dancing Master 

the tune is in commoi 


In later versions, where the long notes at the commencement are split into 
quavers (as in many of the ballad-operas), the bold character of the tune is lost, 
and it becomes rather a pretty than a spirited air. This change seems to be 
owing to the monosyllabic commencement having been discarded in the ballads 
which were written to it : as, for instance, in the following, from the Roxburghe 
Collection, i. 536 : " The merry Hostess ; or 

A pretty new ditty, compos'd on an hostess that lives in the city. 
To wrong such an hostess it were a great pity, 
By reason she caused this pretty new ditty. 
To the tune of Buff coat has no fellow" 
" Come all that love good company, Who sells good ale, nappy and stale, 

And hearken to my ditty ; And always thus sings she : 

Tis of a lovely hostess fine, My ale was tunn'd when I was young, 

That lives in London city; And but little above my knee," &c. 

The above is printed in Evans' Collection, i. 150 (1810). 



In several of the ballad-operas, the tune, whether under the name of Buff 
coat, or Excuse me, commences thus (see, for instance, The Generous Free- 
mason, 1731) : 

And in some more modern versions, thus : 

When the key-note is heard three times in equal succession at the end of a tune, 
it is considered to be characteristic of Irish music ; but that peculiarity often arises, 
as in the last example, from too many syllables in the words adapted to the air. 


In the Bagford Collection, a copy of this song, in black-letter, is entitled " The 
Beggars' Chorus in The Jovial Crew, to an excellent new tune." Brome's comedy, 

' J f 

The Jovial Crew, or Tlie Merry Beggars, was acted at the Cockpit in Drury 
Lane, in 1641, and I suppose the song to have been introduced, as it is 
not contained in the printed copy of the play. One of the Cavaliers' ditties, 
" Col. John Okie's Lamentation, or a Rumper cashiered," is to the tune of 
A legging we will go. This was published on the 28th March, 1660, and a copy 
may be seen among the King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus. 

A begging we will go is printed, with the music, in book v. of Choice Ayres 
and Songs to sing to the Theorbo or Bass Viol, fol. 1684 ; in 180 Loyal Songs, 
3rd edit., 1685; in Pills to purge Melancholy; &c. It is sometimes entitled 
The Jovial Beggars. 

" There was a jovial beggar, 

He had a wooden leg, 
Lame from his cradle, 

And forced for to beg. 
And a begging we will go, we'll go, we'll go, 
And a begging we will go ! 

I begg'd for my master, 
And got him store of pelf; 

But now, Jove be praised, 
I'm begging for myself, &c. 

A bag for his oatmeal, 

Another for his salt; 
And a pair of crutches 

To show that he can halt ; 

And a begging, &c. 

A bag for his wheat, 

Another for his rye ; 
A little bottle by his side 

To drink when he's a dry, &c. 

Seven years I begg'd 

For my old master Wild, 

He taught me to beg 

When I was but a child, &c. 

In a hollow tree 

I live, and pay no rent ; 
Providence provides for me, 

And I am well content, &c. 

Of all the occupations, 
A beggar's life's the best ; 

For whene'er he's weary, 

He'll lay him down and rest, &c. 

I fear no plots against me, 

I live in open cell; 
Then who woiild be a king 

When beggars